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1.
  • Mannerås Holm, Louise, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Adipose tissue has aberrant morphology and function in PCOS: enlarged adipocytes and low serum adiponectin, but not circulating sex steroids, are strongly associated with insulin resistance.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - 1945-7197. ; 96:2, s. E304-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Comprehensive characterization of the adipose tissue in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), over a wide range of body mass indices (BMIs), is lacking. Mechanisms behind insulin resistance in PCOS are unclear. Objective: To characterize the adipose tissue of women with PCOS and controls matched pair-wise for age and BMI, and to identify factors, among adipose tissue characteristics and serum sex steroids, that are associated with insulin sensitivity in PCOS. Design/Outcome Measures: Seventy-four PCOS women and 31 controls were included. BMI was 18-47 (PCOS) and 19-41 kg/m2 (controls). Anthropometric variables, volumes of subcutaneous/visceral adipose tissue (magnetic resonance imaging; MRI), and insulin sensitivity (clamp) were investigated. Adipose tissue biopsies were obtained to determine adipocyte size, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, and macrophage density. Circulating testosterone, free testosterone, free 17β-estradiol, SHBG, glycerol, adiponectin, and serum amyloid A were measured/calculated. Results: Comparison of 31 pairs revealed lower insulin sensitivity, hyperandrogenemia, and higher free 17β-estradiol in PCOS. Abdominal adipose tissue volumes/distribution did not differ in the groups, but PCOS women had higher waist-to-hip ratio, enlarged adipocytes, reduced adiponectin, and lower LPL activity. In regression analysis, adipocyte size, adiponectin, and waist circumference were the factors most strongly associated with insulin sensitivity in PCOS (R2=0.681, P
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2.
  • Mannerås-Holm, Louise, et al. (författare)
  • Adipose Tissue Has Aberrant Morphology and Function in PCOS : Enlarged Adipocytes and Low Serum Adiponectin, But Not Circulating Sex Steroids, Are Strongly Associated with Insulin Resistance
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 96:2, s. E304-E311
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Context: Comprehensive characterization of the adipose tissue in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), over a wide range of body mass indices (BMIs), is lacking. Mechanisms behind insulin resistance in PCOS are unclear. Objective: To characterize the adipose tissue of women with PCOS and controls matched pair-wise for age and BMI, and to identify factors, among adipose tissue characteristics and serum sex steroids, that are associated with insulin sensitivity in PCOS. Design/Outcome Measures: Seventy-four PCOS women and 31 controls were included. BMI was 18-47 (PCOS) and 19-41 kg/m(2) (controls). Anthropometric variables, volumes of subcutaneous/visceral adipose tissue (magnetic resonance imaging; MRI), and insulin sensitivity (clamp) were investigated. Adipose tissue biopsies were obtained to determine adipocyte size, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, and macrophage density. Circulating testosterone, free testosterone, free 17β-estradiol, SHBG, glycerol, adiponectin, and serum amyloid A were measured/calculated. Results: Comparison of 31 pairs revealed lower insulin sensitivity, hyperandrogenemia, and higher free 17β-estradiol in PCOS. Abdominal adipose tissue volumes/distribution did not differ in the groups, but PCOS women had higher waist-to-hip ratio, enlarged adipocytes, reduced adiponectin, and lower LPL activity. In regression analysis, adipocyte size, adiponectin, and waist circumference were the factors most strongly associated with insulin sensitivity in PCOS (R(2)=0.681, P &lt; 0.001). Conclusions: In PCOS, adipose tissue has aberrant morphology/function. Increased waist-to-hip ratio indicates abdominal/visceral fat accumulation, but this is not supported by MRI. Enlarged adipocytes and reduced serum adiponectin, together with a large waistline, rather than androgen excess, may be central factors in the pathogenesis/maintenance of insulin resistance in PCOS.</p>
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4.
  • Allard, Christina, et al. (författare)
  • Rasbiologiskt språkbruk i statens rättsprocess mot sameby
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Dagens Nyheter. - 1101-2447.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • <p>Statens hantering av forskningsresultat i rättsprocessen med Girjas sameby utgör ett hot mot Sverige som rättsstat och kunskapsnation. Åratal av svensk och internationell forskning underkänns och man använder ett språkbruk som skulle kunna vara hämtat från rasbiologins tid. Nu måste staten ta sitt ansvar och börja agera som en demokratisk rättsstat, skriver 59 forskare.</p>
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7.
