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1.
  • Blimark, Cecilie, et al. (författare)
  • Outcome and survival of myeloma patients diagnosed 2008-2015. Real-world data on 4904 patients from the Swedish Myeloma Registry
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Haematologica. - : FERRATA STORTI FOUNDATION. - 0390-6078 .- 1592-8721. ; 103:3, s. 506-513
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Epidemiology and outcome of myeloma are mainly reported from large university centers and collaborative groups, and do not represent 'real-world' patients. The Swedish Myeloma Registry is a prospective population-based registry documenting characteristics, treatment and outcome in newly diagnosed myeloma, including asymptomatic and localized forms, with the purpose of improving disease management and outcome. This report presents information on patients diagnosed between 2008 and 2015, including data on first-line treatment in patients diagnosed up to 2014, with a follow up until December 2016. We present age-adjusted incidence, patients' characteristics at baseline, treatment, response, and survival. Baseline data were available with a 97% coverage in 4904 patients (median age 71 years, males 70 years, females 73 years; 72% were 65 years or older), and at 1-year follow up in 3558 patients with symptomatic disease (92% of patients initially reported). The age-adjusted incidence was 6.8 myeloma cases per 100,000 inhabi-ants per year. Among initially symptomatic patients (n= 3988), 77% had osteolytic lesions or compression fractures, 49% had anemia, 18% impaired kidney function, and 13% hypercalcemia. High-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation was given to 77% of patients aged up to 66 years, and to 22% of patients aged 66-70 years. In the study period, 68% received bortezomib, thalidomide, and/or lenalidomide as part of the first-line treatment, rising from 31% in 2008 to 81% in 2014. In active myeloma, the median relative survival of patients aged 65 years or under was 7.7 years, and 3.4 years in patients aged 66 years and over. Patients diagnosed with myeloma in more recent years were associated with significantly higher rates of complete or very good partial remission (P<0.05), and with a significantly higher survival, with a Hazard Ratio (HR) of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.77-0.92; P<0.05). There was a small, but significant survival benefit in patients treated at university hospitals (HR 0.93; 95% CI: 0.87-0.99; P<0.05). We report here on a near complete 'real-world' population of myeloma patients during an 8-year period; a period in which newer drugs were implemented into standard practice. The overall incidence and median age were both higher than in most previous studies, indicating a more complete coverage of older patients. Myeloma survival in Sweden is comparable to other large registry studies, and responses and survival improved during the study period.
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2.
  • Bjorkholm, M., et al. (författare)
  • Treatment-related risk factors for transformation to acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes in myeloproliferative neoplasms
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - : American Society of Clinical Oncology: JCO. - 0732-183X .- 1527-7755. ; 29:17, s. 2410-2415
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), including polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis, have a propensity to develop acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs). Using population-based data from Sweden, we assessed the role of MPN treatment and subsequent AML/MDS risk with special focus on the leukemogenic potential of hydroxyurea (HU). Methods: On the basis of a nationwide MPN cohort (N = 11,039), we conducted a nested case-control study, including 162 patients (153 and nine with subsequent AML and MDS diagnosis, respectively) and 242 matched controls. We obtained clinical and MPN treatment data for all patients. Using logistic regression, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) as measures of AML/MDS risk. Results: Forty-one (25%) of 162 patients with MPNs with AML/MDS development were never exposed to alkylating agents, radioactive phosphorous (P32), or HU. Compared with patients with who were not exposed to HU, the ORs for 1 to 499 g, 500 to 999 g, more than 1,000 g of HU were 1.5 (95% CI, 0.6 to 2.4), 1.4 (95% CI, 0.6 to 3.4), and 1.3 (95% CI, 0.5 to 3.3), respectively, for AML/MDS development (not significant). Patients with MPNs who received P32 greater than 1,000 MBq and alkylators greater than 1 g had a 4.6-fold (95% CI, 2.1 to 9.8; P = .002) and 3.4-fold (95% CI, 1.1 to 10.6; P = .015) increased risk of AML/MDS, respectively. Patients receiving two or more cytoreductive treatments had a 2.9-fold (95% CI, 1.4 to 5.9) increased risk of transformation. Conclusion: The risk of AML/MDS development after MPN diagnosis was significantly associated with high exposures of P32 and alkylators but not with HU treatment. Twenty-five percent of patients with MPNs who developed AML/MDS were not exposed to cytotoxic therapy, supporting a major role for nontreatment-related factors. © 2011 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
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3.
