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Sökning: WFRF:(Lagerquist E.)

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1.
  • Börjesson, Anna E, et al. (författare)
  • The role of estrogen receptor-alpha and its activation function-1 for growth plate closure in female mice
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism. - 0193-1849. ; 302:11, s. E1381-E1389
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Borjesson AE, Windahl SH, Karimian E, Eriksson EE, Lagerquist MK, Engdahl C, Antal MC, Krust A, Chambon P, Savendahl L, Ohlsson C. The role of estrogen receptor-alpha and its activation function-1 for growth plate closure in female mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 302: E1381-E1389, 2012. First published March 13, 2012; doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00646.2011.-High estradiol levels in late puberty induce growth plate closure and thereby cessation of growth in humans. In mice, the growth plates do not fuse after sexual maturation, but old mice display reduced longitudinal bone growth and high-dose estradiol treatment induces growth plate closure. Estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha stimulates gene transcription via two activation functions (AFs), AF-1 and AF-2. To evaluate the role of ER alpha and its AF-1 for age-dependent reduction in longitudinal bone growth and growth plate closure, female mice with inactivation of ER alpha (ER alpha(-/-)) or ER alpha AF-1 (ER alpha AF-1(0)) were evaluated. Old (16- to 19-mo-old) female ER alpha(-/-) mice showed continued substantial longitudinal bone growth, resulting in longer bones (tibia: +8.3%, P < 0.01) associated with increased growth plate height (+18%, P < 0.05) compared with wild-type (WT) mice. In contrast, the longitudinal bone growth ceased in old ER alpha AF-1(0) mice (tibia: -4.9%, P < 0.01). Importantly, the proximal tibial growth plates were closed in all old ER alpha AF-1(0) mice while they were open in all WT mice. Growth plate closure was associated with a significantly altered balance between chondrocyte proliferation and apoptosis in the growth plate. In conclusion, old female ER alpha(-/-) mice display a prolonged and enhanced longitudinal bone growth associated with increased growth plate height, resembling the growth phenotype of patients with inactivating mutations in ER alpha or aromatase. In contrast, ER alpha AF-1 deletion results in a hyperactive ER alpha, altering the chondrocyte proliferation/apoptosis balance, leading to growth plate closure. This suggests that growth plate closure is induced by functions of ER alpha that do not require AF-1 and that ER alpha AF-1 opposes growth plate closure.
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2.
  • Nilsson, Maria E., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of a comprehensive sex steroid profile in rodent serum by high-sensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Endocrinology. - 1945-7170. ; 156:7, s. 2492-502
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Accurate measurement of sex steroid concentrations in rodent serum is essential to evaluate mouse and rat models for sex steroid-related disorders. The aim of the present study was to develop a sensitive and specific gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method to assess a comprehensive sex steroid profile in rodent serum. A major effort was invested in reaching an exceptionally high sensitivity for measuring serum estradiol concentrations. We established a GC-MS/MS assay with a lower limit of detection for estradiol, estrone, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, progesterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone of 0.3, 0.5, 4, 1.6, 8, 4 and 50 pg/ml, respectively, while the corresponding values for the lower limit of quantification were 0.5, 0.5, 8, 2.5, 74, 12 and 400 pg/ml, respectively. Calibration curves were linear, intra- and inter-assay CVs were low and accuracy was excellent for all analytes. The established assay was used to accurately measure a comprehensive sex steroid profile in female rats and mice according to estrus cycle phase. In addition, we characterized the impact of age, sex, gonadectomy, and estradiol treatment on serum concentrations of these sex hormones in mice. In conclusion, we have established a highly sensitive and specific GC-MS/MS method to assess a comprehensive sex steroid profile in rodent serum in a single run. This GC-MS/MS assay has, to the best of our knowledge, the best detectability reported for estradiol. Our method therefore represents an ideal tool to characterize sex steroid metabolism in a variety of sex steroid-related rodent models and in human samples with low estradiol levels.
