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Sökning: WFRF:(Kumar Arun)

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  • Nayak, Arun Kumar, et al. (författare)
  • A numerical and experimental study of water ingression phenomena in melt pool coolability
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Engineering and Design. - 0029-5493 .- 1872-759X. ; 239:7, s. 1285-1293
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During a postulated severe accident, the core can melt and the melt can fail the reactor vessel. Subsequently, the molten corium can be relocated in the containment cavity forming a melt pool. The melt pool can be flooded with water at the top for quenching it. However, the question that arises is to what extent the water can ingress in the corium melt pool to cool and quench it. To reveal that, a numerical study has been carried out using the computer code MELCOOL The code considers the heat transfer behaviour in axial and radial directions from the molten pool to the overlaying water, crust generation and growth, thermal stresses built-in the crust, disintegration of crust into debris, natural convection heat transfer in debris and water ingression into the debris bed. To validate the computer code, experiments were conducted in a facility named as core melt coolability (COMECO). The facility consists of a test section (200 mm x 200 mm square cross-section) and with a height of 300 mm. About 14 L of melt comprising of 30% CaO + 70% B2O3 (by wt.) was poured into the test section. The melt was heated by four heaters from outside the test section to simulate the decay heat of corium. The melt was water flooded from the top, and the depth of water pool was kept constant at around 700 mm throughout the experiment. The transient temperature behaviour in the melt pool at different axial and radial locations was measured with 24 K-type thermocouples and the steam flow rate was measured using a vortex flow meter. The melt temperature measurements indicated that water could ingress only up to a certain depth into the melt pool. The MELCOOL predictions were compared with the test data for the temperature distribution inside the molten pool. The code was found to simulate the quenching behaviour and depth of water ingression quite well.
  • Qayoom, Irfan, et al. (författare)
  • A biphasic nanohydroxyapatite/calcium sulphate carrier containing Rifampicin and Isoniazid for local delivery gives sustained and effective antibiotic release and prevents biofilm formation
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Long term multiple systemic antibiotics form the cornerstone in the treatment of bone and joint tuberculosis, often combined with local surgical eradication. Implanted carriers for local drug delivery have recently been introduced to overcome some of the limitations associated with conventional treatment strategies. In this study, we used a calcium sulphate hemihydrate (CSH)/nanohydroxyapatite (nHAP) based nanocement (NC) biomaterial as a void filler as well as a local delivery carrier of two standard of care tuberculosis drugs, Rifampicin (RFP) and Isoniazid (INH). We observed that the antibiotics showed different release patterns where INH showed a burst release of 67% and 100% release alone and in combination within one week, respectively whereas RFP showed sustained release of 42% and 49% release alone and in combination over a period of 12 weeks, respectively indicating different possible interactions of antibiotics with nHAP. The interactions were studied using computational methodology, which showed that the binding energy of nHAP with RFP was 148 kcal/mol and INH was 11 kcal/mol, thus varying substantially resulting in RFP being retained in the nHAP matrix. Our findings suggest that a biphasic ceramic based drug delivery system could be a promising treatment alternative to bone and joint TB.
  • Raina, Deepak Bushan, et al. (författare)
  • Biocomposite macroporous cryogels as potential carrier scaffolds for bone active agents augmenting bone regeneration
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Controlled Release. - : Elsevier. - 0168-3659. ; 235, s. 365-378
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Osteoinduction can be enhanced by combining scaffolds with bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2). However, BMP's are known to also cause bone resorption. This can be controlled using bisphosphonates like zoledronic acid (ZA). In this study, we produced two different scaffolds containing silk-fibroin, chitosan, agarose and hydroxyapatite (HA) with and without bioactive glass. The aims of the study were to fabricate, physico-chemically characterize and evaluate the carrier properties of the scaffolds for recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) and ZA. Scaffolds were characterized using various methods to confirm their composition. During cell-material interactions, both scaffolds exhibited gradual but sustained proliferation of both C2C12 and MSCs for a period of 6 weeks with augmentative effects on their phenotype indicated by elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) cuing towards osteogenic differentiation. In-vitro effects of rhBMP-2 and ZA contained within both the scaffolds was assessed on MC3T3 preosteoblast cells and the results show a significant increase in the ALP activity of the cells seeded on scaffolds with rhBMP-2. Further, the scaffold with both HA and bioactive glass was considered for the animal study. In-vitro, this scaffold released nearly 25% rhBMP-2 in 21-days and the addition of ZA did not affect the release. In the animal study, the scaffolds were combined with rhBMP-2 and ZA, rhBMP-2 or implanted alone in an ectopic muscle pouch model. Significantly higher bone formation was observed in the scaffold loaded with both rhBMP-2 and ZA as seen from micro-computed tomography, histomorphometry and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.
