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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Lätt J.) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Lätt J.)

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1.
  • Mårtensson, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Diffusion tensor imaging and tractography of the white matter in normal aging : The rate-of-change differs between segments within tracts
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Magnetic Resonance Imaging. - : Elsevier. - 0730-725X .- 1873-5894. ; 45, s. 113-119
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Knowledge concerning the normal aging of cerebral white matter will improve our understanding of abnormal changes in neurodegenerative diseases. The microstructural basis of white matter maturation and aging can be investigated using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Generally, diffusion anisotropy increases during childhood and adolescence followed by a decline in middle age. However, this process is subject to spatial variations between tracts. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent age-related variations also occur within tracts. DTI parameters were compared between segments of two white matter tracts, the cingulate bundle (CB) and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFO), in 257 healthy individuals between 13 and 84years of age. Segments of the CB and the IFO were extracted and parameters for each segment were averaged across the hemispheres. The data was analysed as a function of age. Results show that age-related changes differ both between and within individual tracts. Different age trajectories were observed in all segments of the analysed tracts for all DTI parameters. In conclusion, aging does not affect white matter tracts uniformly but is regionally specific; both between and within white matter tracts.
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  • Janhunen, P., et al. (författare)
  • Invited Article: Electric solar wind sail : Toward test missions
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Review of Scientific Instruments. - 0034-6748 .- 1089-7623. ; 81:11, s. 111301-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The electric solar wind sail (E-sail) is a space propulsion concept that uses the natural solar wind dynamic pressure for producing spacecraft thrust. In its baseline form, the E-sail consists of a number of long, thin, conducting, and centrifugally stretched tethers, which are kept in a high positive potential by an onboard electron gun. The concept gains its efficiency from the fact that the effective sail area, i.e., the potential structure of the tethers, can be millions of times larger than the physical area of the thin tethers wires, which offsets the fact that the dynamic pressure of the solar wind is very weak. Indeed, according to the most recent published estimates, an E-sail of 1 N thrust and 100 kg mass could be built in the rather near future, providing a revolutionary level of propulsive performance (specific acceleration) for travel in the solar system. Here we give a review of the ongoing technical development work of the E-sail, covering tether construction, overall mechanical design alternatives, guidance and navigation strategies, and dynamical and orbital simulations.
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  • Cannerfelt, B., et al. (författare)
  • White matter lesions and brain atrophy in systemic lupus erythematosus patients : correlation to cognitive dysfunction in a cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus patients using different definition models for neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Ingår i: Lupus. - : SAGE Publications. - 0961-2033. ; 27:7, s. 1140-1149
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of white matter lesions, atrophy of the hippocampus and corpus callosum, and their correlation with cognitive dysfunction (CD), in patients diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods: Seventy SLE patients and 25 healthy individuals (HIs) were included in the study. To evaluate the different SLE and neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE) definition schemes, patients were grouped both according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) definition, as well as the more stringent ACR-Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics definition. Patients and HIs underwent a 3 Tesla brain MRI and a standardized neuropsychological test. MRI data were evaluated for number and volume of white matter lesions and atrophy of the hippocampus and corpus callosum. Differences between groups and subgroups were evaluated for significance. Number and volume of white matter lesions and atrophy of the hippocampus and corpus callosum were correlated to cognitive dysfunction. Results: The total volume of white matter lesions was significantly larger in SLE patients compared to HIs (p = 0.004). However, no significant differences were seen between the different SLE subgroups. Atrophy of the bilateral hippocampus was significantly more pronounced in patients with NPSLE compared to those with non-NPSLE (right: p = 0.010; left p = 0.023). Significant negative correlations between cognitive test scores on verbal memory and number and volume of white matter lesions were present. Conclusion: SLE patients have a significantly larger volume of white matter lesions on MRI compared to HIs and the degree of white matter lesion volume correlates to cognitive dysfunction, specifically to verbal memory. No significant differences in the number or volume of white matter lesions were identified between subgroups of SLE patients regardless of the definition model used.
