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1.
  • Afanasieva, Ralemma, et al. (författare)
  • Comparative evaluation of the methods for determining thermal insulation of clothing ensemble on a manikin and person
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Ergonomics of Protective Clothing: NOKOBETEF 6 and 1st European Conference on Protective Clothing,Norra Latin, Stockholm, Sweden,2000-05-07 - 2000-05-10. - : National Institute for Working Life. ; :2000:8, s. 188-191
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Experimental studies helped to compare methods for determining and calculating total heat resistance of clothing sets accepted by Russian and international standards. Findings are that difference in the total heat resistance values calculated on humans and on dummies in relatively still air and quiet conditions is caused by measurement technique applied. Significant difference in the total heat resistance values calculated in windy conditions or during walk require further research aimed to study influence of those factors on clothes' heat resistance.
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5.
  • Gavhed, Désirée, et al. (författare)
  • The influence of the number of thermal layers on the clothing insulation of a cold-protective ensemble
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Ergonomics of Protective Clothing: NOKOBETEF 6 and 1st European Conference on Protective Clothing,Norra Latin, Stockholm, Sweden,2000-05-07 - 2000-05-10. - : National Institute for Working Life. ; :2000:8, s. 167-170
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The required thermal insulation in cold conditions and time limits for cold exposure can be predicted by the thermal index IREQ/DLE (Insulation REQuired), described in ISO/TR-11079. The thermal insulation of a clothing ensemble can be measured with a thermal manikin or estimated according to ISO 9920. The basic thermal insulation of single garments (Iclu) can be summated to estimate the basic insulation (Icl) of a whole clothing ensemble. Air that is trapped in the garments may escape when layers are added to a single layer. Then, the insulation would be reduced. Addition of thermal layers to an ensemble is therefore not likely to have a simple additive effect on the thermal insulation of a multi-layer ensemble. The purpose of the study was to investigate the resulting thermal insulation of clothing ensembles with different numbers of thermal underwear and the relative contribution of the underwear to the insulation of a cold-protection clothing ensemble. The basic insulation, Icl, of different combinations of knitted sweaters and pants manufactured from various qualities of "Ullfrotte" (wool and synthetic fibres mixed), a heavy insulated coverall (HIC) and a less insulated coverall were measured on a standing thermal manikin at low air velocity. Seven pieces of clothing, sweaters, pants and coveralls were combined in different numbers of layers (1-6 layers). The garments were measured together with double pairs of thick socks, gloves and a hood. The resulting Icl of layers of knitted underwear was not purely the sum of Icl of the layers measured and worn as single layers. For example, the sum of Icl for U2 sweater/U2 pants and U4 sweater /U4 pants was 0.29 clo (0.045 m2°C /W) higher than Icl of the combination of U2+U4 sweaters/U2+U4 pants, which corresponded to 22 % of the insulation of the single layers added together. A third layer worn under CHI on the upper body barely contributed to Icl, only by 0.05 clo compared with two layers. A corresponding relevant table value would be about 0.30 clo (0.046 m2°C /W). In conclusion, the basic insulation of knitted wear combined in layers were 22-31 % lower than Icl of the sum of the garments in single layer. The insulation values of multi-layered clothing ensembles would be overestimated by summation of the Iclu of garments according to ISO 9920. The overestimation leads to wrong recommendations of cold-protective clothing or working time limits, at least during standing, but probably also during physical activity.
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6.
