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1.
  • Olsson, Jan, et al. (författare)
  • Urea dilution of serum for reproducible anti-HSV1 IgG avidity index
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BMC Infectious Diseases. - : BioMed Central. - 1471-2334 .- 1471-2334. ; 19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), establishes life-long latency and can cause symptoms during both first-time infection and later reactivation. The aim of the present study was to describe a protocol to generate a reliable and discriminative avidity index (AI) for anti-HSV1 IgG content in human sera. Human serum from two distinct cohorts; one a biobank collection (Betula) (n = 28), and one from a clinical diagnostics laboratory at Northern Sweden University Hospital (NUS) (n = 18), were assessed for presence of IgG antibodies against HSV1 by a commercially available ELISA-kit. Addition of urea at the incubation step reduces effective binding, and the ratio between urea treated sample and non-treated sample was used to express an avidity index (AI) for individual samples. AI score ranged between 43.2 and 73.4% among anti-HSV1 positive biobank sera. Clinical samples ranged between 36.3 and 74.9%. Reproducibility expressed as an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was estimated at 0.948 (95% CI: 0.900-0.979) and 0.989 (95% CI 0.969-0.996) in the biobank and clinical samples, respectively. The method allows for AI scoring of anti-HSV1 IgG from individual human sera with a single measurement. The least significant change between two measurements at the p < 0.05 level was estimated at 5.4 and 3.2 points, respectively, for the two assessed cohorts.
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2.
  • Backman, Annica C., 1972-, et al. (författare)
  • Embodying person-centred being and doing : leading towards person-centred care in nursing homes as narrated by managers
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Nursing. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0962-1067 .- 1365-2702. ; 29:1-2, s. 172-183
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore how managers describe leading towards person-centred care in Swedish nursing homes.BACKGROUND: Although a growing body of research knowledge exists highlighting the importance of leadership to promote person-centred care, studies focused on nursing home managers' own descriptions of leading their staff towards providing person-centred care is lacking.DESIGN: Descriptive interview study. COREQ guidelines have been applied.METHODS: The study consisted of semi-structured interviews with 12 nursing home managers within 11 highly person-centred nursing homes purposively selected from a nationwide survey of nursing homes in Sweden. Data collection was performed in April 2017, and the data were analysed using content analysis.RESULTS: Leading towards person-centred care involved a main category; embodying person-centred being and doing, with four related categories: operationalising person-centred objectives; promoting a person-centred atmosphere; maximising person-centred team potential; and optimising person-centred support structures.CONCLUSIONS: The findings revealed that leading towards person-centred care was described as having a personal understanding of the PCC concept and how to translate it into practice, and maximising the potential of and providing support to care staff, within a trustful and innovative work place. The findings also describe how managers co-ordinate several aspects of care simultaneously, such as facilitating, evaluating and refining the translation of person-centred philosophy into synchronised care actions.RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The findings can be used to inspire nursing home leaders' practices and may serve as a framework for implementing person-centred care within facilities. A reasonable implication of these findings is that if organisations are committed to person-centred care provision, care may need to be organised in a way that enables managers to be present on the units, to enact these strategies and lead person-centred care.
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4.
  • Backman, Annica C., 1972-, et al. (författare)
  • The influence of nursing home managers’ leadership on person-centred care and stress of conscience: A cross-sectional study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: BMC Nursing. - : BioMed Central. - 1472-6955 .- 1472-6955. ; 20:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Leadership and stress are common concepts in nursing, and this study explores empirically the connection between leadership and stress of conscience in the context of aged care practice. Previous literature has shown that when staff are unable to carry out their ethical liabilities towards the residents, feelings of guilt may occur among staff, which may be an expression of stress of conscience. Although leadership has been described as crucial for staff’s work perceptions of stress as well as for person-centred practices, the influence of nursing home managers’ leadership on stress of conscience among staff and person-centred practices is still not fully explored. This study attempts to address that knowledge gap by exploring the relationship between leadership, person-centred care, and stress of conscience.Methods: This study was based on a cross-sectional national survey of 2985 staff and their managers in 190 nursing homes throughout Sweden. Descriptive statistics and regression modelling were used to explore associations.Results: Leadership was associated with a higher degree of person-centred care and less stress of conscience. A higher degree of person-centred care was also associated with less stress of conscience. The results also showed that leadership as well as person-centred care were individually associated with lower levels of stress of conscience when adjusting for potential confounders.Conclusion: Nursing home managers’ leadership was significantly associated with less staff stress of conscience and more person-centred care. This indicates that a leadership most prominently characterised by coaching and giving feedback, relying on staff and handling conflicts constructively, experimenting with new ideas, and controlling work individually can contribute to less staff stress as well as higher degree of person-centred care provision.