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  • Delgado, Anna F, et al. (författare)
  • Preoperative Quantitative MR Tractography Compared with Visual Tract Evaluation in Patients with Neuropathologically Confirmed Gliomas Grades II and III : A Prospective Cohort Study
  • Ingår i: Radiology research and practice. - : Hindawi Limited. - 2090-1941 .- 2090-195X. ; 2016:1, s. 1-15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Purpose. Low-grade gliomas show infiltrative growth in white matter tracts. Diffusion tensor tractography can noninvasively assess white matter tracts. The aim was to preoperatively assess tumor growth in white matter tracts using quantitative MR tractography (3T). The hypothesis was that suspected infiltrated tracts would have altered diffusional properties in infiltrated tract segments compared to noninfiltrated tracts. Materials and Methods. Forty-eight patients with suspected low-grade glioma were included after written informed consent and underwent preoperative diffusion tensor imaging in this prospective review-board approved study. Major white matter tracts in both hemispheres were tracked, segmented, and visually assessed for tumor involvement in thirty-four patients with gliomas grade II or III (astrocytomas or oligodendrogliomas) on postoperative neuropathological evaluation. Relative fractional anisotropy (rFA) and mean diffusivity (rMD) in tract segments were calculated and compared with visual evaluation and neuropathological diagnosis. Results. Tract segment infiltration on visual evaluation was associated with a lower rFA and high rMD in a majority of evaluated tract segments (89% and 78%, resp.). Grade II and grade III gliomas had similar infiltrating behavior. Conclusion. Quantitative MR tractography corresponds to visual evaluation of suspected tract infiltration. It may be useful for an objective preoperative evaluation of tract segment involvement.
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  • F., Durmo, et al. (författare)
  • Multivoxel 1H MR spectroscopy biometrics for preoprerative differentiation between brain tumors
  • Ingår i: Neuroradiology. - : Springer. - 1432-1920. ; 60:S2, s. 444-444
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose To investigate multivoxel proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1HMRS) biometrics for preoperative differentiation and prognosis of patients with brain metastases (MET), low-(LGG) and high grade glioma (HGG). Methods Thirty-five patients (15 HGG, 9 LGG and 11 MET) were included. Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Imaging(1H-MRSI) data was assessed and neurochemical profiles for metabolites (NAA+NAAG, Cr+PCr, Glu+Gln (Glx), Lac, Ins, GPC+PCho) and total Lipids (tLip) and macromolecule (tMM) signals were estimated. Concentrations were reported as either absolute or ratios to total choline (tCho=GPC+PCho) and creatine (tCr=Cr+PCr) levels. Voxels of interest (VOIs) in a MRSI matrix were labelled accordingly to contrast-enhancing/nonenhancing lesional, edema, ipsi- or contralateral healthy appearing tissue and the metabolite averages were reported for each tissue type. Multi-biometric analysis with logistic regression, ROC- and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed in SPSS v.24 and postprocessing with LC Model. Results Across HGG/LGG/MET; the average Ins/tCho was shown to be prognostic for overall survival (OS): with low values (≤1.29) in affected hemisphere predicting worse OS than high values (>1.29), (Log Rank
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8.
  • Fjalldal, S., et al. (författare)
  • Detailed assessment of hypothalamic damage in craniopharyngioma patients with obesity
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Obesity. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0307-0565 .- 1476-5497. ; 43:3, s. 533-544
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background/objectives: Hypothalamic obesity (HO) occurs in 50% of patients with the pituitary tumor craniopharyngioma (CP). Attempts have been made to predict the risk of HO based on hypothalamic (HT) damage on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but none have included volumetry. We performed qualitative and quantitative volumetric analyses of HT damage. The results were explored in relation to feeding related peptides and body fat. Subjects/methods: A cross-sectional study of childhood onset CPs involving 3 Tesla MRI, was performed at median 22 years after first operation; 41 CPs, median age 35 (range: 17–56), of whom 23 had HT damage, were compared to 32 controls. After exclusions, 35 patients and 31 controls remained in the MRI study. Main outcome measures were the relation of metabolic parameters to HT volume and qualitative analyses of HT damage. Results: Metabolic parameters scored persistently very high in vascular risk particularly among HT damaged patients. Patients had smaller HT volumes compared to controls 769 (35–1168) mm3 vs. 879 (775–1086) mm3; P < 0.001. HT volume correlated negatively with fat mass and leptin among CP patients (rs = −0.67; P <.001; rs = −0.53; P = 0.001), and explained 39% of the variation in fat mass. For every 100 mm3 increase in HT volume fat mass decreased by 2.7 kg (95% CI: 1.5–3.9; P < 0.001). Qualitative assessments revealed HT damage in three out of six patients with normal volumetry, but HT damage according to operation records. Conclusions: A decrease in HT volume was associated with an increase in fat mass and leptin. We present a method with a high inter-rater reliability (0.94) that can be applied by nonradiologists for the assessment of HT damage. The method may be valuable in the risk assessment of diseases involving the HT.