  • Raina, Deepak Bushan, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term response to a bioactive biphasic biomaterial in the femoral neck of osteoporotic rats
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Tissue Engineering - Part A. - : Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.. - 1937-3341. ; 26:19-20, s. 1042-1051
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Osteoporosis often leads to fragility fractures of the hip, resulting in impaired quality of life and increased mortality. Augmenting the proximal femur could be an attractive option for prevention of fracture or fixation device failure. We describe a tissue engineering based strategy to enhance long-term bone formation in the femoral neck of osteoporotic rats by locally delivering bioactive molecules; recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), and zoledronic acid (ZA) by using a calcium sulfate/ hydroxyapatite (CaS/HA) biomaterial. A defect was created by reaming the femoral neck canal of osteoporotic (OVX) rats and they were treated as follows: G1. Empty, G2. CaS/HA, G3. CaS/HA+Systemic ZA, G4. CaS/HA+Local ZA, and G5. CaS/HA+Local ZA+rhBMP-2. Bone formation was evaluated 6 months after treatment. Further, radioactively labeled 14C-ZA was used to study the bioavailability of ZA at the defect location, which was determined by using scintillation counting. Micro-CT indicated significantly higher bone volume in groups G4 and G5 compared with the other treatment groups. This was confirmed qualitatively by histological assessment. Addition of rhBMP-2 gave no additional benefit in this model. Local delivery of ZA performed better than systemic administration of ZA. Mechanical testing showed no differences between the groups, likely reflecting that the addition of bioactive molecules had limited effect on cortical bone or the choice of mechanical testing setup was not optimal. Scintillation counting revealed higher amounts of 14C-ZA present in the treated leg of G4 compared with its contralateral control and compared with G3, indicating that local ZA delivery can be used to achieve high local concentrations without causing a systemic effect. This long-term study shows that local delivery of ZA using a CaS/HA carrier can regenerate cancellous bone in the femoral neck canal and has clear implications for enhancing implant integration and fixation in fragile bone.
  • Teotia, Arun Kumar, et al. (författare)
  • Gelatin-Modified Bone Substitute with Bioactive Molecules Enhance Cellular Interactions and Bone Regeneration
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces. - : The American Chemical Society (ACS). - 1944-8244. ; 8:17, s. 10775-10787
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this work, we have synthesized injectable bone cement incorporated with gelatin to enhance cellular interaction. Human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells derived bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP's) and a bisphosphonate (zoledronic acid (0.2 mM)) were also incorporated to cement. In vitro studies conducted using Saos-2 demonstrated enhanced cell proliferation on gelatin (0.2%w/v) cement. The differentiation of C2C12 mouse myoblast cells into bone forming cells showed 6-fold increase in ALP levels on gelatin cement. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bone biomarkers showed osteoinductive potential of gelatin cement. We investigated efficacy for local delivery of these bioactive molecules in enhancing bone substitution qualities of bone cements by implanting in 3.5 mm critical size defect in tibial metaphysis of wistar rats. The rats were sacrificed after 12 weeks and 16 weeks post implantation. X-ray, micro-CT, histology, and histomorphometry analysis were performed to check bone healing. The cement materials slowly resorbed from the defect site leaving HAP creating porous matrix providing surface for bone formation. The materials showed high biocompatibility and initial bridging was observed in all the animals but maximum bone formation was observed in animals implanted with cement incorporated with zoledronic acid followed by cement with BMP's compared to other groups.
  • Teotia, Arun Kumar, et al. (författare)
  • Nano-Hydroxyapatite Bone Substitute Functionalized with Bone Active Molecules for Enhanced Cranial Bone Regeneration
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces. - : The American Chemical Society (ACS). - 1944-8244. ; 9:8, s. 6816-6828
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to synthesize and characterize a nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAP) and calcium sulfate bone substitute (NC) for cranioplasty. The NC was functionalized with low concentrations of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and zoledronic acid (ZA) and characterized both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies included MTT, ALP assays, and fluorescent staining of Saos-2 (human osteoblasts) and MC3T3-E1 (murine preosteoblasts) cells cultured on NC. An in vivo study divided 20 male Wistar rats into four groups: control (defect only), NC, NC + ZA, and NC + ZA + rhBMP-2. The materials were implanted in an 8.5 mm critical size defect in the calvarium for 12 weeks. Micro-CT quantitative analysis was carried out in vivo at 8 weeks and ex vivo after 12 weeks. Mineralization was highest in the NC + ZA + rhBMP-2 group (13.0 ± 2.8 mm3) compared to the NC + ZA group (9.0 ± 3.2 mm3), NC group (6.4 ± 1.9 mm3), and control group (3.4 ± 1.0 mm3) after 12 weeks. Histological and spectroscopic analysis of the defect site provided a qualitative confirmation of neo-bone, which was in agreement with the micro-CT results. In conclusion, NC can be used as a carrier for bioactive molecules, and functionalization with rhBMP-2 and ZA in low doses enhances bone regeneration.