  • Gavhed, Désirée, et al. (författare)
  • Thermal insulation of multi-layer clothing ensembles measured on a thermal manikin and estimated by six individuals using the summation method in ISO 9920
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Ergonomics of Protective Clothing: NOKOBETEF 6 and 1st European Conference on Protective Clothing,Norra Latin, Stockholm, Sweden,2000-05-07 - 2000-05-10. - : National Institute for Working Life. ; :2000:8, s. 171-174
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The thermal insulation of a clothing ensemble can be measured with a thermal manikin or estimated according to ISO 9920. In ISO 9920 there are insulation tables for a number of clothing ensembles with specified garments and other tables for a variety of single garments. The insulation of single garments can be summated to estimate the insulation for a clothing ensemble. However, when a clothing ensemble consists of multiple layers, the summation of the insulation of single garments may overestimate the ensemble insulation since the air volume between the layers and between the fibres is probably reduced. The purpose of this study was to investigate the error of the estimate of the insulation of cold-protective clothing ensembles comprising two or more clothing layers and the inter-rater reliability of the estimate. Two coveralls, sweaters, thermal pants, t-shirt, socks, gloves, hood and helmet were combined into seven clothing ensembles. The thermal insulation of the ensembles was measured on a standing thermal manikin. The insulation of all combinations were estimated by six individuals ("raters") instructed to use tables in ISO 9920. Five out of six raters underestimated the basic insulation (Icl) of most clothing ensembles. The maximal deviation of the estimated basic thermal insulation (IclEST) from the measured basic thermal insulation (IclMEAS) was 67 % (underestimation). IclMEAS of four ensembles was underestimated by on average 15 %, one ensemble was overestimated by on average 10 % and the average IclEST of two ensembles were similar to IclMEAS. One rater systematically overestimated IclMEAS. Contrary to the other raters, this individual used the fabric of the garment as a determinant for the insulation estimate. The insulation of the ensemble with only one layer on the upper and lower body beneath a heavy insulated coverall seemed to be most difficult to estimate correctly. The smaller garments (helmet, gloves, socks and hood) gave the highest variability among the raters, coefficient of variation 23-73 %. The raters commented that the tables were badly organised and that many types of garments were lacking in the tables, e g heavy insulated coverall and boots. In conclusion, the estimations of insulation were more accurate for the ensembles with lower insulation and with only one layer beneath the outer shell than for ensembles with higher insulation and multiple layers. The tables were considered to be difficult to use by the raters. Experience tended to improve the estimates of thermal insulation.
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9.
  • Kuklane, Kalev, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of the number, thickness and washing of socks on the thermal insulation of feet
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Ergonomics of Protective Clothing: NOKOBETEF 6 and 1st European Conference on Protective Clothing,Norra Latin, Stockholm, Sweden,2000-05-07 - 2000-05-10. - : National Institute for Working Life. ; :2000:8, s. 175-178
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An effective way to increase the insulation on feet is to add socks. However, the effect of adding new layers on feet has not been studied enough. There is limited data on insulation of socks and their combination with footwear. In this study 4 types of socks with different fabric thickness and 3 types of footwear were tested on a thermal foot model to study the effect of the number, thickness and washing on the thermal insulation of feet. There is a clear difference between socks with various material thickness/weight. However, when by combining different socks the same material weight is reached then the effect of layers becomes obvious. Adding a layer of thin sock to each sock type increases more noticeably the insulation of thinner socks and the difference between the insulation provided by different sock types decreases. Similar effect of layers can also observed in the case of footwear.
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10.
  • Kuklane, Kalev, et al. (författare)
  • Footwear for cold work: a field study about work on high masts
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Ergonomics of Protective Clothing: NOKOBETEF 6 and 1st European Conference on Protective Clothing,Norra Latin, Stockholm, Sweden,2000-05-07 - 2000-05-10. - : National Institute for Working Life. ; :2000:8, s. 75-78
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A series of field studies at cold workplaces were initiated. This paper deals with the study at a telecommunication company and the main attention is paid to the thermal responses of the feet and footwear performance. The study was carried out in February. Eight male workers were the subjects. They were selected among volunteers who carried out various jobs on high masts on four different days. The work was done in pairs on four different masts in Sweden. The insulation of the boots was between 0.33 and 0.35 m2°C/W. Various woollen socks were worn, but also cotton, fibre-pile and synthetic socks, usually together with a woollen sock. Temperature sensors were taped to the second toe and dorsal foot. The workers were observed during the whole workday. The lowest average foot skin temperature was 26.7 °C. The lowest measured foot skin temperature was 20.7 °C. The mean difference between the toe and foot skin temperatures was 7 °C. All the subjects had the toe temperatures under 18 °C at least once. The lowest mean toe skin temperature was 17.1-2.2 °C and the lowest measured toe temperature was 9.8 °C. The sweat accumulation in the footwear was at average 37 g (6-94 g) per day (7.5-3.7 g/h). Around 4 g of that stayed in the socks at the end of the day. The footwear was generally considered comfortable. Problems with the footwear were reported to be stiff in the cold, cold feet, sweaty or wet feet. One person slipped during the day, but did not fall. The footwear in combination with the chosen socks worked well in the particular weather conditions (-2 to -8 °C). However, more attention should be paid to the cold protection of toes. During low foot activity the toe temperatures dropped relatively quickly at air temperatures of about -10 °C and/or high wind speeds (about 10 m/s).
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