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Sökning: WFRF:(Krug Norbert)

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1.
  • Östling, Jörgen, et al. (författare)
  • IL-17-high asthma with features of a psoriasis immunophenotype
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - Elsevier. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 144:5, s. 1198-1213
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The role of IL-17 immunity is well established in patients with inflammatory diseases, such as psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease, but not in asthmatic patients, in whom further study is required.Objective: We sought to undertake a deep phenotyping study of asthmatic patients with upregulated IL-17 immunity.Methods: Whole-genome transcriptomic analysis was performed by using epithelial brushings, bronchial biopsy specimens (91 asthmatic patients and 46 healthy control subjects), and whole blood samples (n = 498) from the Unbiased Biomarkers for the Prediction of Respiratory Disease Outcomes (U-BIOPRED) cohort. Gene signatures induced in vitro by IL-17 and IL-13 in bronchial epithelial cells were used to identify patients with IL-17–high and IL-13–high asthma phenotypes.Results: Twenty-two of 91 patients were identified with IL-17, and 9 patients were identified with IL-13 gene signatures. The patients with IL-17–high asthma were characterized by risk of frequent exacerbations, airway (sputum and mucosal) neutrophilia, decreased lung microbiota diversity, and urinary biomarker evidence of activation of the thromboxane B2 pathway. In pathway analysis the differentially expressed genes in patients with IL-17-high asthma were shared with those reported as altered in psoriasis lesions and included genes regulating epithelial barrier function and defense mechanisms, such as IL1B, IL6, IL8, and β-defensin.Conclusion: The IL-17–high asthma phenotype, characterized by bronchial epithelial dysfunction and upregulated antimicrobial and inflammatory response, resembles the immunophenotype of psoriasis, including activation of the thromboxane B2 pathway, which should be considered a biomarker for this phenotype in further studies, including clinical trials targeting IL-17.
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2.
  • Alahmadi, Fahad, et al. (författare)
  • Measures of adherence in patients with severe asthma prescribed systemic steroids in the U-BIOPRED cohort
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - European Respiratory Society. - 0903-1936. ; 52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Introduction: Rates of sub-optimal adherence to medications in asthma range up to 70%; the impact in severe asthma is likely to be particularly high. We measured self-reported adherence in participants in the U-BIOPRED cohort prescribed daily prednisolone using the Medication Adherence Response Scale (MARS), and compared to measured urinary prednisolone and metabolites in order to determine: 1. the prevalence of suboptimal adherence by each method; 2. the ability of MARS to predict urinary steroid detection.Methods: Participants completed the MARS, and/or provided urine samples (analysed for prednisolone and metabolites by LCMS). The performance characteristics of the MARS predicting undetected urinary steroid were calculated in the subgroup having both tests.Results: 181 participants currently taking regular oral corticosteroids were included, 59% female, mean (SD) age 54(12)yrs, FEV1 64.7(20.4)% predicted. Sub-optimal adherence (MARS score < 4.5) was reported in 62 participants, and 76 did not have detectable urinary prednisolone or metabolites. Good adherence by both methods was detected in only 52 participants (34%, see table). There was no difference in daily prednisolone dose between detectable and undetectable metabolites groups (p=0.848).Conclusion: Low levels of adherence to treatment in severe asthma is a common problem, when measured either directly or self-reported. There was very poor agreement (48% concordance) between these two methods, and we suggest that, for now both approaches should be used.
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3.
  • Brandsma, Joost, et al. (författare)
  • Lipid phenotyping of lung epithelial lining fluid in healthy human volunteers
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Metabolomics. - Springer-Verlag New York. - 1573-3882. ; 14:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF)-sampled through sputum induction-is a medium rich in cells, proteins and lipids. However, despite its key role in maintaining lung function, homeostasis and defences, the composition and biology of ELF, especially in respect of lipids, remain incompletely understood. Objectives: To characterise the induced sputum lipidome of healthy adult individuals, and to examine associations between different ELF lipid phenotypes and the demographic characteristics within the study cohort.Methods: Induced sputum samples were obtained from 41 healthy non-smoking adults, and their lipid compositions analysed using a combination of untargeted shotgun and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry methods. Topological data analysis (TDA) was used to group subjects with comparable sputum lipidomes in order to identify distinct ELF phenotypes.Results: The induced sputum lipidome was diverse, comprising a range of different molecular classes, including at least 75 glycerophospholipids, 13 sphingolipids, 5 sterol lipids and 12 neutral glycerolipids. TDA identified two distinct phenotypes differentiated by a higher total lipid content and specific enrichments of diacyl-glycerophosphocholines, -inositols and -glycerols in one group, with enrichments of sterols, glycolipids and sphingolipids in the other. Subjects presenting the lipid-rich ELF phenotype also had significantly higher BMI, but did not differ in respect of other demographic characteristics such as age or gender.Conclusions: We provide the first evidence that the ELF lipidome varies significantly between healthy individuals and propose that such differences are related to weight status, highlighting the potential impact of (over)nutrition on lung lipid metabolism.
