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Sökning: WFRF:(Krum Henry)

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  • Bakris, George L, et al. (författare)
  • Divergent results using clinic and ambulatory blood pressures report of a darusentan-resistant hypertension trial
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Hypertension. - 0194-911X .- 1524-4563. ; 56:5, s. 824-830
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patients with resistant hypertension are at increased risk for cardiovascular events. The addition of new treatments to existing therapies will help achieve blood pressure (BP) goals in more resistant hypertension patients. In the current trial, 849 patients with resistant hypertension receiving ≥3 antihypertensive drugs, including a diuretic, at optimized doses were randomized to the selective endothelin A receptor antagonist darusentan, placebo, or the central α-2 agonist guanfacine. The coprimary end points of the study were changes from baseline to week 14 in trough, sitting systolic BP, and diastolic BP measured in the clinic. Decreases from baseline to week 14 in systolic BP for darusentan (−15±14 mm Hg) were greater than for guanfacine (−12±13 mm Hg; P<0.05) but not greater than placebo (−14±14 mm Hg). Darusentan, however, reduced mean 24-hour systolic BP (−9±12 mm Hg) more than placebo (−2±12 mm Hg) or guanfacine (−4±12 mm Hg) after 14 weeks of treatment (P<0.001 for each comparison). The most frequent adverse event associated with darusentan was fluid retention/edema at 28% versus 12% in each of the other groups. More patients withdrew because of adverse events on darusentan as compared with placebo or guanfacine. We conclude that darusentan provided greater reduction in systolic BP in resistant hypertension patients as assessed by ambulatory BP monitoring, in spite of not meeting its coprimary end points. The results of this trial highlight the importance of ambulatory BP monitoring in the design of hypertension clinical studies.
  • McDonald, Kenneth, et al. (författare)
  • Daily home BNP monitoring in heart failure for prediction of impending clinical deterioration: results from the HOME HF study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Heart Failure. - : WILEY. - 1388-9842 .- 1879-0844. ; 20:3, s. 474-480
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Serial measurement of natriuretic peptides may guide management in heart failure (HF) patients. In previous trials, natriuretic peptides were infrequently monitored, which may undervalue the benefit of this approach. Methods and results HOME was an adaptive three-arm randomized clinical study to test whether home monitoring of BNP could reduce HF-related death, hospitalization due to acute decompensated HF (ADHF), and ADHF treated with intravenous diuretics in the emergency department or outpatient setting. Enrolment was terminated early because of slow enrolment, low event rates, and the belief that an algorithm for assessing BNP trends was needed. Justification for pooling data from all study arms was made and analysis as a single observational study was performed. The analysis resulted in 107 patients who were monitored for a median of 172 days with BNP measures on a median of 74% of days. BNP values were highly variable within a patient. Dispersion between serial BNPs was calculated to be 39.3%, 57.7%, and 73.6% for 1, 60, and 120 days between measures, respectively. A moving average filter (fBNP) was calculated to reduce day-to-day fluctuations and track changes from week to week. There were 27 primary events in 17 362 patient days of monitoring; the hazard ratio for time-varying fBNP was 2.22 (95% confidence interval 1.48-3.34) per unit natural log (corresponding to a 2.72-fold change in fBNP level). Conclusion The HOME HF study demonstrates the feasibility of home BNP measurement and shows the potential value of fBNP as an index of emerging clinical deterioration. Assessment of the clinical value of this is required.
  • McMurray, J, et al. (författare)
  • Practical recommendations for the use of ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, aldosterone antagonists and angiotensin receptor blockers in heart failure: Putting guidelines into practice
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Heart Failure. - : Elsevier. - 1879-0844 .- 1388-9842. ; 7:5, s. 710-721
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Surveys of prescribing patterns in both hospitals and primary care have usually shown delays in translating the evidence from clinical trials of pharmacological agents into clinical practice, thereby denying patients with heart failure (HF) the benefits of drug treatments proven to improve well-being and prolong life. This may be due to unfamiliarity with the evidence-base for these therapies, the clinical guidelines recommending the use of these treatments or both, as well as concerns regarding adverse events. ACE inhibitors have long been the cornerstone of therapy for systolic HF irrespective of aetiology. Recent trials have now shown that treatment with beta-blockers, aldosterone antagonists and angiotensin receptor blockers also leads to substantial improvements in outcome. In order to accelerate the safe uptake of these treatments and to ensure that all eligible patients receive the most appropriate medications, a clear and concise set of clinical recommendations has been prepared by a group of clinicians with practical expertise in the management of HE The objective of these recommendations is to provide practical guidance for non-specialists, in order to increase the use of evidenced based therapy for HF. These practical recommendations are meant to serve as a supplement to, rather than replacement of, existing HF guidelines.
