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Sökning: WFRF:(Kristiansson Marianne)

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1.
  • Alm, Charlotta, et al. (författare)
  • Classification of offenders with mental health problems and problematic substance use using the Addiction Severity Index version 6 : Analysis of three-year follow-up data and predictive validity
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Mental Health and Substance Use. - Abingdon : Routledge. - 1752-3281 .- 1752-3273. ; 7:4, s. 431-445
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous research is scarce on the problems and needs of the “triply troubled” – among offenders with mental health problems and problematic substance use. Classifying this population into clusters based on problem profiles may provide information about individual needs for treatment. In a previous study, we identified four clusters of triply troubled: less troubled, severely triply troubled, triply troubled with medical problems, and working triply troubled. The present study explored the stability and predictive validity of these clusters in a naturalistic design. In total, 125 triply troubled individuals included in any of the four clusters were followed for approximately three years with regard to their inpatient and outpatient treatment participation. They were also interviewed with the 6th version of the Addiction Severity Index, the Psychopathy Checklist–Revised, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life–Bref. The main finding of the study was that on average the participants of all four clusters exhibited substantial improvements over the course of time but that improvements were cluster-specific rather than sample-specific. Implications of the study are discussed.
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2.
  • Alm, Charlotte, et al. (författare)
  • Gender differences in re-offending among psychiatrically examined Swedish offenders
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: CBMH. Criminal behaviour and mental health. - 0957-9664 .- 1471-2857. ; 20:5, s. 323-334
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The gender gap for violent offending is narrowing in the general population. Substance abuse and mental health problems are known risk factors for criminality. While substance abuse treatment has been associated with reduced risk of re-offending, women seem less likely to engage than men. People misusing substances tend to be high users of emergency room (ER) services. Such use may be an indicator both of treatment failure for substance misuse and offending. Little is known about gender differences in this respect. Aims: This study aims to test for gender differences in re-offending, use of substance abuse treatment, and hospital ER visits among offenders referred for forensic psychiatric assessment in Sweden. Method: The study used a longitudinal retrospective design. Data on all 31 women from a 2-year (2000–2001) cohort of serious offenders referred for forensic psychiatric assessment in Stockholm county, and 31 men from the same cohort, were extracted from forensic service and national records. Selection of the men was by initial random sampling followed by matching on age and substance misuse. The two resulting samples were compared on health service use and re-offending data between release and the census date (30 April 2004). Results: There were no gender differences for violent re-offending or for engagement in planned substance abuse treatment, in spite of longer time at risk for the men. Re-offending was reduced for women but not men who did not present in the ER with physical health problems. Conclusions: Our study is limited by sample size, although it included all women referred to the specialist forensic psychiatric service over 2 years, but it does indicate that differences between men and women in this situation are likely, and worthy of further study. The only way of achieving adequate sample sizes is likely to be through multi-centre collaboration.
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4.
  • Arborelius, Lotta, et al. (författare)
  • A new interactive computer simulation system for violence risk assessment of mentally disordered violent offenders
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: CBMH. Criminal behaviour and mental health. - 0957-9664 .- 1471-2857. ; 23:1, s. 30-40
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Assessment of risk of future violence has developed from reliance on static indicators towards a more dynamic approach. In the latter context, however, the offender is seldom confronted with real life situations. Aims The aim of this study is to evaluate a computer-based system Reactions on Display, which presents human interactions based on real-life situations for its effectiveness in distinguishing between potentially violent offenders with mental disorder and a healthy comparison group. Methods Male offenders with autism spectrum disorders or psychosis were recruited from specialist forensic psychiatric units in Sweden and healthy participants from the local communities. Each consenting participant was presented with film clips of a man in neutral and violent situations, which at critical moments stopped the story to ask him to predict the thoughts, feelings and actions of the actor. Results Offender patients, irrespective of diagnosis, detected fewer emotional reactions in the actor in the non-violent sequence compared with controls. When asked to choose one of four violent actions, the offender patients chose more violent actions than did the controls. They also reported fewer physical reactions in the actors when actors were being violent. There were also some examples of incongruent or deviant responses by some individual patients. Conclusions and implications for practice The use of interactive computer simulation techniques is not only generally acceptable to offender patients, but it also helps to differentiate their current response style to particular circumstances from that of healthy controls in a way that does not rely on their verbal abilities and may tap more effectively into their emotional reactions than standard verbal questions and answer approaches. This may pave the way for Reactions on Display providing a useful complement to traditional risk assessment, and a training route with respect to learning more empathic responding, thus having a role in aiding risk management.
