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Sökning: WFRF:(Kuhry Peter)

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  • Abbott, Benjamin W., et al. (författare)
  • Biomass offsets little or none of permafrost carbon release from soils, streams, and wildfire : an expert assessment
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters. - : IOP Publishing: Open Access Journals / IOP Publishing. - 1748-9326 .- 1748-9326. ; 11:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • As the permafrost region warms, its large organic carbon pool will be increasingly vulnerable to decomposition, combustion, and hydrologic export. Models predict that some portion of this release will be offset by increased production of Arctic and boreal biomass; however, the lack of robust estimates of net carbon balance increases the risk of further overshooting international emissions targets. Precise empirical or model-based assessments of the critical factors driving carbon balance are unlikely in the near future, so to address this gap, we present estimates from 98 permafrost-region experts of the response of biomass, wildfire, and hydrologic carbon flux to climate change. Results suggest that contrary to model projections, total permafrost-region biomass could decrease due to water stress and disturbance, factors that are not adequately incorporated in current models. Assessments indicate that end-of-the-century organic carbon release from Arctic rivers and collapsing coastlines could increase by 75% while carbon loss via burning could increase four-fold. Experts identified water balance, shifts in vegetation community, and permafrost degradation as the key sources of uncertainty in predicting future system response. In combination with previous findings, results suggest the permafrost region will become a carbon source to the atmosphere by 2100 regardless of warming scenario but that 65%-85% of permafrost carbon release can still be avoided if human emissions are actively reduced.
  • Alfredsson, Hanna, et al. (författare)
  • Amorphous silica pools in permafrost soils of the Central Canadian Arctic and the potential impact of climate change
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Biogeochemistry. - : Springer. - 1573-515X .- 0168-2563. ; 124:1-3, s. 441-459
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigated the distribution, storage and landscape partitioning of soil amorphous silica (ASi) in a central Canadian region dominated by tundra and peatlands to provide a first estimate of the amount of ASi stored in Arctic permafrost ecosystems. We hypothesize that, similar to soil organic matter, Arctic soils store large amounts of ASi which may be affected by projected climate changes and associated changes in permafrost regimes. Average soil ASi storage (top 1 m) ranged between 9600 and 83,500 kg SiO2 ha(-1) among different land-cover types. Lichen tundra contained the lowest amounts of ASi while no significant differences were found in ASi storage among other land-cover types. Clear differences were observed between ASi storage allocated into the top organic versus the mineral horizon of soils. Bog peatlands, fen peatlands and wet shrub tundra stored between 7090 and 45,400 kg SiO2 ha(-1) in the top organic horizon, while the corresponding storage in lichen tundra, moist shrub- and dry shrub tundra only amounted to 1500-1760 kg SiO2 ha(-1). Diatoms and phytoliths are important components of ASi storage in the top organic horizon of peatlands and shrub tundra systems, while it appears to be a negligible component of ASi storage in the mineral horizon of shrub tundra classes. ASi concentrations decrease with depth in the soil profile for fen peatlands and all shrub tundra classes, suggesting recycling of ASi, whereas bog peatlands appeared to act as sinks retaining stored ASi on millennial time scales. Our results provide a conceptual framework to assess the potential effects of climate change impacts on terrestrial Si cycling in the Arctic. We believe that ASi stored in peatlands are particularly sensitive to climate change, because a larger fraction of the ASi pool is stored in perennially frozen ground compared to shrub tundra systems. A likely outcome of climate warming and permafrost thaw could be mobilization of previously frozen ASi, altered soil storage of biogenically derived ASi and an increased Si flux to the Arctic Ocean.
