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1.
  • Seblova, Dominika, et al. (författare)
  • Does Prolonged Education Causally Affect Dementia Risk When Adult Socioeconomic Status Is Not Altered? A Swedish Natural Experiment in 1.3 Million Individuals
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0002-9262 .- 1476-6256. ; 190:5, s. 817-826
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intervening on modifiable risk factors to prevent dementia is of key importance, since progress-modifying treatments are not currently available. Education is inversely associated with dementia risk, but causality and mechanistic pathways remain unclear. We aimed to examine the causality of this relationship in Sweden using, as a natural experiment, data on a compulsory schooling reform that extended primary education by 1 year for 70% of the population between 1936 and 1949. The reform introduced substantial exogenous variation in education that was unrelated to pupils' characteristics. We followed 18 birth cohorts (n = 1,341,842) from 1985 to 2016 (up to ages 79-96 years) for a dementia diagnosis in the National Inpatient and Cause of Death registers and fitted Cox survival models with stratified baseline hazards at the school-district level, chronological age as the time scale, and cohort indicators. Analyses indicated very small or negligible causal effects of education on dementia risk (main hazard ratio = 1.01, 95% confidence interval: 0.98, 1.04). Multiple sensitivity checks considering only compliers, the pre-/post- design, differences in health-care-seeking behavior, and the impact of exposure misclassification left the results essentially unaltered. The reform had limited effects on further adult socioeconomic outcomes, such as income. Our findings suggest that without mediation through adult socioeconomic position, education cannot be uncritically considered a modifiable risk factor for dementia.
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2.
  • Bellander, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • No Evidence for Improved Associative Memory Performance Following Process-Based Associative Memory Training in Older Adults
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. - 1663-4365 .- 1663-4365. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies attempting to improve episodic memory performance with strategy instructions and training have had limited success in older adults: their training gains are limited in comparison to those of younger adults and do not generalize to untrained tasks and contexts. This limited success has been partly attributed to age-related impairments in associative binding of information into coherent episodes. We therefore investigated potential training and transfer effects of process-based associative memory training (i.e., repeated practice). Thirty-nine older adults (M-age = 68.8) underwent 6 weeks of either adaptive associative memory training or item recognition training. Both groups improved performance in item memory, spatial memory (object-context binding) and reasoning. A disproportionate effect of associative memory training was only observed for item memory, whereas no training-related performance changes were observed for associative memory. Self-reported strategies showed no signs of spontaneous development of memory-enhancing associative memory strategies. Hence, the results do not support the hypothesis that process-based associative memory training leads to higher associative memory performance in older adults.
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3.
  • Lebedev, A. V., et al. (författare)
  • Psychedelic drug use and schizotypy in young adults
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - 2045-2322. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite recently resurrected scientific interest in classical psychedelics, few studies have focused on potential harms associated with abuse of these substances. In particular, the link between psychedelic use and psychotic symptoms has been debated while no conclusive evidence has been presented. Here, we studied an adult population (n=1032) with a special focus on young (18-35 years) and healthy individuals (n=701) to evaluate the association of psychedelic drug use with schizotypy and evidence integration impairment typically observed in psychosis-spectrum disorders. Experimental behavioural testing was performed in a subsample of the subjects (n=39). We observed higher schizotypy scores in psychedelic users in the total sample. However, the effect size was notably small and only marginally significant when considering young and healthy subjects (Cohen's d=0.13). Controlling for concomitant drug use, none of our analyses found significant associations between psychedelic use and schizotypal traits. Results from experimental testing showed that total exposure to psychedelics (frequency and temporal proximity of use) was associated with better evidence integration (Cohen's d=0.13) and a higher sensitivity of fear responses (Cohen's d=1.05) to the effects instructed knowledge in a reversal aversive learning task modelled computationally with skin conductance response and pupillometry. This effect was present even when controlling for demographics and concomitant drug use. On a group level, however, only difference in sensitivity of fear responses to instructed knowledge reached statistical significance. Taken together, our findings suggest that psychedelic drug use is only weakly associated with psychosis-like symptoms, which, in turn, is to a large extent explained by psychiatric comorbidities and use of other psychoactive substances. Our results also suggest that psychedelics may have an effect on flexibility of evidence integration and aversive learning processes, that may be linked to recently suggested therapeutic effects of psychedelic drugs in non-psychotic psychiatric populations.
