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Sökning: WFRF:(Kristensson Adam)

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  • Hamburger, T., et al. (författare)
  • Overview of the synoptic and pollution situation over Europe during the EUCAARI-LONGREX field campaign
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - : Copernicus Gesellschaft mbH. - 1680-7316 .- 1680-7324. ; 11:3, s. 1065-1082
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In May 2008 the EUCAARI-LONGREX aircraft field campaign was conducted within the EUCAARI intensive observational period. The campaign aimed at studying the distribution and evolution of air mass properties on a continental scale. Airborne aerosol and trace gas measurements were performed aboard the German DLR Falcon 20 and the British FAAM BAe-146 aircraft. This paper outlines the meteorological situation over Europe during May 2008 and the temporal and spatial evolution of predominantly anthropogenic particulate pollution inside the boundary layer and the free troposphere. Time series data of six selected ground stations are used to discuss continuous measurements besides the single flights. The observations encompass total and accumulation mode particle number concentration (0.1–0.8 μm) and black carbon mass concentration as well as several meteorological parameters. Vertical profiles of total aerosol number concentration up to 10 km are compared to vertical profiles probed during previous studies.During the first half of May 2008 an anticyclonic blocking event dominated the weather over Central Europe. It led to increased pollutant concentrations within the centre of the high pressure inside the boundary layer. Due to long-range transport the accumulated pollution was partly advected towards Western and Northern Europe. The measured aerosol number concentrations over Central Europe showed in the boundary layer high values up to 14 000 cm−3 for particles in diameter larger 10 nm and 2300 cm−3 for accumulation mode particles during the high pressure period, whereas the middle free troposphere showed rather low concentrations of particulates. Thus a strong negative gradient of aerosol concentrations between the well mixed boundary layer and the clean middle troposphere occurred.
  • Hussein, T., et al. (författare)
  • Time span and spatial scale of regional new particle formation events over Finland and Southern Sweden
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - : Copernicus Gesellschaft mbH. - 1680-7324 .- 1680-7316. ; 9:14, s. 4699-4716
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigated the time span and spatial scale of regional new particle formation (NPF) events in Finland and Southern Sweden using measured particle number size distributions at five background stations. We define the time span of a NPF event as the time period from the first moment when the newly formed mode of aerosol particles is observable below 25 nm until the newly formed mode is not any more distinguishable from other background modes of aerosol particles after growing to bigger sizes. We identify the spatial scale of regional NPF events based on two independent approaches. The first approach is based on the observation within a network of stationary measurement stations and the second approach is based on the time span and the history of air masses back-trajectories. According to the second approach, about 60% and 28% of the events can be traced to distances longer than 220 km upwind from where the events were observed in Southern Finland (Hyytiala) and Northern Finland (Varrio), respectively. The analysis also showed that the observed regional NPF events started over the continents but not over the Atlantic Ocean. The first approach showed that although large spatial scale NPF events are frequently observed at several locations simultaneously, they are rarely identical (similar characteristics and temporal variations) due to differences in the initial meteorological and geographical conditions between the stations. The growth of the newly formed particles during large spatial scale events can be followed for more than 30 h where the newly formed aerosol particles end up in the Aitken mode (diameter 25-100 nm) and accumulation mode size ranges (diameter 0.1-1 mu m). This study showed clear evidence that regional NPF events can pose a significant source for accumulation mode particles over the Scandinavian continent provided that these findings can be generalized to many of the air masses traveling over the European continent.
  • Kivekas, N., et al. (författare)
  • Contribution of ship traffic to aerosol particle concentrations downwind of a major shipping lane
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - : Copernicus Gesellschaft mbH. - 1680-7316 .- 1680-7324. ; 14:16, s. 8255-8267
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Particles in the atmosphere are of concern due to their toxic properties and effects on climate. In coastal areas, ship emissions can be a significant anthropogenic source. In this study we investigated the contribution from ship emissions to the total particle number and mass concentrations at a remote location. We studied the particle number concentration (12 to 490 nm in diameter), the mass concentration (12 to 150 nm in diameter) and number and volume size distribution of aerosol particles in ship plumes for a period of 4.5 months at Hovsore, a coastal site on the western coast of Jutland in Denmark. During episodes of western winds, the site is about 50 km downwind of a major shipping lane and the plumes are approximately 1 hour old when they arrive at the site. We have used a sliding percentile-based method for separating the plumes from the measured background values and to calculate the ship plume contribution to the total particle number and PM0.15 mass concentration (mass of particles below 150 nm in diameter, converted from volume assuming sphericity) at the site. The method is not limited to particle number or volume concentration, but can also be used for different chemical species in both particle and gas phase. The total number of analyzed ship plumes was 726, covering on average 19% of the time when air masses were arriving at the site over the shipping lane. During the periods when plumes were present, the particle concentration exceeded the background values on average by 790 cm(-3) by number and 0.10 gm(-3) by mass. The corresponding daily average values were 170 cm-3 and 0.023 gm-3, respectively. This means that the ship plumes contributed between 11 and 19% to the particle number concentration and between 9 and 18% to PM0.15 during days when air was arriving over the shipping lane. The estimated annual contribution from ship plumes, where all wind directions were included, was in the range of 5-8% in particle number concentration and 4-8% in PM0.15.