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5.
  • Backman, Annica C., 1972-, et al. (författare)
  • The significance of nursing home managers' leadership : longitudinal changes, characteristics and qualifications for perceived leadership, person-centredness and climate
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Nursing. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0962-1067 .- 1365-2702.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims and objectives: The aim was to explore changes in nursing home managers' leadership, person-centred care and psychosocial climate comparing matched units in a five-year follow-up and to explore the significance of managers' educational qualifications and the ownership of nursing homes for perceived leadership, person-centred care and psychosocial climate in the follow-up data.Background: Leadership has been described as crucial for person-centred care and psychosocial climate even though longitudinal data are lacking. The significance of managerial leadership, its characteristics, managerial qualifications and ownership of nursing homes for perceived leadership, person-centred care and psychosocial climate also needs further exploration.Design: Repeated cross-sectional study.Methods: This study used valid and reliable measures of leadership, person-centred care, psychosocial climate and demographic variables collected from managers and staff n = 3605 in 2014 and n = 2985 in 2019. Descriptive and regression analyses were used. The STROBE checklist was used in reporting this study.Results: Leadership was still positively significantly associated to person-centred care in a five-year follow-up, but no changes in strength were seen. Leadership was still positively significantly associated with psychosocial climate, with stronger associations at follow-up. Six leadership characteristics increased over time. It was also shown that a targeted education for nursing home managers was positively associated with person-centred care.Conclusions: Leadership is still pivotal for person-centred care and psychosocial climate. Knowledge of nursing home managers' leadership, characteristics and educational qualifications of significance for person-centred delivery provides important insights when striving to improve such services.Relevance to clinical practice: The findings can be used for management and clinical practice development initiatives because it was shown that nursing home managers' leadership is vital to person-centred care practices and improves the climate for both staff and residents in these environments.
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6.
  • Backman, Annica, et al. (författare)
  • Characteristics of highly rated leadership in nursing homes using item response theory
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Advanced Nursing. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0309-2402 .- 1365-2648. ; 73:12, s. 2903-2913
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To identify characteristics of highly rated leadership in nursing homes. Background: An ageing population entails fundamental social, economic and organizational challenges for future aged care. Knowledge is limited of both specific leadership behaviours and organizational and managerial characteristics which have an impact on the leadership of contemporary nursing home care. Design: Cross-sectional. Method: From 290 municipalities, 60 were randomly selected and 35 agreed to participate, providing a sample of 3605 direct-care staff employed in 169 Swedish nursing homes. The staff assessed their managers' (n = 191) leadership behaviours using the Leadership Behaviour Questionnaire. Data were collected from November 2013 - September 2014, and the study was completed in November 2016. A two-parameter item response theory approach and regression analyses were used to identify specific characteristics of highly rated leadership. Results: Five specific behaviours of highly rated nursing home leadership were identified; that the manager: experiments with new ideas; controls work closely; relies on subordinates; coaches and gives direct feedback; and handles conflicts constructively. The regression analyses revealed that managers with social work backgrounds and privately run homes were significantly associated with higher leadership ratings. Conclusion: This study highlights the five most important leadership behaviours that characterize those nursing home managers rated highest in terms of leadership. Managers in privately run nursing homes and managers with social work backgrounds were associated with higher leadership ratings. Further work is needed to explore these behaviours and factors predictive of higher leadership ratings.
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8.
  • Backman, Annica, 1972-, et al. (författare)
  • Job strain in nursing homes : exploring the impact of leadership
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Nursing. - 0962-1067 .- 1365-2702. ; 27:7-8, s. 1552-1560
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims and objectives: To explore the association between nursing home managers' leadership, job strain and social support as perceived by direct care staff in nursing homes.Background: It is well known that aged care staff experience high levels of job strain, and that aged care staff experiencing job strain are exposed to increased risk for adverse health effects. Leadership styles have been associated with job strain in the literature; however, the impact of perceived leadership on staff job strain and social support has not been clarified within nursing home contexts.Design: This study had a cross‐sectional design.Methods: Participating staff (n = 3,605) completed surveys which included questions about staff characteristics, valid and reliable measures of nursing home managers' leadership, perceived job strain and social support. Statistical analyses of correlations and multiple regression analysis with interaction terms were conducted.Results: Nursing home managers' leadership were significantly associated with lower level of job strain and higher level of social support among direct care staff. A multiple regression analysis including an interaction term indicated individual and joint effects of nursing home managers' leadership and social support on job strain.Conclusions: Nursing home managers' leadership and social support were both individually and in combination associated with staff perception of lesser job strain. Thus, nursing home managers' leadership are beneficial for the working situation and strain of staff.Relevance to clinical practice: Promoting a supporting work environment through leadership is an important implication for nursing home managers as it can influence staff perception of job strain and social support within the unit. By providing leadership, offering support and strategies towards a healthy work environment, nursing home managers can buffer adverse health effects among staff.