  • Weber, Michael A, et al. (författare)
  • A selective endothelin-receptor antagonist to reduce blood pressure in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension : a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 374:9699, s. 1423-1431
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundHypertension cannot always be adequately controlled with available drugs. We investigated the blood-pressure-lowering effects of the new vasodilatory, selective endothelin type A antagonist, darusentan, in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension.MethodsThis randomised, double-blind study was undertaken in 117 sites in North and South America, Europe, New Zealand, and Australia. 379 patients with systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or more (≥130 mm Hg if patient had diabetes or chronic kidney disease) who were receiving at least three blood-pressure-lowering drugs, including a diuretic, at full or maximum tolerated doses were randomly assigned to 14 weeks' treatment with placebo (n=132) or darusentan 50 mg (n=81), 100 mg (n=81), or 300 mg (n=85) taken once daily. Randomisation was made centrally via an automated telephone system, and patients and all investigators were masked to treatment assignments. The primary endpoints were changes in sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Analysis was by intention to treat. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00330369.FindingsAll randomly assigned participants were analysed. The mean reductions in clinic systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 9/5 mm Hg (SD 14/8) with placebo, 17/10 mm Hg (15/9) with darusentan 50 mg, 18/10 mm Hg (16/9) with darusentan 100 mg, and 18/11 mm Hg (18/10) with darusentan 300 mg (p<0·0001 for all effects). The main adverse effects were related to fluid accumulation. Oedema or fluid retention occurred in 67 (27%) patients given darusentan compared with 19 (14%) given placebo. One patient in the placebo group died (sudden cardiac death), and five patients in the three darusentan dose groups combined had cardiac-related serious adverse events.InterpretationDarusentan provides additional reduction in blood pressure in patients who have not attained their treatment goals with three or more antihypertensive drugs. As with other vasodilatory drugs, fluid management with effective diuretic therapy might be needed.
  • Bello, Natalie A, et al. (författare)
  • Increased risk of stroke with darbepoetin alfa in anaemic heart failure patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European journal of heart failure. - 1879-0844. ; 17:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The use of an erythropoesis-stimulating agent, darbepoetin alfa (DA), to treat anaemia in patients with diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease was associated with a heightened risk of stroke and neutral efficacy in the Trial to Reduce Cardiovascular Events with Aranesp Therapy (TREAT), despite epidemiological data suggesting the contrary. However, this association has not been evaluated in another randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
  • Dobre, Daniela, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical effects of initial 6 months monotherapy with bisoprolol versus enalapril in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate chronic heart failure. Data from the CIBIS III trial
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy. - : Springer. - 0920-3206. ; 22:5, s. 399-405
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose To assess the clinical effects and safety profile of initial monotherapy with either bisoprolol or enalapril in elderly patients with heart failure (HF). Methods In CIBIS III, 1010 patients with mild to moderate HF and age >= 65 years were randomized to monotherapy with either bisoprolol or enalapril for 6 months. Results Bisoprolol had a similar effect as enalapril on the combined end-point of all-cause mortality or hospitalization (HR 1.02; p=0.90), as well as on each of the individual end-points. A trend towards fewer sudden deaths was observed with bisoprolol (NS). On the other hand, more cases of worsening HF requiring hospitalization or occurring while in hospital were observed in the bisoprolol group (HR 1.67; p=0.03). The two groups were similar with regard to treatment cessations and early introduction of the second drug. Conclusions Bisoprolol and enalapril had a similar effect on the combined end-point of mortality or hospitalization during 6 months monotherapy. However, more worsening HF events were observed in the bisoprolol group.