  • Martinsson, J., et al. (författare)
  • Carbonaceous aerosol source apportionment using the Aethalometer model - evaluation by radiocarbon and levoglucosan analysis at a rural background site in southern Sweden
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - : Copernicus Gesellschaft mbH. - 1680-7316. ; 17, s. 4265-4281
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • With the present demand on fast and inexpensive aerosol source apportionment methods, the Aethalometer model was evaluated for a full seasonal cycle (June 2014June 2015) at a rural atmospheric measurement station in southern Sweden by using radiocarbon and levoglucosan measurements. By utilizing differences in absorption of UV and IR, the Aethalometer model apportions carbon mass into wood burning (WB) and fossil fuel combustion (FF) aerosol. In this study, a small modification in the model in conjunction with carbon measurements from thermal-optical analysis allowed apportioned non-light-absorbing biogenic aerosol to vary in time. The absorption differences between WB and FF can be quantified by the absorption angstrom ngstrom exponent (AAE). In this study AAE(WB) was set to 1.81 and AAE(FF) to 1.0. Our observations show that the AAE was elevated during winter (1.36 +/- 0.07) compared to summer (1.12 +/- 0.07). Quantified WB aerosol showed good agreement with levoglucosan concentrations, both in terms of correlation (R-2 = 0 : 70) and in comparison to reference emission inventories. WB aerosol showed strong seasonal variation with high concentrations during winter (0.65 mu gm(-3), 56% of total carbon) and low concentrations during summer (0.07 mu gm(-3), 6% of total carbon). FF aerosol showed less seasonal dependence; however, black carbon (BC) FF showed clear diurnal patterns corresponding to traffic rush hour peaks. The presumed non-light-absorbing biogenic carbonaceous aerosol concentration was high during summer (1.04 mu gm(-3), 72% of total carbon) and low during winter (0.13 mu gm(-3), 8% of total carbon). Aethalometer model results were further compared to radiocarbon and levoglucosan source apportionment results. The comparison showed good agreement for apportioned mass of WB and biogenic carbonaceous aerosol, but discrepancies were found for FF aerosol mass. The Aethalometer model overestimated FF aerosol mass by a factor of 1.3 compared to radiocarbon and levoglucosan source apportionment. A performed sensitivity analysis suggests that this discrepancy can be explained by interference of non-light-absorbing biogenic carbon during winter. In summary, the Aethalometer model offers a costeffective yet robust high-time-resolution source apportionment at rural background stations compared to a radiocarbon and levoglucosan alternative.
  • Ahlberg, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • No particle mass enhancement from induced atmospheric ageing at a rural site in northern Europe
  • Ingår i: Atmosphere. - : MDPI AG. - 2073-4433. ; 10:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A large portion of atmospheric aerosol particles consists of secondary material produced by oxidation reactions. The relative importance of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can increase with improved emission regulations. A relatively simple way to study potential particle formation in the atmosphere is by using oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) which simulate atmospheric ageing. Here we report on the first ambient OFR ageing experiment in Europe, coupled with scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and proton transfer reaction (PTR)-MS measurements. We found that the simulated ageing did not produce any measurable increases in particle mass or number concentrations during the two months of the campaign due to low concentrations of precursors. Losses in the reactor increased with hydroxyl radical (OH) exposure and with increasing difference between ambient and reactor temperatures, indicating fragmentation and evaporation of semivolatile material.
