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Sökning: WFRF:(Ladanyi Marc)

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1.
  • Shukla, Neerav, et al. (författare)
  • Proteasome Addiction Defined in Ewing Sarcoma Is Effectively Targeted by a Novel Class of 19S Proteasome Inhibitors
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - : AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. - 0008-5472 .- 1538-7445. ; 76:15, s. 4525-4534
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ewing sarcoma is a primitive round cell sarcoma with a peak incidence in adolescence that is driven by a chimeric oncogene created from the fusion of the EWSR1 gene with a member of the ETS family of genes. Patients with metastatic and recurrent disease have dismal outcomes and need better therapeutic options. We screened a library of 309,989 chemical compounds for growth inhibition of Ewing sarcoma cells to provide the basis for the development of novel therapies and to discover vulnerable pathways that might broaden our understanding of the pathobiology of this aggressive sarcoma. This screening campaign identified a class of benzyl-4-piperidone compounds that selectively inhibit the growth of Ewing sarcoma cell lines by inducing apoptosis. These agents disrupt 19S proteasome function through inhibition of the deubiquitinating enzymes USP14 and UCHL5. Functional genomic data from a genome-wide shRNA screen in Ewing sarcoma cells also identified the proteasome as a node of vulnerability in Ewing sarcoma cells, providing orthologous confirmation of the chemical screen findings. Furthermore, shRNA-mediated silencing of USP14 or UCHL5 in Ewing sarcoma cells produced significant growth inhibition. Finally, treatment of a xenograft mouse model of Ewing sarcoma with VLX1570, a benzyl-4-piperidone compound derivative currently in clinical trials for relapsed multiple myeloma, significantly inhibited in vivo tumor growth. Overall, our results offer a preclinical proof of concept for the use of 19S proteasome inhibitors as a novel therapeutic strategy for Ewing sarcoma. (C) 2016 AACR.
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2.
  • Barretina, Jordi, et al. (författare)
  • Subtype-specific genomic alterations define new targets for soft-tissue sarcoma therapy.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 42:8, s. 715-21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Soft-tissue sarcomas, which result in approximately 10,700 diagnoses and 3,800 deaths per year in the United States, show remarkable histologic diversity, with more than 50 recognized subtypes. However, knowledge of their genomic alterations is limited. We describe an integrative analysis of DNA sequence, copy number and mRNA expression in 207 samples encompassing seven major subtypes. Frequently mutated genes included TP53 (17% of pleomorphic liposarcomas), NF1 (10.5% of myxofibrosarcomas and 8% of pleomorphic liposarcomas) and PIK3CA (18% of myxoid/round-cell liposarcomas, or MRCs). PIK3CA mutations in MRCs were associated with Akt activation and poor clinical outcomes. In myxofibrosarcomas and pleomorphic liposarcomas, we found both point mutations and genomic deletions affecting the tumor suppressor NF1. Finally, we found that short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-based knockdown of several genes amplified in dedifferentiated liposarcoma, including CDK4 and YEATS4, decreased cell proliferation. Our study yields a detailed map of molecular alterations across diverse sarcoma subtypes and suggests potential subtype-specific targets for therapy.
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3.
  • Ding, Li, et al. (författare)
  • Somatic mutations affect key pathways in lung adenocarcinoma
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 455:7216, s. 1069-1075
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Determining the genetic basis of cancer requires comprehensive analyses of large collections of histopathologically well-classified primary tumours. Here we report the results of a collaborative study to discover somatic mutations in 188 human lung adenocarcinomas. DNA sequencing of 623 genes with known or potential relationships to cancer revealed more than 1,000 somatic mutations across the samples. Our analysis identified 26 genes that are mutated at significantly high frequencies and thus are probably involved in carcinogenesis. The frequently mutated genes include tyrosine kinases, among them the EGFR homologue ERBB4; multiple ephrin receptor genes, notably EPHA3; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor KDR; and NTRK genes. These data provide evidence of somatic mutations in primary lung adenocarcinoma for several tumour suppressor genes involved in other cancers--including NF1, APC, RB1 and ATM--and for sequence changes in PTPRD as well as the frequently deleted gene LRP1B. The observed mutational profiles correlate with clinical features, smoking status and DNA repair defects. These results are reinforced by data integration including single nucleotide polymorphism array and gene expression array. Our findings shed further light on several important signalling pathways involved in lung adenocarcinoma, and suggest new molecular targets for treatment.
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4.