  • Alfredsson, H., et al. (författare)
  • Estimated storage of amorphous silica in soils of the circum-Arctic tundra region
  • Ingår i: Global Biogeochemical Cycles. - : American Geophysical Union (AGU). - 0886-6236 .- 1944-9224. ; 30:3, s. 479-500
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigated the vertical distribution, storage, landscape partitioning, and spatial variability of soil amorphous silica (ASi) at four different sites underlain by continuous permafrost and representative of mountainous and lowland tundra, in the circum-Arctic region. Based on a larger set of data, we present the first estimate of the ASi soil reservoir (0-1 m depth) in circum-Arctic tundra terrain. At all sites, the vertical distribution of ASi concentrations followed the pattern of either (1) declining concentrations with depth (most common) or (2) increasing/maximum concentrations with depth. Our results suggest that a set of processes, including biological control, solifluction and other slope processes, cryoturbation, and formation of inorganic precipitates influence vertical distributions of ASi in permafrost terrain, with the capacity to retain stored ASi on millennial timescales. At the four study sites, areal ASi storage (0-1 m) is generally higher in graminoid tundra compared to wetlands. Our circum-Arctic upscaling estimates, based on both vegetation and soil classification separately, suggest a storage amounting to 219 ± 28 and 274 ± 33 Tmol Si, respectively, of which at least 30% is stored in permafrost. This estimate would account for about 3% of the global soil ASi storage while occupying an equal portion of the global land area. This result does not support the hypothesis that the circum-Arctic tundra soil ASi reservoir contains relatively higher amounts of ASi than other biomes globally as demonstrated for carbon. Nevertheless, climate warming has the potential to significantly alter ASi storage and terrestrial Si cycling in the Arctic.
  • Gentsch, N., et al. (författare)
  • Storage and transformation of organic matter fractions in cryoturbated permafrost soils across the Siberian Arctic
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Biogeosciences. - 1726-4170 .- 1726-4189. ; 12:14, s. 4525-4542
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In permafrost soils, the temperature regime and the resulting cryogenic processes are important determinants of the storage of organic carbon (OC) and its small-scale spatial variability. For cryoturbated soils, there is a lack of research assessing pedon-scale heterogeneity in OC stocks and the transformation of functionally different organic matter (OM) fractions, such as particulate and mineral-associated OM. Therefore, pedons of 28 Turbels were sampled in 5m wide soil trenches across the Siberian Arctic to calculate OC and total nitrogen (TN) stocks based on digital profile mapping. Density fractionation of soil samples was performed to distinguish between particulate OM (light fraction, LF, < 1.6 g cm(-3)), mineral associated OM (heavy fraction, HF, > 1.6 g cm(-3)), and a mobilizable dissolved pool (mobilizable fraction, MoF). Across all investigated soil profiles, the total OC storage was 20.2 +/- 8.0 kgm(-2) (mean +/- SD) to 100 cm soil depth. Fifty-four percent of this OC was located in the horizons of the active layer (annual summer thawing layer), showing evidence of cryoturbation, and another 35% was present in the upper permafrost. The HF-OC dominated the overall OC stocks (55 %), followed by LF-OC (19% in mineral and 13% in organic horizons). During fractionation, approximately 13% of the OC was released as MoF, which likely represents a readily bioavailable OM pool. Cryogenic activity in combination with cold and wet conditions was the principle mechanism through which large OC stocks were sequestered in the subsoil (16.4 +/- 8.1 kgm(-2); all mineral B, C, and permafrost horizons). Approximately 22% of the subsoil OC stock can be attributed to LF material subducted by cryoturbation, whereas migration of soluble OM along freezing gradients appeared to be the principle source of the dominant HF (63 %) in the subsoil. Despite the unfavourable abiotic conditions, low C/N ratios and high delta C-13 values indicated substantial microbial OM transformation in the subsoil, but this was not reflected in altered LF and HF pool sizes. Partial least-squares regression analyses suggest that OC accumulates in the HF fraction due to co-precipitation with multivalent cations (Al, Fe) and association with poorly crystalline iron oxides and clay minerals. Our data show that, across all permafrost pedons, the mineral-associated OM represents the dominant OM fraction, suggesting that the HF-OC is the OM pool in permafrost soils on which changing soil conditions will have the largest impact.
  • Keuper, F., et al. (författare)
  • Carbon loss from northern circumpolar permafrost soils amplified by rhizosphere priming
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Geoscience. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1752-0894 .- 1752-0908.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • As global temperatures continue to rise, a key uncertainty of climate projections is the microbial decomposition of vast organic carbon stocks in thawing permafrost soils. Decomposition rates can accelerate up to fourfold in the presence of plant roots, and this mechanism-termed the rhizosphere priming effect-may be especially relevant to thawing permafrost soils as rising temperatures also stimulate plant productivity in the Arctic. However, priming is currently not explicitly included in any model projections of future carbon losses from the permafrost area. Here, we combine high-resolution spatial and depth-resolved datasets of key plant and permafrost properties with empirical relationships of priming effects from living plants on microbial respiration. We show that rhizosphere priming amplifies overall soil respiration in permafrost-affected ecosystems by similar to 12%, which translates to a priming-induced absolute loss of similar to 40 Pg soil carbon from the northern permafrost area by 2100. Our findings highlight the need to include fine-scale ecological interactions in order to accurately predict large-scale greenhouse gas emissions, and suggest even tighter restrictions on the estimated 200 Pg anthropogenic carbon emission budget to keep global warming below 1.5 degrees C.