  • Ahlberg, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Secondary organic aerosol from VOC mixtures in an oxidation flow reactor
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment. - : Elsevier. - 1352-2310. ; 161, s. 210-220
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The atmospheric organic aerosol is a tremendously complex system in terms of chemical content. Models generally treat the mixtures as ideal, something which has been questioned owing to model-measurement discrepancies. We used an oxidation flow reactor to produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mixtures containing oxidation products of biogenic (α-pinene, myrcene and isoprene) and anthropogenic (m-xylene) volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The resulting volume concentration and chemical composition was measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), respectively. The SOA mass yield of the mixtures was compared to a partitioning model constructed from single VOC experiments. The single VOC SOA mass yields with no wall-loss correction applied are comparable to previous experiments. In the mixtures containing myrcene a higher yield than expected was produced. We attribute this to an increased condensation sink, arising from myrcene producing a significantly higher number of nucleation particles compared to the other precursors. Isoprene did not produce much mass in single VOC experiments but contributed to the mass of the mixtures. The effect of high concentrations of isoprene on the OH exposure was found to be small, even at OH reactivities that previously have been reported to significantly suppress OH exposures in oxidation flow reactors. Furthermore, isoprene shifted the particle size distribution of mixtures towards larger sizes, which could be due to a change in oxidant dynamics inside the reactor.
  • Ahlberg, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • "Vi klimatforskare stödjer Greta och skolungdomarna"
  • Ingår i: Dagens nyheter (DN debatt). - 1101-2447.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • DN DEBATT 15/3. Sedan industrialiseringens början har vi använt omkring fyra femtedelar av den mängd fossilt kol som får förbrännas för att vi ska klara Parisavtalet. Vi har bara en femtedel kvar och det är bråttom att kraftigt reducera utsläppen. Det har Greta Thunberg och de strejkande ungdomarna förstått. Därför stödjer vi deras krav, skriver 270 klimatforskare.
  • Appavoo, Danielle, et al. (författare)
  • New method to quantify contribution to aerosol particles from new particle formation : Comparison with traditional method at Vavihill background field station in Sweden
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Aerosol particles exist in the atmosphere in large concentrations and have significant global climate effects. New particle formation is an aerosol particle source and, to date, its contribution to the total aerosol concentration in the atmosphere is not fully understood. This study focuses on the extension of new particle formation events that begin in Lille Valby, Denmark and travel over 70 km to Vavihill, Sweden. Data over a five year period (2005, 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2010) was analyzed. Dates selected for analysis had to have a new particle formation event in Lille Valby and be either undefined, have an unclear event, or have a non-event in Vavihill as defined by traditional methods from Dal Maso et al. (2005). The growth rate, particle size distributions, and wind trajectories at the time of the event were considered when analyzing each event case. 7 out of 1480 days met all of the criteria to be classified as new particle formation extended from Lille Valby. If the result is extrapolated to all wind directions and sources, it is likely that a much higher percentage of the days would meet the criteria. The average percentage of particles in Vavihill that can be attributed to new particle formation from Lille Valby on reclassified days at event times over the five year period considered is 64.18%.
  • Asmi, A., et al. (författare)
  • Aerosol decadal trends - Part 2: In-situ aerosol particle number concentrations at GAW and ACTRIS stations
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - : Copernicus Gesellschaft mbH. - 1680-7324. ; 13:2, s. 895-916
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have analysed the trends of total aerosol particle number concentrations (N) measured at long-term measurement stations involved either in the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) and/or EU infrastructure project ACTRIS. The sites are located in Europe, North America, Antarctica, and on Pacific Ocean islands. The majority of the sites showed clear decreasing trends both in the full-length time series, and in the intra-site comparison period of 2001-2010, especially during the winter months. Several potential driving processes for the observed trends were studied, and even though there are some similarities between N trends and air temperature changes, the most likely cause of many northern hemisphere trends was found to be decreases in the anthropogenic emissions of primary particles, SO2 or some co-emitted species. We could not find a consistent agreement between the trends of N and particle optical properties in the few stations with long time series of all of these properties. The trends of N and the proxies for cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) were generally consistent in the few European stations where the measurements were available. This work provides a useful comparison analysis for modelling studies of trends in aerosol number concentrations.
  • Asmi, A., et al. (författare)
  • Number size distributions and seasonality of submicron particles in Europe 2008-2009
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - : Copernicus Gesellschaft mbH. - 1680-7324. ; 11:11, s. 5505-5538
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Two years of harmonized aerosol number size distribution data from 24 European field monitoring sites have been analysed. The results give a comprehensive overview of the European near surface aerosol particle number concentrations and number size distributions between 30 and 500 nm of dry particle diameter. Spatial and temporal distribution of aerosols in the particle sizes most important for climate applications are presented. We also analyse the annual, weekly and diurnal cycles of the aerosol number concentrations, provide log-normal fitting parameters for median number size distributions, and give guidance notes for data users. Emphasis is placed on the usability of results within the aerosol modelling community.
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