  • Björkholm, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Success Story of Targeted Therapy in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: A Population-Based Study of Patients Diagnosed in Sweden From 1973 to 2008.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - : American Society of Clinical Oncology. - 1527-7755 .- 0732-183X. ; 29, s. 2514-2520
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) management changed dramatically with the development of imatinib mesylate (IM), the first tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting the BCR-ABL1 oncoprotein. In Sweden, the drug was approved in November 2001. We report relative survival (RS) of patients with CML diagnosed during a 36-year period. PATIENTS AND METHODS Using data from the population-based Swedish Cancer Registry and population life tables, we estimated RS for all patients diagnosed with CML from 1973 to 2008 (n = 3,173; 1,796 males and 1,377 females; median age, 62 years). Patients were categorized into five age groups and five calendar periods, the last being 2001 to 2008. Information on use of upfront IM was collected from the Swedish CML registry. Results Relative survival improved with each calendar period, with the greatest improvement between 1994-2000 and 2001-2008. Five-year cumulative relative survival ratios (95% Cls) were 0.21 (0.17 to 0.24) for patients diagnosed 1973-1979, 0.54 (0.50 to 0.58) for 1994-2000, and 0.80 (0.75 to 0.83) for 2001-2008. This improvement was confined to patients younger than 79 years of age. Five-year RSRs for patients diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 were 0.91 (95% CI, 0.85 to 0.94) and 0.25 (95% CI, 0.10 to 0.47) for patients younger than 50 and older than 79 years, respectively. Men had inferior outcome. Upfront overall use of IM increased from 40% (2002) to 84% (2006). Only 18% of patients older than 80 years of age received IM as first-line therapy. CONCLUSION This large population-based study shows a major improvement in outcome of patients with CML up to 79 years of age diagnosed from 2001 to 2008, mainly caused by an increasing use of IM. The elderly still have poorer outcome, partly because of a limited use of IM.
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5.
  • Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y., et al. (författare)
  • Arterial and venous thrombosis in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and multiple myeloma: a population-based study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Blood. - : American Society of Hematology. - 1528-0020 .- 0006-4971. ; 115:24, s. 4991-4998
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) have an increased risk of venous thrombosis. Interestingly, excess risk of venous thromboembolism has been observed among patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Using population-based data from Sweden, we assessed the risks of venous and arterial thrombosis in 18 627 MM and 5326 MGUS patients diagnosed from 1958 to 2006, compared with 70 991 and 20 161 matched controls, respectively. At 1, 5, and 10 years after MM diagnosis, there was an increased risk of venous thrombosis: hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 7.5 (6.4-8.9), 4.6 (4.1-5.1), and 4.1 (3.8-4.5), respectively. The corresponding results for arterial thrombosis were 1.9 (1.8-2.1), 1.5 (1.4-1.6), and 1.5 (1.4-1.5). At 1, 5, and 10 years after MGUS diagnosis, hazard ratios were 3.4 (2.5-4.6), 2.1 (1.7-2.5), and 2.1 (1.8-2.4) for venous thrombosis. The corresponding risks for arterial thrombosis were 1.7 (1.5-1.9), 1.3 (1.2-1.4), and 1.3 (1.3-1.4). IgG/IgA (but not IgM) MGUS patients had increased risks for venous and arterial thrombosis. Risks for thrombosis did not vary by M-protein concentration (> 10.0 g/L or < 10.0 g/L) at diagnosis. MGUS patients with (vs without) thrombosis had no excess risk of MM or Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. Our findings are of relevance for future studies and for improvement of thrombosis prophylaxis strategies. (Blood. 2010;115(24):4991-4998)
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6.
  • Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y., et al. (författare)
  • Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and risk of infections: a population-based study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Haematologica. - : Ferrata Storti Foundation. - 1592-8721 .- 0390-6078. ; 97:6, s. 854-858
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • No comprehensive evaluation has been made to assess the risk of viral and bacterial infections among patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Using population-based data from Sweden, we estimated risk of infections among 5,326 monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance patients compared to 20,161 matched controls. Patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance had a 2-fold increased risk (P < 0.05) of developing any infection at 5- and 10-year follow up. More specifically, patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance had an increased risk (P < 0.05) of bacterial (pneumonia, osteomyelitis, septicemia, pyelonephritis, cellulitis, endocarditis, and meningitis), and viral (influenza and herpes zoster) infections. Patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance with M-protein concentrations over 2.5 g/dL at diagnosis had highest risks of infections. However, the risk was also increased (P < 0.05) among those with concentrations below 0.5 g/dL. Patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance who developed infections had no excess risk of developing multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia or related malignancy. Our findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms behind infections in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias, and may have clinical implications.
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7.
  • Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y., et al. (författare)
  • Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and risk of skeletal fractures: a population-based study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Blood. - : American Society of Hematology. - 1528-0020 .- 0006-4971. ; 116:15, s. 2651-2655
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) have an increased risk of fractures. On the basis of small numbers, patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) have been reported to have an increased fracture risk. Using population-based data from Sweden, we assessed the risks of fractures in 5326 MGUS patients diagnosed from 1958 to 2006, compared with 20 161 matched controls. MGUS patients had an increased risk of any fracture at 5 (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58-1.92) and 10 (HR = 1.61; 95% CI, 1.49-1.74) years. The risk was significantly higher for axial (skull, vertebral/pelvis, and sternum/costae) compared with distal (arm and leg) fractures (P < .001). On the basis of 10 years of follow-up, there was an increased risk of vertebral/pelvic (HR = 2.37; 95% CI, 2.02-2.78), sternal/costae (HR = 1.93; 95% CI, 1.5-2.48), arm (HR = 1.23; 95% CI, 1.06-1.43), leg (HR = 1.40; 95% CI, 1.26-1.56), and other/multiple fractures (HR = 4.25; 95% CI, 3.29-5.51). Risks for fractures did not differ by isotype or M protein concentration at diagnosis. MGUS patients with (versus without) fractures had no excess risk of MM or Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. Our results suggest that bone alterations are present in early myelomagenesis. Our findings may have implications for the development of better prophylaxis for bone disease in MGUS, and they provide novel clues on pathogenesis of MM bone disease. (Blood. 2010;116(15):2651-2655)
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8.
  • Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y, et al. (författare)
  • Patterns of hematologic malignancies and solid tumors among 37,838 first-degree relatives of 13,896 patients with multiple myeloma in Sweden.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : Wiley. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 125:9, s. 2147-2150
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There are emerging data to suggest a role for genetic factors in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM). Based on small numbers, certain solid tumors have been reported to occur more frequently among blood relatives of patients with MM. Using population-based data, we assessed risks for hematologic malignancies, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), and solid tumors among first-degree relatives of patients with MM. We included 13,896 patients with MM and 54,365 matched controls. Also we identified first-degree relatives of patients with MM (n = 37,838) and controls (n = 151,068). Using a marginal survival model, we estimated relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for hematologic and solid tumors among family members of patients with MM and controls as measures of familial aggregation. Compared with relatives of controls, relatives of patients with MM had an increased risk of developing MM (RR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.6-2.9), MGUS (2.1; 1.5-3.1), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (2.1; 1.0-4.2), any solid tumor (1.1; 1.0-1.1) and bladder cancer (1.3; 1.0-1.5). No significantly increased risk was found for other hematologic or solid malignancies. Our findings support a role for a shared susceptibility (genetic, environmental or both) that predisposes to MM, MGUS, ALL and bladder cancer.
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9.
  • Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y., et al. (författare)
  • Patterns of survival and causes of death following a diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance: a population-based study
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Haematologica. - : Ferrata Storti Foundation. - 1592-8721. ; 94, s. 0391-0391
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background There are limited data on survival patterns among patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Design and Methods We compared the survival of 4,259 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, collected from hematology outpatient units in Sweden, with the survival of the general population by computing relative survival ratios. We also compared causes of death in these patients with those in 16,151 matched controls. Results One-, 5-, 10-, and 15-year relative survival ratios were 0.98 (95% Cl 0.97-0.99), 0.93 (0.91-0.95), 0.82 (0.79-0.84), and 0.70 (0.64-0.76), respectively. Younger age at diagnosis of the gammopathy was associated with a significantly lower excess mortality compared to that in older patients (p<0.001). The excess mortality among patients with gammopathy increased with longer follow-up (p<0.0001). IgM (versus IgG/A) gammopathy was associated with a superior survival (p=0.038). Patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance had an increased risk of dying from multiple myeloma (hazards ratio (HR)=553; 95% Cl 77-3946), Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (HR=infinity), other lymphoproliferative malignancies (6.5; 2.8-15.1), other hematologic malignancies (22.9; 8.9-58.7), amyloidosis (HR=infinity), bacterial infections (3.4; 1.7-6.7), ischemic heart disease (1.3; 1.1-1.4), other heart disorders (1.5; 1.2-1.8), other hematologic conditions (6.9; 2.7-18), liver (2.1; 1.1-4.2), and renal diseases (3.2; 2.0-4.9). Conclusions Our finding of decreased life expectancy in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, which was most pronounced in the elderly and explained by both malignant transformation and non-malignant causes, is of importance in the understanding and clinical management of this disease. The underlying mechanisms may be causally related to the gammopathy, but may also be explained by underlying disease that led to the detection of the hematologic disease. Our results are of importance since they give a true estimation of survival in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance diagnosed in clinical practice.
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10.
  • Mitchell, Jonathan S., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for multiple myeloma
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy with a significant heritable basis. Genome-wide association studies have transformed our understanding of MM predisposition, but individual studies have had limited power to discover risk loci. Here we perform a meta-analysis of these GWAS, add a new GWAS and perform replication analyses resulting in 9,866 cases and 239,188 controls. We confirm all nine known risk loci and discover eight new loci at 6p22.3 (rs34229995, P = 1.31 x 10(-8)), 6q21 (rs9372120, P = 9.09 x 10(-15)), 7q36.1 (rs7781265, P = 9.71 x 10(-9)), 8q24.21 (rs1948915, P = 4.20 x 10(-11)), 9p21.3 (rs2811710, P = 1.72 x 10(-13)), 10p12.1 (rs2790457, P = 1.77 x 10(-8)), 16q23.1 (rs7193541, P = 5.00 x 10(-12)) and 20q13.13 (rs6066835, P = 1.36 x 10(-13)), which localize in or near to JARID2, ATG5, SMARCD3, CCAT1, CDKN2A, WAC, RFWD3 and PREX1. These findings provide additional support for a polygenic model of MM and insight into the biological basis of tumour development.
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