  • Routh, Joyanto, et al. (författare)
  • Organic carbon characteristics in Swedish forest soil trace post-depositional carbon dynamics
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Soil Science. - : WILEY-BLACKWELL. - 1351-0754 .- 1365-2389. ; 67:4, s. 492-503
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigated soil organic carbon (SOC) characteristics in three forests along a north-south transect in Sweden where these forest types cover about 69% of the landscape. There was variation in C-14 ages, and the median ages ranged from about 25 to amp;gt; 2500 cal BP in SOC. Although total SOC and nitrogen (N) contents decreased, stable carbon isotope and humification indices increased with depth. These progressive changes with depth and age were related to degradation. The delta C-13 values and specific biomarkers indicated that organic carbon was primarily from C-3 plants. Biomarkers were effective in distinguishing OC input from specific sources (i.e. angiosperms, gymnosperms and grasses). A sharp decrease in biomarkers with depth indicated degradation of OC in the upper soil horizon, and limited contribution in the subsoil towards the stabilization of SOC. The sharp decrease in carbon stocks and C-14 age in the soil OC pool with increasing soil depth, and quite large values for the percentage of modern carbon, suggested a decrease in SOC pools. Overall, these results showed that carbon sequestration in high latitude forests was small, and their role as potential carbon sinks needs to be reassessed.
  • Sannel, A. Britta K., 1968- (författare)
  • Holocene dynamics in subarctic peat plateaus of west-central Canada : Vegetation succession, peat accumulation and permafrost history
  • 2007
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Dynamics in vegetation, permafrost and peat and net carbon accumulation rates throughout the Holocene have been studied in two subarctic peat plateaus of west-central Canada through plant macrofossil analysis, geochemical analyses and AMS radiocarbon dating. Peatland formation at the studied sites began around 6600-5900 cal yr BP as a result of paludification of upland forests. Permafrost aggradation probably occurred 5600-4500 cal yr BP when Sphagnum fuscum became established and rootlet layers started to appear. Alternating layers of Sphagnum fuscum and rootlet peat throughout most of the peat profiles are indicating relatively dry surface conditions, suggesting that permafrost conditions have remained stable since the peat plateau stages were initiated. Local fires have occurred in the peatlands, but most fires did not cause degradation of the permafrost. However, lower peat and net carbon accumulation rates are recorded from rootlet layers containing charcoal. The long-term peat and net carbon accumulation rates for both studied peat profiles are 0,30-0,31 mm/yr and 12,5-12,7 gC/m2yr. Accumulation rates are variable depending on peat plateau stage. Peat accumulation rates are in general 4-5 times higher in S. fuscum than in rootlet stages, and net carbon accumulation rates are 3-4 times higher. Therefore even though Sphagnum peat makes up a majority of the peat profile depth, rootlet peat stages can represent most of the time since the peatland was initiated. The gross stratigraphy and plant macrofossil analyses show that there have been no wet phases, indicating permafrost collapse, since the peat plateau stages were initiated. This suggests that subarctic peat plateaus with alternating Sphagnum fuscum and rootlet peat layers have been acting as long-term net carbon sinks, accumulating carbon which has been incorporated into the permafrost, throughout most of the Holocene. High and stable carbon/nitrogen ratios throughout most of the profiles suggest that decomposition has not occurred in the perennially frozen peat. Since the peat plateaus are characterized by no decay in the permafrost and dry surface conditions, methane emissions are negligible from these ecosystems. In a future warmer climate carbon that has been stored under permafrost conditions can be remobilized. The warming may cause drier surface conditions resulting in increased emissions of carbon dioxide or, alternatively, permafrost collapse resulting in wetter surface conditions and increased methane emissions.
  • Sannel, A. Britta K., et al. (författare)
  • Permafrost Warming in a Subarctic Peatland - Which Meteorological Controls are Most Important?
