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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Kyvik Kirsten Ohm) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Kyvik Kirsten Ohm)

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  • [1]2Nästa
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1.
  • Aulchenko, Yurii S, et al. (författare)
  • Loci influencing lipid levels and coronary heart disease risk in 16 European population cohorts
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 41:1, s. 47-55
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies of lipids have been conducted in samples ascertained for other phenotypes, particularly diabetes. Here we report the first GWA analysis of loci affecting total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides sampled randomly from 16 population-based cohorts and genotyped using mainly the Illumina HumanHap300-Duo platform. Our study included a total of 17,797-22,562 persons, aged 18-104 years and from geographic regions spanning from the Nordic countries to Southern Europe. We established 22 loci associated with serum lipid levels at a genome-wide significance level (P < 5 x 10(-8)), including 16 loci that were identified by previous GWA studies. The six newly identified loci in our cohort samples are ABCG5 (TC, P = 1.5 x 10(-11); LDL, P = 2.6 x 10(-10)), TMEM57 (TC, P = 5.4 x 10(-10)), CTCF-PRMT8 region (HDL, P = 8.3 x 10(-16)), DNAH11 (LDL, P = 6.1 x 10(-9)), FADS3-FADS2 (TC, P = 1.5 x 10(-10); LDL, P = 4.4 x 10(-13)) and MADD-FOLH1 region (HDL, P = 6 x 10(-11)). For three loci, effect sizes differed significantly by sex. Genetic risk scores based on lipid loci explain up to 4.8% of variation in lipids and were also associated with increased intima media thickness (P = 0.001) and coronary heart disease incidence (P = 0.04). The genetic risk score improves the screening of high-risk groups of dyslipidemia over classical risk factors.
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2.
  • Demirkan, Ayse, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic architecture of circulating lipid levels
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Human Genetics. - 1018-4813 .- 1476-5438. ; 19:7, s. 813-819
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Serum concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TGs) and total cholesterol (TC) are important heritable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of circulating lipid levels have identified numerous loci, a substantial portion of the heritability of these traits remains unexplained. Evidence of unexplained genetic variance can be detected by combining multiple independent markers into additive genetic risk scores. Such polygenic scores, constructed using results from the ENGAGE Consortium GWAS on serum lipids, were applied to predict lipid levels in an independent population-based study, the Rotterdam Study-II (RS-II). We additionally tested for evidence of a shared genetic basis for different lipid phenotypes. Finally, the polygenic score approach was used to identify an alternative genome-wide significance threshold before pathway analysis and those results were compared with those based on the classical genome-wide significance threshold. Our study provides evidence suggesting that many loci influencing circulating lipid levels remain undiscovered. Cross-prediction models suggested a small overlap between the polygenic backgrounds involved in determining LDL-C, HDL-C and TG levels. Pathway analysis utilizing the best polygenic score for TC uncovered extra information compared with using only genome-wide significant loci. These results suggest that the genetic architecture of circulating lipids involves a number of undiscovered variants with very small effects, and that increasing GWAS sample sizes will enable the identification of novel variants that regulate lipid levels.
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3.
  • Dupuis, Josee, et al. (författare)
  • New genetic loci implicated in fasting glucose homeostasis and their impact on type 2 diabetes risk
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 42:2, s. 32-105
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Levels of circulating glucose are tightly regulated. To identify new loci influencing glycemic traits, we performed meta-analyses of 21 genome-wide association studies informative for fasting glucose, fasting insulin and indices of beta-cell function (HOMA-B) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in up to 46,186 nondiabetic participants. Follow-up of 25 loci in up to 76,558 additional subjects identified 16 loci associated with fasting glucose and HOMA-B and two loci associated with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. These include nine loci newly associated with fasting glucose (in or near ADCY5, MADD, ADRA2A, CRY2, FADS1, GLIS3, SLC2A2, PROX1 and C2CD4B) and one influencing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (near IGF1). We also demonstrated association of ADCY5, PROX1, GCK, GCKR and DGKB-TMEM195 with type 2 diabetes. Within these loci, likely biological candidate genes influence signal transduction, cell proliferation, development, glucose-sensing and circadian regulation. Our results demonstrate that genetic studies of glycemic traits can identify type 2 diabetes risk loci, as well as loci containing gene variants that are associated with a modest elevation in glucose levels but are not associated with overt diabetes.
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4.
  • Leu, Monica, et al. (författare)
  • NordicDB: a Nordic pool and portal for genome-wide control data
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Human Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5438 .- 1018-4813. ; 18:12, s. 1322-1326
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A cost-efficient way to increase power in a genetic association study is to pool controls from different sources. The genotyping effort can then be directed to large case series. The Nordic Control database, NordicDB, has been set up as a unique resource in the Nordic area and the data are available for authorized users through the web portal (http://www.nordicdb.org). The current version of NordicDB pools together high-density genome-wide SNP information from similar to 5000 controls originating from Finnish, Swedish and Danish studies and shows country-specific allele frequencies for SNP markers. The genetic homogeneity of the samples was investigated using multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis and pairwise allele frequency differences between the studies. The plot of the first two MDS components showed excellent resemblance to the geographical placement of the samples, with a clear NW-SE gradient. We advise researchers to assess the impact of population structure when incorporating NordicDB controls in association studies. This harmonized Nordic database presents a unique genome-wide resource for future genetic association studies in the Nordic countries. European Journal of Human Genetics (2010) 18, 1322-1326; doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2010.112; published online 28 July 2010
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5.
