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1.
  • Fedirko, Veronika, et al. (författare)
  • Vitamin D-Related Genes, Blood Vitamin D Levels and Colorectal Cancer Risk in Western European Populations
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nutrients. - MDPI. - 2072-6643. ; 11:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Higher circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25(OH)D) have been found to be associated with lower risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) in prospective studies. Whether this association is modified by genetic variation in genes related to vitamin D metabolism and action has not been well studied in humans. We investigated 1307 functional and tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; individually, and by gene/pathway) in 86 vitamin D-related genes in 1420 incident CRC cases matched to controls from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. We also evaluated the association between these SNPs and circulating 25(OH)D in a subset of controls. We confirmed previously reported CRC risk associations between SNPs in the VDR, GC, and CYP27B1 genes. We also identified additional associations with 25(OH)D, as well as CRC risk, and several potentially novel SNPs in genes related to vitamin D transport and action (LRP2, CUBN, NCOA7, and HDAC9). However, none of these SNPs were statistically significant after Benjamini-Hochberg (BH) multiple testing correction. When assessed by a priori defined functional pathways, tumor growth factor beta (TGF beta) signaling was associated with CRC risk (P <= 0.001), with most statistically significant genes being SMAD7 (P-BH = 0.008) and SMAD3 (P-BH = 0.008), and 18 SNPs in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) binding sites (P = 0.036). The 25(OH)D-gene pathway analysis suggested that genetic variants in the genes related to VDR complex formation and transcriptional activity are associated with CRC depending on 25(OH)D levels (interaction P = 0.041). Additional studies in large populations and consortia, especially with measured circulating 25(OH)D, are needed to confirm our findings.
2.
  • Abbas, Sascha, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium and breast cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nutrition and Cancer. - Taylor & Francis. - 0163-5581. ; 65:2, s. 178-187
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies assessing the effects of vitamin D or calcium intake on breast cancer risk have been inconclusive. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated them jointly. This study is the largest so far examining the association of dietary vitamin D and calcium intake with breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. During a mean follow-up of 8.8 yr, 7760 incident invasive breast cancer cases were identified among 319,985 women. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Comparing the highest with the lowest quintile of vitamin D intake, HR and 95% CI were 1.07 (0.87-1.32) and 1.02 (0.90-1.16) for pre- and postmenopausal women, respectively. The corresponding HR and 95% CIs for calcium intake were 0.98 (0.80-1.19) and 0.90 (0.79-1.02), respectively. For calcium intake in postmenopausal women, the test for trend was borderline statistically significant (P(trend) = 0.05). There was no significant interaction between vitamin D and calcium intake and cancer risk (P(interaction) = 0.57 and 0.22 in pre- and postmenopausal women, respectively). In this large prospective cohort, we found no evidence for an association between dietary vitamin D or calcium intake and breast cancer risk.
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3.
  • Airoldi, Luisa, et al. (författare)
  • 4-Aminobiphenyl-hemoglobin adducts and risk of smoking-related disease in never smokers and former smokers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition prospective study.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. - 1055-9965. ; 14:9, s. 2118-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to evaluate whether biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure [i.e, 4-aminobiphenyl-hemoglobin (4-ABP-Hb) adducts] were predictive of the risk of tobacco-related cancers and diseases. We did a case control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, involving 190 controls and 149 cases (incident cancer of the lung, bladder, pharynx, larynx, oral cavity, leukemias, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or emphysema deaths). All individuals were never smokers or ex smokers for > 10 years. 4-ABP-Hb adducts were analyzed in peripheral blood collected before the onset of the disease (median, 7 years). Overall, 4-ABP-Hb adducts were higher, although not statistically significantly so, in cases (as a whole) than controls. In the control population, high fruit and vegetable consumption significantly lowered the frequency of detectable adducts (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.025). Restricting the analysis to women, 4-ABP-Hb adducts were higher in cases than controls (Mann-Whitney P = 0.036) and the odds ratio (OR) for the presence/absence of adducts was 2.42 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.18-4.981. Moreover, the association of adducts with the individual cancer types was stronger in women than in the whole study population, although statistically significant only for leukemias (OR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.06-7.20). The results provide some evidence that women may be more susceptible to environmental tobacco smoke, as suggested by their higher adduct levels. The most important finding of this prospective study is that, at least in women, 4-ABP-Hb adducts may help identify subjects at high risk of cancers related to environmental tobacco smoke exposure.
4.