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4.
  • Kuehn, Simone, et al. (författare)
  • Brain Areas Consistently Linked to Individual Differences in Perceptual Decision-making in Younger as well as Older Adults before and after Training
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. - Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press. - 1530-8898 .- 0898-929X. ; 23:9, s. 2147-2158
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Perceptual decision-making performance depends on several cognitive and neural processes. Here, we fit Ratcliff's diffusion model to accuracy data and reaction-time distributions from one numerical and one verbal two-choice perceptual-decision task to deconstruct these performance measures into the rate of evidence accumulation (i.e., drift rate), response criterion setting (i.e., boundary separation), and peripheral aspects of performance (i.e., nondecision time). These theoretical processes are then related to individual differences in brain activation by means of multiple regression. The sample consisted of 24 younger and 15 older adults performing the task in fMRI before and after 100 daily 1-hr behavioral training sessions in a multitude of cognitive tasks. Results showed that individual differences in boundary separation were related to striatal activity, whereas differences in drift rate were related to activity in the inferior parietal lobe. These associations were not significantly modified by adult age or perceptual expertise. We conclude that the striatum is involved in regulating response thresholds, whereas the inferior parietal lobe might represent decision-making evidence related to letters and numbers.
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5.
  • Kühn, Simone, et al. (författare)
  • The dynamics of change in striatal activity following updating training
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193. ; 34:7, s. 1530-1541
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Increases in striatal activity have been suggested to mediate training-related improvements in working-memory ability. We investigated the temporal dynamics of changes in task-related brain activity following training of working memory. Participants in an experimental group and an active control group, trained on easier tasks of a constant difficulty in shorter sessions than the experimental group, were measured before, after about 1 week, and after more than 50 days of training. In the experimental group an initial increase of working-memory related activity in the functionally defined right striatum and anatomically defined right and left putamen was followed by decreases, resulting in an inverted u-shape function that relates activity to training over time. Activity increases in the striatum developed slower in the active control group, observed at the second posttest after more than 50 days of training. In the functionally defined left striatum, initial activity increases were maintained after more extensive training and the pattern was similar for the two groups. These results shed new light on the relation between activity in the striatum (especially the putamen) and the effects of working memory training, and illustrate the importance of multiple measurements for interpreting effects of training on regional brain activity.
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6.
  • Kuhn, Simone, et al. (författare)
  • The neural representation of intrusive thoughts
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. - : Oxford University Press. - 1749-5024 .- 1749-5016. ; 8:6, s. 688-693
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Based on the philosophical notion that language embodies thought we investigated whether a habitual tendency for intrusive thought that younger and older participants report over a period of 100 sessions, spread out over about 6 months, is associated with brain regions related to language production. In favour of this hypothesis, we found that individual differences in habitual intrusive thoughts are correlated with activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, Broca's area) as well as the cingulate cortex (CC) during a two-choice reaction-time task in fMRI. Participants who habitually tended to experience intrusive thoughts showed greater activity during task-free (baseline) compared to task periods in brain regions involved in language production. Task performance was unrelated to individual differences in intrusive thoughts. We conclude that intrusive thoughts may be represented in a language-like format and that individuals reporting a habitually higher tendency for intrusive thoughts may have stronger and more habitual inner speech processes.
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7.
  • Köhncke, Ylva, et al. (författare)
  • Self-rated intensity of habitual physical activities is positively associated with dopamine D-2/3 receptor availability and cognition
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - : Academic Press. - 1053-8119 .- 1095-9572. ; 181, s. 605-616
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Between-person differences in cognitive performance in older age are associated with variations in physical activity. The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) contributes to cognitive performance, and the DA system deteriorates with advancing age. Animal data and a patient study suggest that physical activity modulates DA receptor availability, but data from healthy humans are lacking. In a cross-sectional study with 178 adults aged 64-68 years, we investigated links among self-reported physical activity, D(2/3)DA receptor (D2/3DR) availability, and cognitive performance. D2/3DR availability was measured with [C-11]raclopride positron emission tomography at rest. We used structural equation modeling to obtain latent factors for processing speed, episodic memory, working memory, physical activity, and D2/3DR availability in caudate, putamen, and hippocampus. Physical activity intensity was positively associated with D2/3DR availability in caudate, but not putamen and hippocampus. Frequency of physical activity was not related to D2/3DR availability. Physical activity intensity was positively related to episodic memory and working memory. D2/3DR availability in caudate and hippocampus was positively related to episodic memory. Taken together, our results suggest that striatal DA availability might be a neurochemical correlate of episodic memory that is also associated with physical activity.