  • Manning, Alisa K., et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide approach accounting for body mass index identifies genetic variants influencing fasting glycemic traits and insulin resistance
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - New York : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 44:6, s. 81-659
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent genome-wide association studies have described many loci implicated in type 2 diabetes (T2D) pathophysiology and beta-cell dysfunction but have contributed little to the understanding of the genetic basis of insulin resistance. We hypothesized that genes implicated in insulin resistance pathways might be uncovered by accounting for differences in body mass index (BMI) and potential interactions between BMI and genetic variants. We applied a joint meta-analysis approach to test associations with fasting insulin and glucose on a genome-wide scale. We present six previously unknown loci associated with fasting insulin at P < 5 x 10(-8) in combined discovery and follow-up analyses of 52 studies comprising up to 96,496 non-diabetic individuals. Risk variants were associated with higher triglyceride and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, suggesting a role for these loci in insulin resistance pathways. The discovery of these loci will aid further characterization of the role of insulin resistance in T2D pathophysiology.
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8.
  • Kessel, Line, et al. (författare)
  • Lens ageing as an indicator of tissue damage associated with smoking and non-enzymatic glycation--a twin study.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 1432-0428. ; 45:10, s. 1457-1462
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis. With ageing the long-lived proteins of the human lens undergo denaturation by non-enzymatic glycation. The denaturated proteins are fluorescent, a property that can be assessed in vivo by fluorometry. Our aim was to examine the relative contribution of hereditary and environmental effects on the accumulation of fluorescent compounds in the lens.Methods. We examined 59 monozygotic and 55 dizygotic healthy twin pairs recruited from a population-based register of twins. Lens autofluorescence was measured on the undilated eye. All subjects underwent an OGTT and information on smoking habits was obtained. The genetic and environmental effects were estimated by structural equation modelling.Results. Lens autofluorescence was related to age (R2=53%), current glucose homeostasis (R2=10%) and smoking habits (R2=10%). After adjusting for these factors, interindividual variation in lens autofluorescence was statistically attributable to hereditary factors by approximately 28% as well as shared environment by 58% and non-shared environment by 14%. The hereditary factor seems not to be linked to a genetic predisposition to diabetes.Conclusion/interpretation. The correlation in lens fluorescence was greater in monozygotic twins than dizygotic twins indicating a genetically predetermined susceptibility for the accumulation of fluorophores in the lens, the relative importance of which was found to increase with age. Since fluorophore formation in the lens is attributable to non-enzymatic glycation our results support that genetic characteristics to some degree determine the susceptibility to glycation related diabetes complications and ageing processes.
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9.
  • Munch, Inger Christine, et al. (författare)
  • Heredity of small hard drusen in twins aged 20-46 years
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. - : ASSOC RESEARCH VISION OPHTHALMOLOGY INC. - 1552-5783. ; 48:2, s. 833-838
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose. To examine the prevalence and heredity of small hard drusen in 220 healthy twins aged 20–46 years.methods. Grayscale digital fundus photography, four-field 50° nonstereoscopic, in red-free illumination was performed in 58 pairs of monozygotic (MZ) twins and 52 pairs of dizygotic (DZ) twins as part of a detailed biometric characterization. Small hard drusen (diameters, <63 μm) were counted and graded by distribution type.results. Small hard drusen were present in 212 of the 220 subjects. Five or more drusen per eye were found in 89 subjects, in three patterns of distribution: scattered drusen (66 subjects), macular drusen (18 subjects), and stippled, innumerable drusen (5 subjects). When analyzed as a continuous trait, the heritability of small hard drusen was 63% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43% to 77%). More than 20 drusen per eye were found in 26 subjects, and the heritability of this phenotype was 99% (95% CI, 82% to 100%).conclusions. Hard drusen are prevalent in young adults, and having more than 20 drusen per eye is a highly hereditary feature. Additional research is needed to determine whether the presence of small hard drusen correlates with the development of age-related macular degeneration later in life and to explore the relation to AMD genotypes.
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10.
  • Palmer, Nicholette D, et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide association search for type 2 diabetes genes in African Americans.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - San Francisco : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 7:1, s. e29202-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 965 African-American cases with T2DM and end-stage renal disease (T2DM-ESRD) and 1029 population-based controls. The most significant SNPs (n = 550 independent loci) were genotyped in a replication cohort and 122 SNPs (n = 98 independent loci) were further tested through genotyping three additional validation cohorts followed by meta-analysis in all five cohorts totaling 3,132 cases and 3,317 controls. Twelve SNPs had evidence of association in the GWAS (P<0.0071), were directionally consistent in the Replication cohort and were associated with T2DM in subjects without nephropathy (P<0.05). Meta-analysis in all cases and controls revealed a single SNP reaching genome-wide significance (P<2.5×10(-8)). SNP rs7560163 (P = 7.0×10(-9), OR (95% CI) = 0.75 (0.67-0.84)) is located intergenically between RND3 and RBM43. Four additional loci (rs7542900, rs4659485, rs2722769 and rs7107217) were associated with T2DM (P<0.05) and reached more nominal levels of significance (P<2.5×10(-5)) in the overall analysis and may represent novel loci that contribute to T2DM. We have identified novel T2DM-susceptibility variants in the African-American population. Notably, T2DM risk was associated with the major allele and implies an interesting genetic architecture in this population. These results suggest that multiple loci underlie T2DM susceptibility in the African-American population and that these loci are distinct from those identified in other ethnic populations.
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