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Sökning: WFRF:(Kuteeva E.)

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1.
  • Hokfelt, Tomas, et al. (författare)
  • Neuropeptide and Small Transmitter Coexistence: Fundamental Studies and Relevance to Mental Illness
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Neural Circuits. - : FRONTIERS MEDIA SA. - 1662-5110 .- 1662-5110. ; 12
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neuropeptides are auxiliary messenger molecules that always co-exist in nerve cells with one or more small molecule (classic) neurotransmitters. Neuropeptides act both as transmitters and trophic factors, and play a role particularly when the nervous system is challenged, as by injury, pain or stress. Here neuropeptides and coexistence in mammals are reviewed, but with special focus on the 29/30 amino acid galanin and its three receptors GalR1, -R2 and -R3. In particular, galanins role as a co-transmitter in both rodent and human noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) neurons is addressed. Extensive experimental animal data strongly suggest a role for the galanin system in depression-like behavior. The translational potential of these results was tested by studying the galanin system in postmortem human brains, first in normal brains, and then in a comparison of five regions of brains obtained from depressed people who committed suicide, and from matched controls. The distribution of galanin and the four galanin system transcripts in the normal human brain was determined, and selective and parallel changes in levels of transcripts and DNA methylation for galanin and its three receptors were assessed in depressed patients who committed suicide: upregulation of transcripts, e.g., for galanin and GalR3 in LC, paralleled by a decrease in DNA methylation, suggesting involvement of epigenetic mechanisms. It is hypothesized that, when exposed to severe stress, the noradrenergic LC neurons fire in bursts and release galanin from their soma/dendrites. Galanin then acts on somato-dendritic, inhibitory galanin autoreceptors, opening potassium channels and inhibiting firing. The purpose of these autoreceptors is to act as a brake to prevent overexcitation, a brake that is also part of resilience to stress that protects against depression. Depression then arises when the inhibition is too strong and long lasting - a maladaption, allostatic load, leading to depletion of NA levels in the forebrain. It is suggested that disinhibition by a galanin antagonist may have antidepressant activity by restoring forebrain NA levels. A role of galanin in depression is also supported by a recent candidate gene study, showing that variants in genes for galanin and its three receptors confer increased risk of depression and anxiety in people who experienced childhood adversity or recent negative life events. In summary, galanin, a neuropeptide coexisting in LC neurons, may participate in the mechanism underlying resilience against a serious and common disorder, MDD. Existing and further results may lead to an increased understanding of how this illness develops, which in turn could provide a basis for its treatment.
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2.
  • Boman, K., et al. (författare)
  • Membranous expression of podocalyxin-like protein is an independent factor of poor prognosis in urothelial bladder cancer
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 108:11, s. 2321-2328
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Membranous expression of the anti-adhesive glycoprotein podocalyxin-like (PODXL) has previously been found to correlate with poor prognosis in several major cancer forms. Here we examined the prognostic impact of PODXL expression in urothelial bladder cancer. Methods: Immunohistochemical PODXL expression was examined in tissue microarrays with tumours from two independent cohorts of patients with urothelial bladder cancer: n = 100 (Cohort I) and n = 343 (Cohort II). The impact of PODXL expression on disease-specific survival (DSS; Cohort II), 5-year overall survival (OS; both cohorts) and 2-year progression-free survival (PFS; Cohort II) was assessed. Results: Membranous PODXL expression was significantly associated with more advanced tumour (T) stage and high-grade tumours in both cohorts, and a significantly reduced 5-year OS (unadjusted HR = 2.25 in Cohort I and 3.10 in Cohort II, adjusted HR = 2.05 in Cohort I and 2.18 in Cohort II) and DSS (unadjusted HR = 4.36, adjusted HR = 2.70). In patients with Ta and T1 tumours, membranous PODXL expression was an independent predictor of a reduced 2-year PFS (unadjusted HR = 6.19, adjusted HR = 4.60) and DSS (unadjusted HR = 8.34, adjusted HR = 7.16). Conclusion: Membranous PODXL expression is an independent risk factor for progressive disease and death in patients with urothelial bladder cancer.
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3.