4.
  • Burg, Dominic, et al. (författare)
  • Large-Scale Label-Free Quantitative Mapping of the Sputum Proteome
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Proteome Research. - American Chemical Society (ACS). - 1535-3893. ; 17:6, s. 2072-2091
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Analysis of induced sputum supematant is a minimally invasive approach to study the epithelial lining fluid and, thereby, provide insight into normal lung biology and the pathobiology of lung diseases. We present here a novel proteomics approach to sputum analysis developed within the U-BIOPRED (unbiased biomarkers predictive of respiratory disease outcomes) international project. We present practical and analytical techniques to optimize the detection of robust biomarkers in proteomic studies. The normal sputum proteome was derived using data-independent HDMSE applied to 40 healthy nonsmoking participants, which provides an essential baseline from which to compare modulation of protein expression in respiratory diseases. The "core" sputum proteome (proteins detected in >= 40% of participants) was composed of 284 proteins, and the extended proteome (proteins detected in >= 3 participants) contained 1666 proteins. Quality control procedures were developed to optimize the accuracy and consistency of measurement of sputum proteins and analyze the distribution of sputum proteins in the healthy population. The analysis showed that quantitation of proteins by HDMSE is influenced by several factors, with some proteins being measured in all participants' samples and with low measurement variance between samples from the same patient. The measurement of some proteins is highly variable between repeat analyses, susceptible to sample processing effects, or difficult to accurately quantify by mass spectrometry. Other proteins show high interindividual variance. We also highlight that the sputum proteome of healthy individuals is related to sputum neutrophil levels, but not gender or allergic sensitization. We illustrate the importance of design and interpretation of disease biomarker studies considering such protein population and technical measurement variance.
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5.
  • Emma, Rosalia, et al. (författare)
  • Enhanced oxidative stress in smoking and ex-smoking severe asthma in the U-BIOPRED cohort
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library Science. - 1932-6203. ; 13:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Oxidative stress is believed to be a major driver of inflammation in smoking asthmatics. The U-BIOPRED project recruited a cohort of Severe Asthma smokers/ex-smokers (SAs/ex) and non-smokers (SAn) with extensive clinical and biomarker information enabling characterization of these subjects. We investigated oxidative stress in severe asthma subjects by analysing urinary 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha) and the mRNA-expression of the main pro-oxidant (NOX2; NOSs) and anti-oxidant (SODs; CAT; GPX1) enzymes in the airways of SAs/ex and SAn. All the severe asthma U-BIOPRED subjects were further divided into current smokers with severe asthma (CSA), ex-smokers with severe asthma (ESA) and non-smokers with severe asthma (NSA) to deepen the effect of active smoking. Clinical data, urine and sputum were obtained from severe asthma subjects. A bronchoscopy to obtain bronchial biopsy and brushing was performed in a subset of subjects. The main clinical data were analysed for each subset of subjects (urine-8-iso-PGF(2 alpha); IS-transcriptomics; BB-transcriptomics; BBrtranscriptomics). Urinary 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha) was quantified using mass spectrometry. Sputum, bronchial biopsy and bronchial brushing were processed for mRNA expression microarray analysis. Urinary 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha) was increased in SAs/ex, median (IQR) = 31.7 (24.5 +/- 44.7) ng/mmol creatinine, compared to SAn, median (IQR) = 26.6 (19.6 +/- 36.6) ng/mmol creatinine (p< 0.001), and in CSA, median (IQR) = 34.25 (24.4 +/- 47.7), vs. ESA, median (IQR) = 29.4 (22.3 +/- 40.5), and NSA, median (IQR) = 26.5 (19.6 +/- 16.6) ng/mmol creatinine (p = 0.004). Sputum mRNA expression of NOX2 was increased in SAs/ex compared to SAn (probe sets 203922_PM_s_at fold-change = 1.05 p = 0.006; 203923_PM_s_at fold-change = 1.06, p = 0.003; 233538_PM_s_at fold-change = 1.06, p = 0.014). The mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes were similar between the two severe asthma cohorts in all airway samples. NOS2 mRNA expression was decreased in bronchial brushing of SAs/ex compared to SAn (fold-change = -1.10; p = 0.029). NOS2 mRNA expression in bronchial brushing correlated with FeNO (Kendal's Tau = 0.535; p< 0.001). From clinical and inflammatory analysis, FeNO was lower in CSA than in ESA in all the analysed subject subsets (p< 0.01) indicating an effect of active smoking. Results about FeNO suggest its clinical limitation, as inflammation biomarker, in severe asthma active smokers. These data provide evidence of greater systemic oxidative stress in severe asthma smokers as reflected by a significant changes of NOX2 mRNA expression in the airways, together with elevated urinary 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha) in the smokers/ex-smokers group.