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8.
  • Salami, Alireza, et al. (författare)
  • Neurocognitive Profiles of Older Adults with Working-Memory Dysfunction
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cerebral Cortex. - : Oxford University Press. - 1047-3211 .- 1460-2199. ; 28:7, s. 2525-2539
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Individuals differ in how they perceive, remember, and think. There is evidence for the existence of distinct subgroups that differ in cognitive performance within the older population. However, it is less clear how individual differences in cognition in old age are linked to differences in brain-based measures. We used latent-profile analysis on n-back working-memory (WM) performance to identify subgroups in a large sample of older adults (n = 181; age = 64-68 years). Our analysis identified one larger normal subgroup with higher performance (n = 113; 63%), and a second smaller subgroup (n = 55; 31%) with lower performance. The low-performing subgroup showed weaker load-dependent BOLD modulation and lower connectivity within the fronto-parietal network (FPN) as well as between FPN and striatum during n-back, along with lower FPN connectivity at rest. This group also exhibited lower FPN structural integrity, lower frontal dopamine D2 binding potential, inferior performance on offline WM tests, and a trend-level genetic predisposition for lower dopamine-system efficiency. By contrast, this group exhibited relatively intact episodic memory and associated brain measures (i.e., hippocampal volume, structural, and functional connectivity within the default-mode network). Collectively, these data provide converging evidence for the existence of a group of older adults with impaired WM functioning characterized by reduced cortico-striatal coupling and aberrant cortico-cortical integrity within FPN.
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9.
  • Seblova, Dominika, et al. (författare)
  • Does prolonged education causally affect dementia risk when adult socioeconomic status is not altered? A Swedish natural experiment on 1.3 million individuals.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: American journal of epidemiology. - 1476-6256. ; 190:5, s. 817-826
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intervening on modifiable risk factors to prevent dementia is of key importance since progress-modifying treatments are not available. Education is inversely associated with dementia risk, but causality and mechanistic pathways remain unclear. We aimed to examine causality of this relationship in Sweden using a compulsory schooling reform that extended education by 1 year for 70 percent of the population as a natural experiment. The reform introduced substantial exogenous variation in education unrelated to pupils' characteristics. We followed 18 birth cohorts (n=1,341,842) from 1985 to 2016 (until 79-96 years) for dementia diagnosis in the National Inpatient and Cause of Death Registers and estimated Cox survival models with stratified baseline hazards at the school-district level, chronological age as the time scale, and cohort indicators. Analyses indicated very small or negligible causal effects of education on dementia risk (main HR = 1.01; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.04). Multiple sensitivity checks considering only compliers, pre-post design, differences in healthcare-seeking behavior, and impact of exposure misclassification left the results essentially unaltered. The reform had limited effects on further adult socio-economic outcomes, such as income. Our findings suggest that without mediation through adult socioeconomic position, education cannot be uncritically considered as a modifiable risk factor for dementia.
  •  
10.
  • Bellander, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Behavioral correlates of changes in hippocampal gray matter structure during acquisition of foreign vocabulary
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - : Elsevier. - 1053-8119 .- 1095-9572. ; 131, s. 205-213
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Experience can affect human gray matter volume. The behavioral correlates of individual differences in such brain changes are not well understood. In a group of Swedish individuals studying Italian as a foreign language, we investigated associations among time spent studying, acquired vocabulary, baseline performance on memory tasks, and gray matter changes. As a way of studying episodic memory training, the language learning focused on acquiring foreign vocabulary and lasted for 10 weeks. T-1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive testing were performed before and after the studies. Learning behavior was monitored via participants' use of a smartphone application dedicated to the study of vocabulary. A whole-brain analysis showed larger changes in gray matter structure of the right hippocampus in the experimental group (N = 33) compared to an active control group (N = 23). A first path analyses revealed that time spent studying rather than acquired knowledge significantly predicted change in gray matter structure. However, this association was not significant when adding performance on baseline memory measures into the model, instead only the participants' performance on a short-term memory task with highly similar distractors predicted the change. This measure may tap similar individual difference factors as those involved in gray matter plasticity of the hippocampus.
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