  • Kuteeva, E, et al. (författare)
  • Distribution of galanin and galanin transcript in the brain of a galanin-overexpressing transgenic mouse
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy. - 0891-0618 .- 1873-6300. ; 28:4, s. 185-216
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The distribution of galanin mRNA-expressing cells and galanin-immunoreactive (IR) cell bodies and processes was studied in the brain of mice over-expressing galanin under the PDGF-B promoter (GalOE mice) and of wild type (WT) mice, both in colchicine-treated and non-treated animals. In this abstract, we only describe the results in GalOE mouse. A widespread ectopic expression of galanin (both mRNA and peptide) was found. that is a situation when neither transcript nor peptide could be seen in WT mice, not even after colchicine treatment. However, in some regions, such as claustrum, basolateral amygdala, thalamus, CA1 pyramidal cells, and Purkinje cells only galanin mRNA could be detected. In the forebrain galanin was seen in the mitral cells of the olfactory bulb, throughout the cortex, in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, claustrum, granular and pyramidal cell layers of the hippocampus, subiculum and presubiculum. In the thalamus, the anterodorsal, mediodorsal, intermediodorsal and mediodorsal lateral nuclei, the reuniens and reticular nuclei showed ectopic expression of galanin. Within the hypothalamus, neurons of the suprachiasmatic nucleus contained galanin. In the mesencephalon, the geniculate nucleus, nucleus ruber, the mesencephalic trigeminal and reticulotegmental nuclei ectopically expressed galanin. In the cerebellum, galanin was observed in the Purkinje cells and in the lateral and interposed cerebellar nuclei. In the Pons, sensory and motor nuclei of the trigeminal nerve, the laterodorsal and dorsal tegmental nuclei, the pontine, reticulotegmental and gigantocellular reticular nuclei expressed galanin. Within the medulla oblongata, labeled cells were detected in the facial, ambiguus, prepositus, lateral paragigantocellular and lateral reticular nuclei, and spinal trigeminal nucleus. High densities of galanin-IR fibers were found in the axonal terminals of the lateral olfactory tract, the hippocampal and presumably the cerebellar mossy fibers system, in several thalamic and hypothalamic regions and the lower brain stem. Possible functional consequences of galanin overexpression are discussed. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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4.
  • Yoshitake, Shimako, et al. (författare)
  • Correlation between the effects of local and intracerebroventricular infusions of galanin on 5-HT release studied by microdialysis, and distribution of galanin and galanin receptors in prefrontal cortex, ventral hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, and striatum of awake rats
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Synapse. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0887-4476 .- 1098-2396. ; 68:5, s. 179-193
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The neuropeptide galanin is implicated in regulation of affective behavior, including modulation of 5-HT signaling. Here, we investigated, by use of microdialysis in freely moving rats, the effects of intracerebral (i.c.) and intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusions of galanin on basal extracellular 5-HT levels in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), CA1 area of ventral hippocampus (vHPC), central amygdaloid nucleus (CeA), ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus ventrolateral part (VMHvl), and ventromedial caudate putamen (CPu). These results were compared with a parallel immunohistochemical analysis of the distribution of galanin, 5-HT, and noradrenaline (NA) nerve terminals, and with data on galanin receptors. Galanin i.c.v. significantly decreased the 5-HT levels in mPFC to 79% and in vHPC to 72%. Local infusions of galanin caused a long-lasting decrease in 5-HT levels in vHPC to 88%, and a moderate decrease in CeA, whereas the 5-HT levels in mPFC significantly increased to 121%. These effects of i.c. galanin correlated well with the density of 5-HT and galanin nerve terminals and galanin receptors autoradiography in mPFC, vHPC, and CeA. No effects of i.c. or i.c.v. galanin on 5-HT levels were observed in CPu or VMHvl, in agreement with the low numbers of galanin-positive terminals and low/moderate galanin receptor density. Galanin was often found to coexist in NA, but could never be detected in 5-HT terminals. Together the results show a neuroanatomical correlation between the effects of galanin infusions on 5-HT release and distribution of galanin and its receptors, and that i.c.v. and i.c. administration can give opposite effects on 5-HT release.
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6.