  • Aleksandrova, Krasimira, et al. (författare)
  • Circulating C-reactive protein concentrations and risks of colon and rectal cancer : a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - 0002-9262. ; 172:4, s. 407-418
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The authors investigated associations between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and colon and rectal cancer risk in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (1992-2003) among 1,096 incident cases and 1,096 controls selected using risk-set sampling and matched on study center, age, sex, time of blood collection, fasting status, menopausal status, menstrual cycle phase, and hormone replacement therapy. In conditional logistic regression with adjustment for education, smoking, nutritional factors, body mass index, and waist circumference, CRP showed a significant nonlinear association with colon cancer risk but not rectal cancer risk. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks for CRP concentrations of > or = 3.0 mg/L versus <1.0 mg/L were 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.85; P-trend = 0.01) for colon cancer and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.67, 1.57; P-trend = 0.65) for rectal cancer. Colon cancer risk was significantly increased in men (relative risk = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.73; P-trend = 0.01) but not in women (relative risk = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.68; P-trend = 0.13). Additional adjustment for C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol did not attenuate these results. These data provide evidence that elevated CRP concentrations are related to a higher risk of colon cancer but not rectal cancer, predominantly among men and independently of obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia.
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5.
  • Aleksandrova, Krasimira, et al. (författare)
  • Combined impact of healthy lifestyle factors on colorectal cancer a large European cohort study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC Medicine. - BioMed Central. - 1741-7015. ; 12:1, s. 168
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Excess body weight, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and certain dietary factors are individually related to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk; however, little is known about their joint effects. The aim of this study was to develop a healthy lifestyle index (HLI) composed of five potentially modifiable lifestyle factors - healthy weight, physical activity, non-smoking, limited alcohol consumption and a healthy diet, and to explore the association of this index with CRC incidence using data collected within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. METHODS: In the EPIC cohort, a total of 347,237 men and women, 25- to 70-years old, provided dietary and lifestyle information at study baseline (1992 to 2000). Over a median follow-up time of 12 years, 3,759 incident CRC cases were identified. The association between a HLI and CRC risk was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression models and population attributable risks (PARs) have been calculated. RESULTS: After accounting for study centre, age, sex and education, compared with 0 or 1 healthy lifestyle factors, the hazard ratio (HR) for CRC was 0.87 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44 to 0.77) for two factors, 0.79 (95% CI: 0.70 to 0.89) for three factors, 0.66 (95% CI: 0.58 to 0.75) for four factors and 0.63 (95% CI: 0.54 to 0.74) for five factors; P-trend <0.0001. The associations were present for both colon and rectal cancers, HRs, 0.61 (95% CI: 0.50 to 0.74; P for trend <0.0001) for colon cancer and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.53 to 0.88; P-trend <0.0001) for rectal cancer, respectively (P-difference by cancer sub-site = 0.10). Overall, 16% of the new CRC cases (22% in men and 11% in women) were attributable to not adhering to a combination of all five healthy lifestyle behaviours included in the index. CONCLUSIONS: Combined lifestyle factors are associated with a lower incidence of CRC in European populations characterized by western lifestyles. Prevention strategies considering complex targeting of multiple lifestyle factors may provide practical means for improved CRC prevention.
6.
  • Ali, Alaa M. G., et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol Consumption and Survival after a Breast Cancer Diagnosis: A Literature-Based Meta-analysis and Collaborative Analysis of Data for 29,239 Cases
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1538-7755. ; 23:6, s. 934-945
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Evidence for an association of alcohol consumption with prognosis after a diagnosis of breast cancer has been inconsistent. We have reviewed and summarized the published evidence and evaluated the association using individual patient data from multiple case cohorts. Methods: A MEDLINE search to identify studies published up to January 2013 was performed. We combined published estimates of survival time for "moderate drinkers" versus nondrinkers. An analysis of individual participant data using Cox regression was carried out using data from 11 case cohorts. Results: We identified 11 published studies suitable for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Moderate postdiagnosis alcohol consumption was not associated with overall survival [HR, 0.95; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.85-1.05], but there was some evidence of better survival associated with prediagnosis consumption (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.73-0.88). Individual data on alcohol consumption for 29,239 cases with 4,839 deaths were available from the 11 case cohorts, all of which had data on estrogen receptor (ER) status. For women with ER-positive disease, there was little evidence that pre-or postdiagnosis alcohol consumption is associated with breast cancer-specific mortality, with some evidence of a negative association with all-cause mortality. On the basis of a single study, moderate postdiagnosis alcohol intake was associated with a small reduction in breast cancer-specific mortality for women with ER-negative disease. There was no association with prediagnosis intake for women with ER-negative disease. Conclusion: There was little evidence that pre- or post-diagnosis alcohol consumption is associated with breast cancer-specific mortality for women with ER-positive disease. There was weak evidence that moderate post-diagnosis alcohol intake is associated with a small reduction in breast cancer-specific mortality in ER-negative disease. Impact: Considering the totality of the evidence, moderate postdiagnosis alcohol consumption is unlikely to have a major adverse effect on the survival of women with breast cancer. (C) 2014 AACR.