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3.
  • Iravani, M., et al. (författare)
  • Effects of the selective GPER1 agonist G1 on bone growth
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Endocrine Connections. - 2049-3614. ; 8:9, s. 1302-1309
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Estrogens may affect bone growth locally or systemically via the known estrogen receptors ESR1, ESR2 and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1). Mouse and human growth plate chondrocytes have been demonstrated to express GPER1 and ablation of this receptor increased bone length in mice. Therefore, GPER1 is an attractive target for therapeutic modulation of bone growth, which has never been explored. To investigate the effects of activated GPER1 on the growth plate, we locally exposed mouse metatarsal bones to different concentrations of the selective GPER1 agonist G1 for 14 days ex vivo. The results showed that none of the concentrations of G1 had any direct effect on metatarsal bone growth when compared to control. To evaluate if GPER1 stimulation may systemically modulate bone growth, ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice were treated with G1 or beta-estradiol (E2). Similarly, G1 did not influence tibia and femur growth in treated mice. As expected, E2 treatment suppressed bone growth in vivo. We conclude that ligand stimulation of GPER1 does not influence bone growth in mice.
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4.
  • Niklasson, Bo, et al. (författare)
  • Prenatal viral exposure followed by adult stress produces glucose intolerance in a mouse model
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 49:9, s. 2192-2199
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis: It has been suggested that the uterine environment may influence metabolic disease occurring later in adult life, and that adult stress may promote disease outcome. Using a mouse model, we tested whether in utero exposure to Ljungan virus (LV) followed by adult exposure to stress produces diabetes. The influence of the timing of viral exposure over the course of pregnancy was also tested. Materials and methods: Pregnant CD-1 mice were exposed i.p. to LV on pregnancy days 4, 8, 12 or 17. Adult male mice from these pregnancies were stressed by being kept in shared cages. Stress only, LV exposure in utero only, and no-stress/no virus exposure groups were also followed. Outcome variables included bodyweight, epididymal fat weight, baseline glucose, glucose tolerance tests (60 and 120 min) and serum insulin. Results: We demonstrated that male mice developed a type 2-like diabetes, including obesity, as adults if infected during pregnancy with LV. Diabetes at the age of 11 weeks was more severe in mice whose mothers were infected earlier than in those whose mothers were infected later in pregnancy. Only animals infected in utero and kept under stress developed diabetes; infection or stress alone did not cause disease. Conclusions/interpretation: This work demonstrates that a type 2 diabetes-like disease can be virus-induced in a mouse model. Early in utero viral insults can set the stage for disease occurring during adult life, but the final manifestation of diabetes is dependent on the combination of early viral exposure and stress in adult life.
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5.
  • Windahl, Sara H, 1971, et al. (författare)
  • The role of the G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 in the effects of estrogen in ovariectomized mice.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism. - : American Physiological Society. - 0193-1849 .- 1522-1555. ; 296:3, s. E490-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In vitro studies suggest that the membrane G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 is a functional estrogen receptor (ER). The aim of the present study was to determine the possible in vivo role of GPR30 as a functional ER primarily for the regulation of skeletal parameters, including bone mass and longitudinal bone growth, but also for some other well-known estrogen-regulated parameters, including uterine weight, thymus weight, and fat mass. Three-month-old ovariectomized (OVX) GPR30-deficient mice (GPR30(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice were treated with either vehicle or increasing doses of estradiol (E(2); 0, 30, 70, 160, or 830 ng.mouse(-1).day(-1)). Body composition [bone mineral density (BMD), fat mass, and lean mass] was analyzed by dual-energy-X ray absorptiometry, while the cortical and trabecular bone compartments were analyzed by peripheral quantitative computerized tomography. Quantitative histological analyses were performed in the distal femur growth plate. Bone marrow cellularity and distribution were analyzed using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. The estrogenic responses on most of the investigated parameters, including increase in bone mass (total body BMD, spine BMD, trabecular BMD, and cortical bone thickness), increase in uterine weight, thymic atrophy, fat mass reduction, and increase in bone marrow cellularity, were similar for all of the investigated E(2) doses in WT and GPR30(-/-) mice. On the other hand, E(2) treatment reduced longitudinal bone growth, reflected by decreased femur length and distal femur growth plate height, in the WT mice but not in the GPR30(-/-) mice compared with vehicle-treated mice. These in vivo findings demonstrate that GPR30 is not required for normal estrogenic responses on several major well-known estrogen-regulated parameters. In contrast, GPR30 is required for a normal estrogenic response in the growth plate.