6.
  • Hohlfeld, Jens M., et al. (författare)
  • Eosinophil cationic protein alters pulmonary surfactant structure and function in asthma
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 113:3, s. 496-502
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Impaired surfactant function has been demonstrated in patients with asthma. Inhibitory proteins originating from plasma or inflammatory mediators are good candidates to contribute to this dysfunction. Eosinophils are potent effector cells in asthma, which, on activation, release inflammatory mediators, especially reactive granula proteins such as eosinophil cationic protein (ECP).OBJECTIVE: Because the potential role of ECP in the inhibition of surfactant function is not known, we tested the hypothesis of whether ECP levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with asthma after segmental allergen provocation correlate to surfactant dysfunction. Furthermore, we tested the effect of purified ECP on surfactant function and structure in vitro.METHODS: Surfactant isolated from BALF of asthmatic patients was assessed for biophysical function with the Pulsating Bubble Surfactometer and the Capillary Surfactometer and correlated to ECP levels. Purified ECP and plasma proteins at various concentrations were incubated with natural surfactant. Surfactant function was studied with the Capillary Surfactometer, and surfactant structure was determined by electron microscopy.RESULTS: ECP is elevated in BALF from patients with asthma after allergen challenge compared with baseline. ECP levels after allergen challenge correlate well to surfactant dysfunction. In vitro, ECP induces a concentration-dependent inhibition of surfactant function that can be inhibited by antibodies against ECP. ECP is more potent compared with albumin or fibrinogen. Finally, ECP induces severe ultrastructural changes to surfactant vesicles that are more pronounced than changes induced by either fibrinogen or albumin.CONCLUSIONS: ECP contributes to surfactant dysfunction in asthma, which in turn could lead to airway obstruction.
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7.
  • Jevnikar, Zala, et al. (författare)
  • Epithelial IL-6 trans-signaling defines a new asthma phenotype with increased airway inflammation
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - Elsevier. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 143:2, s. 577-590
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Although several studies link high levels of IL-6 and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) to asthma severity and decreased lung function, the role of IL-6 trans-signaling (IL-6TS) in asthmatic patients is unclear.Objective: We sought to explore the association between epithelial IL-6TS pathway activation and molecular and clinical phenotypes in asthmatic patients.Methods: An IL-6TS gene signature obtained from air-liquid interface cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells stimulated with IL-6 and sIL-6R was used to stratify lung epithelial transcriptomic data (Unbiased Biomarkers in Prediction of Respiratory Disease Outcomes [U-BIOPRED] cohorts) by means of hierarchical clustering. IL-6TS-specific protein markers were used to stratify sputum biomarker data (Wessex cohort). Molecular phenotyping was based on transcriptional profiling of epithelial brushings, pathway analysis, and immunohistochemical analysis of bronchial biopsy specimens.Results: Activation of IL-6TS in air-liquid interface cultures reduced epithelial integrity and induced a specific gene signature enriched in genes associated with airway remodeling. The IL-6TS signature identified a subset of patients with IL-6TS-high asthma with increased epithelial expression of IL-6TS-inducible genes in the absence of systemic inflammation. The IL-6TS-high subset had an overrepresentation of frequent exacerbators, blood eosinophilia, and submucosal infiltration of T cells and macrophages. In bronchial brushings Toll-like receptor pathway genes were upregulated, whereas expression of cell junction genes was reduced. Sputum sIL-6R and IL-6 levels correlated with sputum markers of remodeling and innate immune activation, in particular YKL-40, matrix metalloproteinase 3, macrophage inflammatory protein 1 beta, IL-8, and IL-1 beta.Conclusions: Local lung epithelial IL-6TS activation in the absence of type 2 airway inflammation defines a novel subset of asthmatic patients and might drive airway inflammation and epithelial dysfunction in these patients.
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8.