  • Wu, Eugene B, et al. (författare)
  • Global Chronic Total Occlusion Crossing Algorithm: JACC State-of-the-Art Review.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - : Elsevier USA. - 1558-3597 .- 0735-1097. ; 78:8, s. 840-853
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The authors developed a global chronic total occlusion crossing algorithm following 10 steps: 1) dual angiography; 2) careful angiographic review focusing on proximal cap morphology, occlusion segment, distal vessel quality, and collateral circulation; 3) approaching proximal cap ambiguity using intravascular ultrasound, retrograde, and move-the-cap techniques; 4) approaching poor distal vessel quality using the retrograde approach and bifurcation at the distal cap by use of a dual-lumen catheter and intravascular ultrasound; 5) feasibility of retrograde crossing through grafts and septal and epicardial collateral vessels; 6) antegrade wiring strategies; 7) retrograde approach; 8) changing strategy when failing to achieve progress; 9) considering performing an investment procedure if crossing attempts fail; and 10) stopping when reaching high radiation or contrast dose or in case of long procedural time, occurrence of a serious complication, operator and patient fatigue, or lack of expertise or equipment. This algorithm can improve outcomes and expand discussion, research, and collaboration.
  • Zamora, Juan Carlos, et al. (författare)
  • Considerations and consequences of allowing DNA sequence data as types of fungal taxa
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: IMA Fungus. - : INT MYCOLOGICAL ASSOC. - 2210-6340 .- 2210-6359. ; 9:1, s. 167-185
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nomenclatural type definitions are one of the most important concepts in biological nomenclature. Being physical objects that can be re-studied by other researchers, types permanently link taxonomy (an artificial agreement to classify biological diversity) with nomenclature (an artificial agreement to name biological diversity). Two proposals to amend the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), allowing DNA sequences alone (of any region and extent) to serve as types of taxon names for voucherless fungi (mainly putative taxa from environmental DNA sequences), have been submitted to be voted on at the 11th International Mycological Congress (Puerto Rico, July 2018). We consider various genetic processes affecting the distribution of alleles among taxa and find that alleles may not consistently and uniquely represent the species within which they are contained. Should the proposals be accepted, the meaning of nomenclatural types would change in a fundamental way from physical objects as sources of data to the data themselves. Such changes are conducive to irreproducible science, the potential typification on artefactual data, and massive creation of names with low information content, ultimately causing nomenclatural instability and unnecessary work for future researchers that would stall future explorations of fungal diversity. We conclude that the acceptance of DNA sequences alone as types of names of taxa, under the terms used in the current proposals, is unnecessary and would not solve the problem of naming putative taxa known only from DNA sequences in a scientifically defensible way. As an alternative, we highlight the use of formulas for naming putative taxa (candidate taxa) that do not require any modification of the ICN.
  • Alay, Özgü, et al. (författare)
  • Monitoring and Analytics (Release B)
  • 2021
  • Rapport (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This document describes the design and implementation of the 5GENESIS Monitoring & Analytics (M&A) framework in its Release B, developed within Task T3.3 of the project work plan. M&A Release B leverages and extends M&A Release A, which has been documented in the previous Deliverable D3.5 [1]. In particular, we present new features and enhancements introduced in this new Release compared to the Release A. We also report some examples of usage of the M&A framework, in order to showcase its integrated in the 5GENESIS Reference Architecture. 
  • Arvizu, Dan, et al. (författare)
  • Summary for Policy Makers: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report Renewable Energy Sources (SRREN)
  • 2011
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The Working Group III Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) presents an assessment of the literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of the contribution of six renewable energy (RE) sources to the mitigation of climate change. It is intended to provide policy relevant information to governments, intergovernmental processes and other interested parties. This Summary for Policymakers provides an overview of the SRREN, summarizing the essential findings. The SRREN consists of 11 chapters. Chapter 1 sets the context for RE and climate change; Chapters 2 through 7 provide information on six RE technologies, and Chapters 8 through 11 address integrative issues.
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