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6.
  • Farman, H. H., et al. (författare)
  • Female mice lacking estrogen receptor-α in hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons display enhanced estrogenic response on cortical bone mass
  • Ingår i: Endocrinology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0013-7227. ; 157:8, s. 3242-3252
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Estrogens are important regulators of bone mass and their effects are mainly mediated via estrogen receptor(ER)α.CentralERα exertsaninhibitoryroleonbonemass.ERα ishighlyexpressedinthearcuate (ARC) and the ventromedial (VMN) nuclei in the hypothalamus. To test whether ERα in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, located in ARC, is involved in the regulation of bone mass, we used mice lacking ERα expression specifically in POMC neurons (POMC-ERα -/- ). Female POMC-ERα -/- and control mice were ovariectomized (OVX) and treated with vehicle or estradiol (0.5 μg/d) for 6 weeks. As expected, estradiol treatment increased the cortical bone thickness in femur, the cortical bone mechanical strength in tibia and the trabecular bone volume fraction in both femur and vertebrae in OVX control mice. Importantly, the estrogenic responses were substantially increased in OVX POMC-ERα -/- mice compared with the estrogenic responses in OVX control mice for cortical bone thickness (+126 ± 34%, P < .01) and mechanical strength (+193 ± 38%, P < .01). To test whether ERα in VMN is involved in the regulation of bone mass, ERα was silenced using an adeno-associated viral vector. Silencing of ERα in hypothalamic VMN resulted in unchanged bone mass. In conclusion, mice lacking ERα in POMC neurons display enhanced estrogenic response on cortical bone mass and mechanical strength. We propose that the balance between inhibitory effects of central ERα activity in hypothalamic POMC neurons in ARC and stimulatory peripheral ERaα-mediated effects in bone determines cortical bone mass in female mice.
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7.
  • Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia, et al. (författare)
  • The bone-sparing effects of estrogen and WNT16 are independent of each other
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 112:48, s. 14972-14977
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Wingless-type MMTV integration site family (WNT)16 is a key regulator of bone mass with high expression in cortical bone, and Wnt16-/- mice have reduced cortical bone mass. As Wnt16 expression is enhanced by estradiol treatment, we hypothesized that the bone-sparing effect of estrogen in females isWNT16-dependent. This hypothesis was tested in mechanistic studies using two genetically modified mouse models with either constantly high osteoblastic Wnt16 expression or no Wnt16 expression. We developed a mouse model with osteoblast-specific Wnt16 overexpression (Obl-Wnt16). These mice had several-fold elevated Wnt16 expression in both trabecular and cortical bone compared with wild type (WT) mice. Obl- Wnt16 mice displayed increased total body bone mineral density (BMD), surprisingly caused mainly by a substantial increase in trabecular bone mass, resulting in improved bone strength of vertebrae L3. Ovariectomy (ovx) reduced the total body BMD and the trabecular bone mass to the same degree in Obl-Wnt16 mice and WT mice, suggesting that the bone-sparing effect of estrogen is WNT16-independent. However, these bone parameters were similar in ovx Obl- Wnt16 mice and sham operated WT mice. The role of WNT16 for the bone-sparing effect of estrogen was also evaluated in Wnt16-/- mice. Treatment with estradiol increased the trabecular and cortical bone mass to a similar extent in both Wnt16-/- and WT mice. In conclusion, the bone-sparing effects of estrogen and WNT16 are independent of each other. Furthermore, loss of endogenous WNT16 results specifically in cortical bone loss, whereas overexpression of WNT16 surprisingly increases mainly trabecular bone mass. WNT16- targeted therapies might be useful for treatment of postmenopausal trabecular bone loss.