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Permafrost and Periglacial Processes. - 1045-6740 .- 1099-1530. ; 27:2, s. 177-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Because climate change can affect the carbon balance and hydrology in permafrost peatlands, a better understanding of their sensitivity to changes in temperature and precipitation is needed. In Tavvavuoma, northernmost Sweden, meteorological parameters and ground thermal properties have been monitored in a peat plateau from 2006 to 2013. During this time period, the air temperature record shows no warming trend, and the late-season thaw depth has been relatively stable at around 55-60cm. Meanwhile, the mean annual ground temperature at 1m depth has increased by 0.06 degrees C/yr and at 2-5m depth the permafrost is currently warmer than -0.3 degrees C. Statistical analyses suggest that interannual changes in thaw depth and ground temperatures are affected by different meteorological factors. Summer air temperatures and annual thawing degree-days control thaw depth (p0.05), whereas winter precipitation/snow depth affects ground temperatures (p0.1). The permafrost in this peat plateau is likely relict and not in equilibrium with current climatic conditions. Since the early 20(th) century, there has been a regional increase in air temperature and snow depth. If the ongoing permafrost warming in Tavvavuoma is a result of these long-term trends, short-term variability in meteorological parameters can still have an impact on the rate of permafrost degradation, but unless pronounced climate cooling occurs, thawing of the peat plateau is inevitable.
  • Sannel, A. Britta K., 1968- (författare)
  • Temporal and spatial dynamics in subarctic peat plateaus and thermokarst lakes
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Permafrost peatlands are widespread at high northern latitudes and are important soil organic carbon reservoirs. A future warming in these areas, as suggested by global climate models, can cause thawing and increased ground subsidence (thermokarst), resulting in changes in surface hydrology and ecosystem functioning. The aim of this thesis is to increase our knowledge of temporal and spatial dynamics in subarctic peat plateaus with interspersed thermokarst lakes in order to better understand how these ecosystems respond to climate change. Detailed plant macrofossil and carbon/nitrogen ratio analyses of two peat plateaus located in the continuous and northern discontinuous permafrost zones in west-central Canada show that permafrost conditions have been stable since permafrost developed around 5600–4500 cal yr BP. Peat plateaus act as carbon sinks over time. The lack of wet phases since the plateaus formed, despite several local fires, suggests that this type of peatlands have been negligible as methane sources throughout most of their history, representing a negative net radiative forcing on climate. Thermokarst lakes are common features in peat plateaus across the northern permafrost region. A time-series analysis of aerial photographs and high resolution satellite images in three peat plateau/thermokarst lake complexes along a climatic and permafrost gradient shows that where the mean annual air temperature (MAAT) is below -5ºC and ground temperatures are -2ºC or colder, only minor changes in thermokarst lake extent have occurred from the mid 1970s until the mid 2000s. During the same time interval extensive lake drainage and new lake formation has taken place where the MAAT is ca -3ºC and the ground temperature is close to 0ºC. In a future progressively warmer and wetter climate, permafrost degradation can cause significant impacts on landscape pattern and greenhouse gas exchange also in the vast peat plateaus presently experiencing stable permafrost conditions.
  • Schuur, E. A. G., et al. (författare)
  • Expert assessment of vulnerability of permafrost carbon to climate change
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Climatic Change. - : Springer. - 0165-0009 .- 1573-1480. ; 119:2, s. 359-374
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Approximately 1700 Pg of soil carbon (C) are stored in the northern circumpolar permafrost zone, more than twice as much C than in the atmosphere. The overall amount, rate, and form of C released to the atmosphere in a warmer world will influence the strength of the permafrost C feedback to climate change. We used a survey to quantify variability in the perception of the vulnerability of permafrost C to climate change. Experts were asked to provide quantitative estimates of permafrost change in response to four scenarios of warming. For the highest warming scenario (RCP 8.5), experts hypothesized that C release from permafrost zone soils could be 19-45 Pg C by 2040, 162-288 Pg C by 2100, and 381-616 Pg C by 2300 in CO2 equivalent using 100-year CH4 global warming potential (GWP). These values become 50 % larger using 20-year CH4 GWP, with a third to a half of expected climate forcing coming from CH4 even though CH4 was only 2.3 % of the expected C release. Experts projected that two-thirds of this release could be avoided under the lowest warming scenario (RCP 2.6). These results highlight the potential risk from permafrost thaw and serve to frame a hypothesis about the magnitude of this feedback to climate change. However, the level of emissions proposed here are unlikely to overshadow the impact of fossil fuel burning, which will continue to be the main source of C emissions and climate forcing.
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