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9.
  • Backman, Annica, 1972- (författare)
  • Leadership : person-centred care and the work situation of staff in Swedish nursing homes
  • 2018
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Swedish nursing home managers, who constitute the empirical focus of this thesis, hold overall operational responsibility for the nursing homes, which includes the care of residents, direct care staff and work environment. Aged care organisations are also expected to provide person-centred care. Working towards a person-centred approach poses new demands and leads to challenges for leaders, and there is currently limited knowledge of what characterises leadership that promotes a person-centred approach. In addition, an ongoing demographic shift in the aged care workforce entails further challenges, as the proportion of professional workers is decreasing. Leading a healthy work environment is therefore important for ensuring and protecting staff health. Based on this, it is important to explore nursing home managers’ leadership in relation to person-centred care and the work situation of staff.Aim: The overall aim was to explore leadership in relation to person-centred care and the work situation of staff in Swedish nursing homes.Methods: This thesis is based on data from two data collections. First, it includes cross-sectional baseline data from a national inventory of health and care in Swedish nursing homes (SWENIS) collected in 2013-2014. The SWENIS dataset consists of a sample of staff n=3605 from 169 nursing homes in 35 municipalities, and nursing home managers n=191. The second data collection consists of 11 semi-structured interviews with 12 nursing home managers in highly person-centred nursing homes that already participated in SWENIS. Data were explored via descriptive statistics, simple and multiple regression analyses, and qualitative content analysis.Results: Leadership was positively associated with person-centred care and psychosocial climate. Highly rated leadership behaviors’ among nursing homes managers was characterized by experimenting with new ideas, controlling work closely, relying on his/her subordinates, coaching and giving direct feedback, and handling conflicts constructively. Leading person-centred care can be outlined by four leadership processes: embodying person-centred being and doing; promoting a person-centred atmosphere; maximizing person-centred team potential and optimising person-centred support structures. Leadership was also positively associated with social support and negatively associated with job strain. Further, the variation in leadership was to a very small extent explained by the nursing home managers’ educational qualification, operational form of the nursing home and the number of employees in a unit.Conclusions: All findings point in the same direction: that leadership, as it is characterized and measured in this thesis, is significantly associated with person-centred care provision as well as with the work situation of staff. This suggests that nursing managers have a central leadership role in developing and supporting person-centred care practices, and also in creating a healthy work environment. The results also highlight five specific leadership behaviours that are most characteristic of highly rated leadership, thereby adding concrete descriptions of behaviours to the literature on existing leadership theories. The findings also include four central processes for leading towards person-centred care in nursing homes. Taken together, it seems important for managers to translate the person-centred philosophy into actions and to promote an atmosphere pervaded by innovation and trust, in which cultural change is enhanced by positive cultural bearers. Utilizing the overall knowledge and competencies among staff and potentiating care teams was also considered important for leading person-centred care, along with optimising supportive structures for supporting and maintaining person-centred care. If aged care organisations are to be committed to person-centred care, an important implication seems to be to organise nursing homes in a way that allows nursing home managers to be close and present in clinical practice and actively lead towards person-centred care. The findings of this thesis contribute to our understanding of leadership in relation to person-centre care and the work situation of staff. These findings can be used in leadership educations and nursing curriculum. Longitudinal studies would be valuable for following leadership, person-centred care and the work situation of staff over time.
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10.
  • Backman, Annica, 1972-, et al. (författare)
  • Leading towards person-centred care – Nursing home managers' experiences of leading person-centred care in highly person-centred Swedish nursing homes
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background:Although a growing body of research knowledge exists highlighting the importance of leadership for person-centred care, studies focused on nursing home managers’ own descriptions of leading their staff to provide person-centred care is lacking. This study aims to explore the process of nursing home managers’ leading person-centred care in Swedish nursing homes.Methods:The methods of the study consisted of semi-structured interviews with 12 nursing home managers within 11 highly person-centred nursing homes purposively selected from a national wide survey of nursing homes in Sweden. A qualitative content analysis was performed for data analyses.Results:The study revealed that the leading person-centred care in nursing homes can be outlined as comprising four processes: Embodying person-centred being and doing; promoting a person-centred atmosphere; maximizing person-centred team potential; and finally, optimizing person-centred support structures.Conclusion:This study contributes to the literature by providing concrete descriptions of how person-centred care can be operationalised and supported in everyday practice by the leadership of nursing home managers. The study is significant in that it provides evidence on how the provision of person centred care can be facilitated by managers and the important role they play in developing and maintaining this philosophy of care within nursing homes.
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