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5.
  • Berman, Anne H., et al. (författare)
  • Design and Development of a Telephone-Linked Care (TLC) System to Reduce Impulsivity among Violent Forensic Outpatients and Probationers
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of medical systems. - : Springer Netherlands. - 0148-5598 .- 1573-689X. ; 36:3, s. 1031-1042
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Forensic services face the challenge of reducing relapse among clients with a history of violent crime. An automated interactive voice response (IVR) service of the complex Telephone-Linked Care (TLC) type, with a focus on reducing impulsivity, could improve the adequacy of service responses to client needs. Theoretically based in Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) and Motivational Interviewing (MI), the forensic TLC system offers interactive conversations on coping with the emotions of anger, shame and loneliness; activities of daily life such as getting out of bed, asking for help, visiting social services and taking medication; and other areas such as hearing voices, drinking alcohol and self-critical thoughts. We describe the user´s flow through the system, with an in-depth synopsis of the hearing voices intervention. Issues regarding voluntary versus mandatory use of the system are addressed in connection with prospective introduction of the system in forensic settings.
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6.
  • Bromander, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid insulin during non-neurological surgery.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: J Neural Transm (Vienna, Austria:1996). - : Springer. - 1435-1463. ; 117:10, s. 1167-1170
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Insulin plays an important metabolic and transmitter role in the central nervous system, but few studies have investigated the relationship between central and peripheral insulin concentrations. 35 patients undergoing knee surgery had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples drawn before, 3 h after, and in the morning following surgery. Serum insulin concentrations increased after surgery and CSF insulin concentrations changed in the same direction with far smaller amplitude. These results indicate that the blood-brain barrier protects the brain from stress-induced peripheral hormonal fluctuations.
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7.
  • Bromander, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Changes in serum and cerebrospinal fluid cytokines in response to non-neurological surgery: an observational study.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of neuroinflammation. - 1742-2094. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACT: Background: Surgery launches an inflammatory reaction in the body, as seen through increased peripheral levels of cytokines and cortisol. However, less is known about perioperative inflammatory changes in the central nervous system (CNS). Our aim was to compare inflammatory markers in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) before and after surgery and evaluate their association with measures of blood–brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Methods: Thirty-five patients undergoing knee arthroplastic surgery with spinal anesthesia had CSF and serum samples drawn before, after and on the morning following surgery. Cytokines and albumin in serum and CSF and cortisol in CSF were assessed at all three points. Results: Cytokines and cortisol were significantly increased in serum and CSF after surgery (Ps <0.01) and CSF increases were greater than in serum. Ten individuals had an increased cytokine response and significantly higher CSF/serum albumin ratios (Ps <0.01), five of whom had albumin ratios in the pathological range (>11.8). Serum and CSF levels of cytokines were unrelated, but there were strong correlations between CSF IL-2, IL-10 and IL-13, and albumin ratios (Ps <0.05) following surgery. Conclusion: Cytokine increases in the CNS were substantially greater than in serum, indicating that the CNS inflammatory system is activated during peripheral surgery and may be regulated separately from that in the peripheral body. CSF cytokine increase may indicate sensitivity to trauma and is linked to BBB macromolecular permeability.
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8.
  • Caman, Shilan, et al. (författare)
  • Differentiating Male and Female Intimate Partner Homicide Perpetrators : A Study of Social, Criminological and Clinical Factors
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Forensic Mental Health. - 1499-9013 .- 1932-9903. ; 15:1, s. 26-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is recognized that the majority of intimate partner homicide (IPH) victims are female; simultaneously, when females do commit homicide, they are more likely to perpetrate against an intimate partner. To date, there are only a few studies that discuss IPH across gender, leading to a gap of knowledge with regard to gender aspects of perpetration. The present nationwide study has a retrospective design, based on registries of all female (n = 9) and stratified male (n = 36) IPH committed in Sweden between 2007 and 2009. Our study suggests that female perpetrators are more likely to be unemployed, to have suffered from a substance abuse disorder at some point in life and to have been victimized by the victim. In other words, scrutiny of these characteristics reveals that females who commit partner-related homicides are qualitatively and clinically different from their male counterparts. Furthermore, the prevailing feature of intoxication in connection to the crime, both in male and female perpetrators, indicates that perpetrators might benefit from elements of substance abuse treatment in interventions targeting partner violence.
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