  • Holmberg, K, et al. (författare)
  • Generation and phenotypic characterization of a galanin overexpressing mouse
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience. - 0306-4522 .- 1873-7544. ; 133:1, s. 59-77
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In most parts of the peripheral nervous system galanin is expressed at very low levels. To further understand the functional role of galanin, a mouse overexpressing galanin under the platelet-derived growth factor-B was generated, and high levels of galanin expression were observed in several peripheral tissues and spinal cord. Thus, a large proportion of neurons in autonomic and sensory ganglia were galanin-positive, as were most spinal motor neurons. Strong galanin-like immunoreactivity was also seen in nerve terminals in the corresponding target tissues, including skin, blood vessels, sweat and salivary glands, motor end-plates and the gray matter of the spinal cord. In transgenic superior cervical ganglia around half of all neuron profiles expressed galanin mRNA but axotomy did not cause a further increase, even if mRNA levels were increased in individual neurons. In transgenic dorsal root ganglia galanin mRNA was detected in around two thirds of all neuron profiles, including large ones, and after axotomy the percentage of galanin neuron profiles was similar in overexpressing and wild type mice. Axotomy reduced the total number of DRG neurons less in overexpressing than in wild type mice, indicating a modest rescue effect. Aging by itself increased galanin expression in the superior cervical ganglion in wild type and transgenic mice, and in the latter also in preganglionic cholinergic neurons projecting to the superior cervical ganglion. Galanin overexpressing mice showed an attenuated plasma extravasation, an increased pain response in the formalin test, and changes in muscle physiology, but did not differ from wild type mice in sudomotor function. These findings suggest that overexpressed galanin in some tissues of these mice can be released and via a receptor-mediated action influence pathophysiological processes. © 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of IBRO.
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7.
  • Kuteeva, Eugenia, et al. (författare)
  • Differential Role of Galanin Receptors in the Regulation of Depression-Like Behavior and Monoamine/Stress-Related Genes at the Cell Body Level
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Neuropsychopharmacology. - 0893-133X .- 1740-634X. ; 33:11, s. 2573-2585
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The present study on rat examined the role of galanin receptor subtypes in regulation of depression-like behavior as well as potential molecular mechanisms involved in the locus coeruleus (LC) and dorsal raphe (DR). The effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of galanin or galanin receptor GalR1- and GalR2-selective ligands was studied in the forced swim test, followed by quantitative in situ hybridization studies. Naive control, non-treated (swim control), saline-and fluoxetine-treated rats were used as controls in the behavioral and in situ hybridization studies. Subchronic treatment with fluoxetine reduced immobility and climbing time. Intracerebroventricular infusion of galanin, the GalR1 agonist M617 or the GalR2 antagonist M871 increased, while the GalR2(R3) agonist AR-M1896 decreased, immobility time compared to the aCSF-treated animals. Galanin also decreased the time of climbing. Galanin mRNA levels were upregulated by the combination of injection + swim stress in the saline-and the fluoxetine-treated groups in the LC, but not in the DR. Also tyrosine hydroxylase levels in the LC were increased following injection + swim stress in the saline-and fluoxetine-treated rats. Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 and serotonin transporter mRNAs were not significantly affected by any treatment. 5-HT(1A) mRNA levels were downregulated following i.c.v. galanin, M617 or AR-M1896 infusion. These results indicate a differential role of galanin receptor subtypes in depression-like behavior in rodents: GalR1 subtype may mediate 'prodepressive' and GalR2 'antidepressant' effects of galanin. Galanin has a role in behavioral adaptation to stressful events involving changes of molecules important for noradrenaline and/or serotonin transmission.
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8.
  • Kuteeva, E, et al. (författare)
  • Distribution of galanin in the brain of a galanin-overexpressing transgenic mouse
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Neuropeptides. - 0143-4179 .- 1532-2785. ; 39:3, s. 293-298
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The distribution of galanin mRNA-expressing cells and galanin-immuno reactive (I R) cell bodies and processes was studied in the brain of mice overexpressing galanin under the PDGF-B promoter (GalOE mice) and of wild type (WT) mice, both in colchicine-treated and non-treated animals. A widespread ectopic expression of galanin (both mRNA and peptide) was found, that is when neither transcript nor peptide could be seen in WT mice, not even after colchicine treatment. However, in some regions, such as claustrum, basolateral amygdala, thalamus, CA1 pyramidal cells, and Purkinje cells only galanin mRNA could be detected. The highest levels of galanin expression were observed in the Forebrain structures (the mitral cells of the olfactory bulb, throughout the cortex, granular and pyramidal cell layers of the hippocampus), in the mesencephalon (nucleus ruber), in the cerebellum (lateral cerebellar nucleus), in the pons (sensory and motor nuclei of the trigeminal nerve), within the medulla oblongata (facial, prepositus and spinal trigeminal nuclei). High densities of galanin-IR fibers were found in the axonal terminals of the lateral olfactory tract, hippocampal and presumably cerebellar mossy fiber system, in several thalamic and hypothalamic regions and the lower brain stem. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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