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7.
  • Anantharaman, Devasena, et al. (författare)
  • No causal association identified for human papillomavirus infections in lung cancer
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 0008-5472. ; 74:13, s. 3525-3534
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections have been implicated in lung carcinogenesis, but causal associations remain uncertain. We evaluated a potential causal role for HPV infections in lung cancer through an analysis involving serology, tumor DNA, RNA, and p16 protein expression. Association between type-specific HPV antibodies and risk of lung cancer was examined among 3,083 cases and 4,328 controls in two case-control studies (retrospective) and one nested case-control study (prospective design). Three hundred and thirty-four available tumors were subjected to pathologic evaluation and subsequent HPV genotyping following stringent conditions to detect all high-risk and two low-risk HPV types. All HPV DNA-positive tumors were further tested for the expression of p16 protein and type-specific HPV mRNA. On the basis of the consistency of the results, although HPV11 and HPV31 E6 antibodies were associated with lung cancer risk in the retrospective study, no association was observed in the prospective design. Presence of type-specific antibodies correlated poorly with the presence of the corresponding HPV DNA in the tumor. Although nearly 10% of the lung tumors were positive for any HPV DNA (7% for HPV16 DNA), none expressed the viral oncogenes. No association was observed between HPV antibodies or DNA and lung cancer survival. In conclusion, we found no supportive evidence for the hypothesized causal association between HPV infections and lung cancer. (C) 2014 AACR.
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8.
  • Andersen, Zorana J., et al. (författare)
  • Long-term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Incidence of Brain Tumor the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Neuro-Oncology. - Oxford University Press. - 1522-8517. ; 20:3, s. 420-432
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Epidemiological evidence on the association between ambient air pollution and brain tumor risk is sparse and inconsistent.Methods: In 12 cohorts from 6 European countries, individual estimates of annual mean air pollution levels at the baseline residence were estimated by standardized land-use regression models developed within the ESCAPE and TRANSPHORM projects: particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5, ≤10, and 2.5–10 μm in diameter (PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse), PM2.5 absorbance, nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx) and elemental composition of PM. We estimated cohort-specific associations of air pollutant concentrations and traffic intensity with total, malignant, and nonmalignant brain tumor, in separate Cox regression models, adjusting for risk factors, and pooled cohort-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analyses.Results: Of 282194 subjects from 12 cohorts, 466 developed malignant brain tumors during 12 years of follow-up. Six of the cohorts also had data on nonmalignant brain tumor, where among 106786 subjects, 366 developed brain tumor: 176 nonmalignant and 190 malignant. We found a positive, statistically nonsignificant association between malignant brain tumor and PM2.5 absorbance (hazard ratio and 95% CI: 1.67; 0.89–3.14 per 10–5/m3), and weak positive or null associations with the other pollutants. Hazard ratio for PM2.5 absorbance (1.01; 0.38–2.71 per 10–5/m3) and all other pollutants were lower for nonmalignant than for malignant brain tumors.Conclusion: We found suggestive evidence of an association between long-term exposure to PM2.5 absorbance indicating traffic-related air pollution and malignant brain tumors, and no association with overall or nonmalignant brain tumors.
9.
  • Andersen, Zorana J., et al. (författare)
  • Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in 15 European cohorts within the ESCAPE project
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Environmental Health Perspectives. - National Institute of Environmental Health Science. - 0091-6765. ; 125:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence on the association between ambient air pollution and breast cancer risk is inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women. METHODS: In 15 cohorts from nine European countries, individual estimates of air pollution levels at the residence were estimated by standardized land-use regression models developed within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) and Transport related Air Pollution and Health impacts - Integrated Methodologies for Assessing Particulate Matter (TRANSPHORM) projects: particulate matter (PM) ≤2:5 μm, ≤10 μm, and 2:5–10 μm in diameter (PM2:5, PM10, and PMcoarse, respectively); PM2:5 absorbance; nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx); traffic intensity; and elemental composition of PM. We estimated cohort-specific associations between breast cancer and air pollutants using Cox regression models, adjusting for major lifestyle risk factors, and pooled cohort-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Of 74,750 postmenopausal women included in the study, 3,612 developed breast cancer during 991,353 person-years of follow-up. We found positive and statistically insignificant associations between breast cancer and PM2:5 {hazard ratio (HR) =1:08 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77, 1.51] per 5 μg/m3 }, PM10 [1.07 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.30) per 10 μg/m3 ], PMcoarse [1.20 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.49 per 5 μg/m3 ], and NO2 [1.02 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.07 per 10 μg/m3 ], and a statistically significant association with NOx [1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) per 20 μg/m3, p =0:04]. CONCLUSIONS: We found suggestive evidence of an association between ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women.
10.
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