  • Holman, Rury R., et al. (författare)
  • Effect of Nateglinide on the Incidence of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Events
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 362:16, s. 1463-1476
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND The ability of short-acting insulin secretagogues to reduce the risk of diabetes or cardiovascular events in people with impaired glucose tolerance is unknown. METHODS In a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, we assigned 9306 participants with impaired glucose tolerance and either cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors to receive nateglinide (up to 60 mg three times daily) or placebo, in a 2-by-2 factorial design with valsartan or placebo, in addition to participation in a lifestyle modification program. We followed the participants for a median of 5.0 years for incident diabetes (and a median of 6.5 years for vital status). We evaluated the effect of nateglinide on the occurrence of three coprimary outcomes: the development of diabetes; a core cardiovascular outcome that was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or hospitalization for heart failure; and an extended cardiovascular outcome that was a composite of the individual components of the core composite cardiovascular outcome, hospitalization for unstable angina, or arterial revascularization. RESULTS After adjustment for multiple testing, nateglinide, as compared with placebo, did not significantly reduce the cumulative incidence of diabetes (36% and 34%, respectively; hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 1.15; P = 0.05), the core composite cardiovascular outcome (7.9% and 8.3%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.94, 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.09; P = 0.43), or the extended composite cardiovascular outcome (14.2% and 15.2%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.93, 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.03; P = 0.16). Nateglinide did, however, increase the risk of hypoglycemia. CONCLUSIONS Among persons with impaired glucose tolerance and established cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors, assignment to nateglinide for 5 years did not reduce the incidence of diabetes or the coprimary composite cardiovascular outcomes. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00097786.)
  • Krum, Henry, et al. (författare)
  • Effect on Mode of Death of Heart Failure Treatment Started with Bisoprolol Followed by Enalapril, Compared to the Opposite Order: Results of the Randomized CIBIS III Trial
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Cardiovascular Therapeutics. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1755-5914. ; 29:2, s. 89-98
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • P>Background: Mode of death in chronic heart failure (CHF) may be of relevance to choice of therapy for this condition. Sudden death is particularly common in patients with early and/or mild/moderate CHF. beta-Blockade may provide better protection against sudden death than ACE inhibition (ACEI) in this setting. Methods: We randomized 1010 patients with mild or moderate, stable CHF and left ventricular ejection fraction < 35%, without ACEI, beta-blocker or angiotensin-receptor-blocker therapy, to either bisoprolol (n = 505) or enalapril (n = 505) for 6 months, followed by their combination for 6-24 months. The two strategies were blindly compared regarding adjudicated mode of death, including sudden death and progressive pump failure death. Results: During the monotherapy phase, 8 of 23 deaths in the bisoprolol-first group were sudden, compared to 16 of 32 in the enalapril-first group: hazard ratio (HR) for sudden death 0.50; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21-1.16; P = 0.107. At 1 year, 16 of 42 versus 29 of 60 deaths were sudden: HR 0.54; 95% CI 0.29-1.00; P = 0.049. At study end, 29 of 65 versus 34 of 73 deaths were sudden: HR 0.84; 95% CI 0.51-1.38; P = 0.487. Comparable figures for pump failure death were: monotherapy, 7 of 23 deaths versus 2 of 32: HR 3.43; 95% CI 0.71-16.53; P = 0.124, at 1 year, 13 of 42 versus 5 of 60: HR 2.57; 95% CI 0.92-7.20; P = 0.073, at study end, 17 of 65 versus 7 of 73: HR 2.39; 95% CI 0.99-5.75; P = 0.053. There were no significant between-group differences in any other fatal events. Conclusion: Initiating therapy with bisoprolol compared to enalapril decreased the risk of sudden death during the first year in this mild systolic CHF cohort. This was somewhat offset by an increase in pump failure deaths in the bisoprolol-first cohort.
  • McMurray, John J, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of valsartan on the incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular events
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 362:16, s. 1477-1490
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: It is not known whether drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system reduce the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular events in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized clinical trial with a 2-by-2 factorial design, we assigned 9306 patients with impaired glucose tolerance and established cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors to receive valsartan (up to 160 mg daily) or placebo (and nateglinide or placebo) in addition to lifestyle modification. We then followed the patients for a median of 5.0 years for the development of diabetes (6.5 years for vital status). We studied the effects of valsartan on the occurrence of three coprimary outcomes: the development of diabetes; an extended composite outcome of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, hospitalization for heart failure, arterial revascularization, or hospitalization for unstable angina; and a core composite outcome that excluded unstable angina and revascularization. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of diabetes was 33.1% in the valsartan group, as compared with 36.8% in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the valsartan group, 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 0.92; P<0.001). Valsartan, as compared with placebo, did not significantly reduce the incidence of either the extended cardiovascular outcome (14.5% vs. 14.8%; hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.07; P=0.43) or the core cardiovascular outcome (8.1% vs. 8.1%; hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.14; P=0.85). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with impaired glucose tolerance and cardiovascular disease or risk factors, the use of valsartan for 5 years, along with lifestyle modification, led to a relative reduction of 14% in the incidence of diabetes but did not reduce the rate of cardiovascular events. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00097786.)
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