  • Berry, Max, 1969-, et al. (författare)
  • Endovascular training with animals versus virtual reality systems: an economic analysis
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: J Vasc Interv Radiol. - 1051-0443 (Print). ; 19:2 Pt 1, s. 233-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: To assess the relative costs of a virtual reality (VR) laboratory and an animal laboratory for endovascular skills training. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cost data extracted from a previous experiment was used to perform a financial analysis according to the guidelines published by the National Institutes of Health. The analysis compared the purchase or rental of a Procedicus Vascular Interventional System Trainer to the rental of an animal laboratory. RESULTS: The VR laboratory course cost $3,434 per trainee versus $4,634 in the animal laboratory according to the purchase-versus-rental analysis. The cost ratio was 0.74 in favor of the VR laboratory. Cost ratio sensitivity analysis ranged from 0.25 in favor of the VR laboratory to 2.22 in favor of the animal laboratory. The first-year potential savings were $62,410 assuming exclusive use of the VR laboratory. The 5-year training savings totaled $390,376, excluding the $60,000 residual value of the simulator. Simulator rental reduced the course price to $1,076 per trainee and lowered the cost ratio to 0.23 in favor of the VR laboratory. Findings of sensitivity analysis ranged from 0.08 to 0.70 in favor of the VR laboratory. The first-year and 5-year potential national savings increased to $185,026 and $1,013,238, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although evidence remains sparse that the training of interventional skills in artificial environments translates to better performance in human procedures, there are good pedagogic grounds on which to believe that such training will become increasingly important. The present comparison of the direct costs of two such models suggests that VR training is less expensive than live animal training.
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8.
  • Bommarco, Riccardo, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic and phenotypic differences between thistle populations in response to habitat and weed management practices
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. - 0024-4066 .- 1095-8312. ; 99:4, s. 797-807
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Rapid evolutionary change is increasingly being recognized as commonplace, but the evolutionary consequences for species and ecosystems under human-induced selection regimes have not been explored in detail, although many species occur in such environments. In a common garden experiment and with amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, we examined whether genetic differentiation has taken place between spatially intermixed populations of creeping thistles <em>Cirsium arvense</em> (Asteraceae) collected from a natural habitat (maritime shores), a semi-natural habitat (road verges) and arable fields under two management regimes: conventional and organic farming. Populations of <em>C. arvense</em> have altered genetically and locally adapted their growth patterns with changed land use. Although plants from different habitats showed similar total biomass production, shoot and root production was higher for maritime populations, suggesting selection for increased competitive ability. Competitive ability then declined in the order semi-natural, conventional farms and organic farms. Thistles in arable fields may be more selected for tolerance against disturbances from herbicides and mechanical weed control. In addition, early shoot sprouting and genetic analysis showed differentiation between plants originating from conventional farms and farms that were converted to organic 9–30 years ago, suggesting some adaptation to altered crop cultivation practices</p>
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9.
  • Bommarco, Riccardo, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic and phenotypic differences between thistle populations in response to habitat and weed management practices
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. - 0024-4066 .- 1095-8312. ; 99:4, s. 797-807
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Rapid evolutionary change is increasingly being recognized as commonplace, but the evolutionary consequences for species and ecosystems under human-induced selection regimes have not been explored in detail, although many species occur in such environments. In a common garden experiment and with amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, we examined whether genetic differentiation has taken place between spatially intermixed populations of creeping thistles <em>Cirsium arvense</em> (Asteraceae) collected from a natural habitat (maritime shores), a semi-natural habitat (road verges) and arable fields under two management regimes: conventional and organic farming. Populations of <em>C. arvense</em> have altered genetically and locally adapted their growth patterns with changed land use. Although plants from different habitats showed similar total biomass production, shoot and root production was higher for maritime populations, suggesting selection for increased competitive ability. Competitive ability then declined in the order semi-natural, conventional farms and organic farms. Thistles in arable fields may be more selected for tolerance against disturbances from herbicides and mechanical weed control. In addition, early shoot sprouting and genetic analysis showed differentiation between plants originating from conventional farms and farms that were converted to organic 9–30 years ago, suggesting some adaptation to altered crop cultivation practices</p>
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10.
  • Chen, DeJiu, et al. (författare)
  • Model Based Integration in the Development of Embedded Control Systems--A Characterization of Current Research Efforts
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: 2006 IEEE International Symposium on Computer-Aided Control Systems Design,Munich, Germany,0001-01-02.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The design of advanced embedded control systems requires a systematic approach in handling their increasing complexity and in particular integration of the different aspects and parts of a product that are worked on by different experts. Several variants of model based approaches are today advocated to facilitate systems integration. This paper describes a number of representative efforts that address multiple concerns or views including modeling languages such as the AADL and EAST-ADL, as well as model integration platforms such as General Store, Fujaba and Toolnet. We present a characterizion of the approaches and identify basic (and common) mechanisms for integration as well as differences among the approaches.
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