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  • Fjalldal, S., et al. (författare)
  • Microstructural white matter alterations and hippocampal volumes are associated with cognitive deficits in craniopharyngioma
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology. - : BIOSCIENTIFICA LTD. - 0804-4643 .- 1479-683X. ; 178:6, s. 577-587
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Patients with craniopharyngioma (CP) and hypothalamic lesions (HL) have cognitive deficits. Which neural pathways are affected is unknown. Objective: To determine whether there is a relationship between microstructural white matter (WM) alterations detected with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and cognition in adults with childhood-onset CP. Design: A cross-sectional study with a median follow-up time of 22 (6-49) years after operation. Setting: The South Medical Region of Sweden (2.5 million inhabitants). Participants: Included were 41 patients (24 women, amp;gt;= 17 years) surgically treated for childhood-onset CP between 1958-2010 and 32 controls with similar age and gender distributions. HI was found in 23 patients. Main outcome measures: Subjects performed cognitive tests and magnetic resonance imaging, and images were analyzed using DTI of uncinate fasciculus, fornix, cingulum, hippocampus and hypothalamus as well as hippocampal volumetry. Results: Right uncinate fasciculus was significantly altered (P amp;lt;= 0.01) Microstructural WM alterations in left ventral cingulum were significantly associated with worse performance in visual episodic memory, explaining approximately 50% of the variation. Alterations in dorsal cingulum were associated with worse performance in immediate, delayed recall and recognition, explaining 26-38% of the variation, and with visuospatial ability and executive function, explaining 19-29%. Patients who had smaller hippocampal volume had worse general knowledge (P = 0.028), and microstructural WM alterations in hippocampus were associated with a decline in general knowledge and episodic visual memory. Conclusions: A structure to function relationship is suggested between microstructural WM alterations in cingulum and in hippocampus with cognitive deficits in CP.
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10.
  • Hansson, Oskar, et al. (författare)
  • Blood-based NfL: A biomarker for differential diagnosis of parkinsonian disorder.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1526-632X .- 0028-3878. ; 88:10, s. 930-937
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To determine if blood neurofilament light chain (NfL) protein can discriminate between Parkinson disease (PD) and atypical parkinsonian disorders (APD) with equally high diagnostic accuracy as CSF NfL, and can therefore improve the diagnostic workup of parkinsonian disorders.The study included 3 independent prospective cohorts: the Lund (n = 278) and London (n = 117) cohorts, comprising healthy controls and patients with PD, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal syndrome (CBS), and multiple system atrophy (MSA), as well as an early disease cohort (n = 109) of patients with PD, PSP, MSA, or CBS with disease duration ≤3 years. Blood NfL concentration was measured using an ultrasensitive single molecule array (Simoa) method, and the diagnostic accuracy to distinguish PD from APD was investigated.We found strong correlations between blood and CSF concentrations of NfL (ρ ≥ 0.73-0.84, p ≤ 0.001). Blood NfL was increased in patients with MSA, PSP, and CBS (i.e., all APD groups) when compared to patients with PD as well as healthy controls in all cohorts (p < 0.001). Furthermore, in the Lund cohort, blood NfL could accurately distinguish PD from APD (area under the curve [AUC] 0.91) with similar results in both the London cohort (AUC 0.85) and the early disease cohort (AUC 0.81).Quantification of blood NfL concentration can be used to distinguish PD from APD. Blood-based NfL might consequently be included in the diagnostic workup of patients with parkinsonian symptoms in both primary care and specialized clinics.This study provides Class III evidence that blood NfL levels discriminate between PD and APD.
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