  • Ladanyi, Marc, et al. (författare)
  • The der(17)t(X;17)(p11;q25) of human alveolar soft part sarcoma fuses the TFE3 transcription factor gene to ASPL, a novel gene at 17q25
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Oncogene. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5594. ; 20:1, s. 48-57
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is an unusual tumor with highly characteristic histopathology and ultrastructure, controversial histogenesis, and enigmatic clinical behavior. Recent cytogenetic studies have identified a recurrent der(17) due to a non-reciprocal t(X;17)(p11.2;q25) in this sarcoma. To define the interval containing the Xp11.2 break, we first performed FISH on ASPS cases using YAC probes for OATL1 (Xp11.23) and OATL2 (Xp11.21), and cosmid probes from the intervening genomic region. This localized the breakpoint to a 160 kb interval. The prime candidate within this previously fully sequenced region was TFE3, a transcription factor gene known to be fused to translocation partners on 1 and X in some papillary renal cell carcinomas. Southern blotting using a TFE3 genomic probe identified non-germline bands in several ASPS cases, consistent with rearrangement and possible fusion of TFE3 with a gene on 17q25. Amplification of the 5' portion of cDNAs containing the 3' portion of TFE3 in two different ASPS cases identified a novel sequence, designated ASPL, fused in-frame to TFE3 exon 4 (type 1 fusion) or exon 3 (type 2 fusion). Reverse transcriptase PCR using a forward primer from ASPL and a TFE3 exon 4 reverse primer detected an ASPL-TFE3 fusion transcript in all ASPS cases (12/12: 9 type 1, 3 type 2), establishing the utility of this assay in the diagnosis of ASPS. Using appropriate primers, the reciprocal fusion transcript, TFE3-ASPL, was detected in only one of 12 cases, consistent with the non-reciprocal nature of the translocation in most cases, and supporting ASPL-TFE3 as its oncogenically significant fusion product. ASPL maps to chromosome 17, is ubiquitously expressed, and matches numerous ESTs (Unigene cluster Hs.84128) but no named genes. The ASPL cDNA open reading frame encodes a predicted protein of 476 amino acids that contains within its carboxy-terminal portion of a UBX-like domain that shows significant similarity to predicted proteins of unknown function in several model organisms. The ASPL-TFE3 fusion replaces the N-terminal portion of TFE3 by the fused ASPL sequences, while retaining the TFE3 DNA-binding domain, implicating transcriptional deregulation in the pathogenesis of this tumor, consistent with the biology of several other translocation-associated sarcomas.
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5.
  • Mertens, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Translocation-related sarcomas.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Seminars in Oncology. - : W.B. Saunders. - 0093-7754. ; 36:4, s. 312-323
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sarcomas with chromosomal translocations represent only about one fourth of sarcoma diagnoses. However, like gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), with its characteristic KIT or PDGFRA mutations, they are particularly interesting since they provide specific biological insights and mechanisms of action that may have an impact upon prognosis or therapy. These are mechanisms we are just beginning to exploit. In this section we will review the biology and clinical impact of translocation-associated sarcomas and review the clinical findings that have made a recent impact upon patients with these diverse diagnoses.
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6.
  • Wang, Lu, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of a novel, recurrent HEY1-NCOA2 fusion in mesenchymal chondrosarcoma based on a genome-wide screen of exon-level expression data
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 1045-2257. ; 51:2, s. 127-139
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cancer gene fusions that encode a chimeric protein are often characterized by an intragenic discontinuity in the RNA\expression levels of the exons that are 5' or 3' to the fusion point in one or both of the fusion partners due to differences in the levels of activation of their respective promoters. Based on this, we developed an unbiased, genome-wide bioinformatic screen for gene fusions using Affymetrix Exon array expression data. Using a training set of 46 samples with different known gene fusions, we developed a data analysis pipeline, the Fusion Score (FS) model, to score and rank genes for intragenic changes in expression. In a separate discovery set of 41 tumor samples with possible unknown gene fusions, the FS model generated a list of 552 candidate genes. The transcription factor gene NCOA2 was one of the candidates identified in a mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. A novel HEY1-NCOA2 fusion was identified by 5' RACE, representing an in-frame fusion of HEY1 exon 4 to NCOA2 exon 13. RT-PCR or FISH evidence of this HEY1-NCOA2 fusion was present in all additional mesenchymal chondrosarcomas tested with a definitive histologic diagnosis and adequate material for analysis (n = 9) but was absent in 15 samples of other subtypes of chondrosarcomas. We also identified a NUP107-LGR5 fusion in a dedifferentiated liposarcoma but analysis of 17 additional samples did not confirm it as a recurrent event in this sarcoma type. The novel HEY1-NCOA2 fusion appears to be the defining and diagnostic gene fusion in mesenchymal chondrosarcomas. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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