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8.
  • Nilsson, Anna-Lena, et al. (författare)
  • Temporal Variation of Ljungan Virus Antibody Levels in Relation to Islet Autoantibodies and Possible Correlation to Childhood Type 1 Diabetes
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Open Pediatric Medicine Journal. - 1874-3099. ; 3, s. 61-66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Viral infection may trigger islet autoimmunity, type 1diabetes (T1D), or both. Fluctuating population density of bank voles as a putative reservoir of Ljungan virus has been claimed to be associated with variations in T1D incidence rate (IR). We tested the hypothesis that Ljungan virus antibodies reflecting prior exposure(s) to the virus may be associated with islet autoimmunity, childhood diabetes or both. Incident, 0-18y, T1D patients (n = 63) were studied along with age and sample time matched controls (n = 126). The younger children (< 9 years) tended to have a higher incidence rate during winter (IR = 67.6, 95%CI 41.9-103.5) compared to summer (IR = 33.6, 95%CI 15.3-63.9) months. The proportion of children with high level antibodies against Ljungan virus (LVAb) were both younger compared to the rest of the children (p < 0.002) and correlated with half yearly T1D IR (r = 0.78, p = 0.005). High level LVAb fluctuating with season and correlating with T1D IR indicates that past exposure to Ljungan virus may be associated with T1D.
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9.
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10.
  • Windahl, Sara H., et al. (författare)
  • Estrogen Receptor-alpha is required for the Osteogenic Response to mechanical loading in a Ligand-Independent manner involving its activation function 1 but Not 2
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. - 0884-0431 .- 1523-4681. ; 28:2, s. 291-301
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Estrogen receptor-alpha (ER alpha) is crucial for the adaptive response of bone to loading but the role of endogenous estradiol (E2) for this response is unclear. To determine in vivo the ligand dependency and relative roles of different ERa domains for the osteogenic response to mechanical loading, gene-targeted mouse models with (1) a complete ERa inactivation (ER alpha(-/-)), (2) specific inactivation of activation function 1 (AF-1) in ER alpha (ER alpha AF-1(0)), or (3) specific inactivation of ER alpha AF-2 (ER alpha AF- 2(0)) were subjected to axial loading of tibia, in the presence or absence (ovariectomy [ovx]) of endogenous E2. Loading increased the cortical bone area in the tibia mainly as a result of an increased periosteal bone formation rate (BFR) and this osteogenic response was similar in gonadal intact and ovx mice, demonstrating that E2 (ligand) is not required for this response. Female ER alpha(-/-) mice displayed a severely reduced osteogenic response to loading with changes in cortical area (-78% +/- 15%, p < 0.01) and periosteal BFR (-81% +/- 9%, p < 0.01) being significantly lower than in wild-type (WT) mice. ER alpha AF-1(0) mice also displayed a reduced response to mechanical loading compared with WT mice (cortical area -40% +/- 11%, p < 0.05 and periosteal BFR -41% +/- 8%, p < 0.01), whereas the periosteal osteogenic response to loading was unaffected in ER alpha AF-2(0) mice. Mechanical loading of transgenic estrogen response element (ERE)-luciferase reporter mice did not increase luciferase expression in cortical bone, suggesting that the loading response does not involve classical genomic ERE-mediated pathways. In conclusion, ERa is required for the osteogenic response to mechanical loading in a ligand-independent manner involving AF-1 but not AF-2. (C) 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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