  • Kuo, Chih-Hsi Scott, et al. (författare)
  • A transcriptome-driven analysis of epithelial brushings and bronchial biopsies to define asthma phenotypes in U-BIOPRED
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. - 1073-449X. ; 194:4, s. 443-455
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease driven by diverse immunologic and inflammatory mechanisms. We used transcriptomic profiling of airway tissues to help define asthma phenotypes.METHODS: The transcriptome from bronchial biopsies and epithelial brushings of 107 moderate-to-severe asthmatics were annotated by gene-set variation analysis (GSVA) using 42 gene-signatures relevant to asthma, inflammation and immune function. Topological data analysis (TDA) of clinical and histological data was used to derive clusters and the nearest shrunken centroid algorithm used for signature refinement.RESULTS: 9 GSVA signatures expressed in bronchial biopsies and airway epithelial brushings distinguished two distinct asthma subtypes associated with high expression of T-helper type 2 (Th-2) cytokines and lack of corticosteroid response (Group 1 and Group 3). Group 1 had the highest submucosal eosinophils, high exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels, exacerbation rates and oral corticosteroid (OCS) use whilst Group 3 patients showed the highest levels of sputum eosinophils and had a high BMI. In contrast, Group 2 and Group 4 patients had an 86% and 64% probability of having non-eosinophilic inflammation. Using machine-learning tools, we describe an inference scheme using the currently-available inflammatory biomarkers sputum eosinophilia and exhaled nitric oxide levels along with OCS use that could predict the subtypes of gene expression within bronchial biopsies and epithelial cells with good sensitivity and specificity.CONCLUSION: This analysis demonstrates the usefulness of a transcriptomic-driven approach to phenotyping that segments patients who may benefit the most from specific agents that target Th2-mediated inflammation and/or corticosteroid insensitivity.
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9.
  • Kuo, Chih-Hsi S., et al. (författare)
  • Contribution of airway eosinophils in airway wall remodeling in asthma : Role of MMP-10 and MET
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0105-4538. ; 74:6, s. 1102-1112
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Eosinophils play an important role in the pathophysiology of asthma being implicated in airway epithelial damage and airway wall remodeling. We determined the genes associated with airway remodeling and eosinophilic inflammation in patients with asthma. Methods We analyzed the transcriptomic data from bronchial biopsies of 81 patients with moderate-to-severe asthma of the U-BIOPRED cohort. Expression profiling was performed using Affymetrix arrays on total RNA. Transcription binding site analysis used the PRIMA algorithm. Localization of proteins was by immunohistochemistry. Results Using stringent false discovery rate analysis, MMP-10 and MET were significantly overexpressed in biopsies with high mucosal eosinophils (HE) compared to low mucosal eosinophil (LE) numbers. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed increased expression of MMP-10 and MET in bronchial epithelial cells and in subepithelial inflammatory and resident cells in asthmatic biopsies. Using less-stringent conditions (raw P-value < 0.05, log2 fold change > 0.5), we defined a 73-gene set characteristic of the HE compared to the LE group. Thirty-three of 73 genes drove the pathway annotation that included extracellular matrix (ECM) organization, mast cell activation, CC-chemokine receptor binding, circulating immunoglobulin complex, serine protease inhibitors, and microtubule bundle formation pathways. Genes including MET and MMP10 involved in ECM organization correlated positively with submucosal thickness. Transcription factor binding site analysis identified two transcription factors, ETS-1 and SOX family proteins, that showed positive correlation with MMP10 and MET expression. Conclusion Pathways of airway remodeling and cellular inflammation are associated with submucosal eosinophilia. MET and MMP-10 likely play an important role in these processes.
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10.
  • Lefaudeux, Diane, et al. (författare)
  • U-BIOPRED clinical adult asthma clusters linked to a subset of sputum omics
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - 0091-6749. ; 139:6, s. 1797-1807
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease in which there is a differential response to asthma treatments. This heterogeneity needs to be evaluated so that a personalized management approach can be provided.OBJECTIVES: We stratified patients with moderate-to-severe asthma based on clinicophysiologic parameters and performed an omics analysis of sputum.METHODS: Partition-around-medoids clustering was applied to a training set of 266 asthmatic participants from the European Unbiased Biomarkers for the Prediction of Respiratory Diseases Outcomes (U-BIOPRED) adult cohort using 8 prespecified clinic-physiologic variables. This was repeated in a separate validation set of 152 asthmatic patients. The clusters were compared based on sputum proteomics and transcriptomics data.RESULTS: Four reproducible and stable clusters of asthmatic patients were identified. The training set cluster T1 consists of patients with well-controlled moderate-to-severe asthma, whereas cluster T2 is a group of patients with late-onset severe asthma with a history of smoking and chronic airflow obstruction. Cluster T3 is similar to cluster T2 in terms of chronic airflow obstruction but is composed of nonsmokers. Cluster T4 is predominantly composed of obese female patients with uncontrolled severe asthma with increased exacerbations but with normal lung function. The validation set exhibited similar clusters, demonstrating reproducibility of the classification. There were significant differences in sputum proteomics and transcriptomics between the clusters. The severe asthma clusters (T2, T3, and T4) had higher sputum eosinophilia than cluster T1, with no differences in sputum neutrophil counts and exhaled nitric oxide and serum IgE levels.CONCLUSION: Clustering based on clinicophysiologic parameters yielded 4 stable and reproducible clusters that associate with different pathobiological pathways.
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