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Sökning: WFRF:(Laikre Linda)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 90
  • [1]234567...9Nästa
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1.
  • André, Carl, et al. (författare)
  • Detecting population structure in a high gene-flow species, Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) : direct, simultaneous evaluation of neutral vs putatively selected loci
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Heredity. - 0018-067X .- 1365-2540. ; 106:2, s. 270-280
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In many marine fish species, genetic population structure is typically weak because populations are large, evolutionarily young and have a high potential for gene flow. We tested whether genetic markers influenced by natural selection are more efficient than the presumed neutral genetic markers to detect population structure in Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), a migratory pelagic species with large effective population sizes. We compared the spatial and temporal patterns of divergence and statistical power of three traditional genetic marker types, microsatellites, allozymes and mitochondrial DNA, with one microsatellite locus, Cpa112, previously shown to be influenced by divergent selection associated with salinity, and one locus located in the major histocompatibility complex class IIA (MHC-IIA) gene, using the same individuals across analyses. Samples were collected in 2002 and 2003 at two locations in the North Sea, one location in the Skagerrak and one location in the low-saline Baltic Sea. Levels of divergence for putatively neutral markers were generally low, with the exception of single outlier locus/sample combinations; microsatellites were the most statistically powerful markers under neutral expectations. We found no evidence of selection acting on the MHC locus. Cpa112, however, was highly divergent in the Baltic samples. Simulations addressing the statistical power for detecting population divergence showed that when using Cpa112 alone, compared with using eight presumed neutral microsatellite loci, sample sizes could be reduced by up to a tenth while still retaining high statistical power. Our results show that the loci influenced by selection can serve as powerful markers for detecting population structure in high gene-flow marine fish species.
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2.
  • Lamichhaney, Sangeet, et al. (författare)
  • Population-scale sequencing reveals genetic differentiation due to local adaptation in Atlantic herring
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - : National Academy of Sciences. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 109:47, s. 19345-19350
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), one of the most abundant marine fishes in the world, has historically been a critical food source in Northern Europe. It is one of the few marine pecies that can reproduce throughout the brackish salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. Previous studies based on few genetic markers have revealed a conspicuous lack of genetic differentiation between geographic regions, consistent with huge population sizes and minute genetic drift. Here, we present a cost-effective genome-wide study in a species that lacks a genome sequence. We first assembled a muscle transcriptome and then aligned genomic reads to the transcripts, creating an “exome assembly,” capturing both exons and flanking sequences. We then resequenced pools of fish from a wide geographic range, including the Northeast Atlantic, as well as different regions in the Baltic Sea, aligned the reads to the exome assembly, and identified 440,817 SNPs. The great majority of SNPs showed no appreciable differences in allele frequency among populations; however, several thousand SNPs showed striking differences, some approaching fixation for different alleles. The contrast between low genetic differentiation at most loci and striking differences at others implies that the latter category primarily reflects natural selection. A simulation study confirmed that the distribution of the fixation index FST deviated significantly from expectation for selectively neutral loci. This study provides insights concerning the population  structure of an important marine fish and establishes the Atlantic herring as a model for population genetic studies of adaptation and natural selection.
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3.
  • Larsson, LC, et al. (författare)
  • Temporally stable genetic structure of heavily exploited Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in Swedish waters
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Heredity. - 0018-067X .- 1365-2540. ; 104:1, s. 40-51
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Information on the temporal stability of genetic structures is important to permit detection of changes that can constitute threats to biological resources. Large-scale harvesting operations are known to potentially alter the composition and reduce the variability of populations, and Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) has a long history of heavy exploitation. In the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak waters, the census population sizes have declined by 35-50% over the last three decades. We compared the genetic structure of Atlantic herring in these waters sampled at least two different times between 1979 and 2003 by assaying 11 allozyme and nine microsatellite loci. We cannot detect any changes in the amount of genetic variation or spatial structure, and differentiation is weak with overall F-ST-0.003 among localities for the older samples and F-ST=0.002 for the newer ones. There are indications of temporal allele frequency changes, particularly in one of five sampling localities that is reflected in a relatively small local N-e estimate of c. 400. The previously identified influence of selection at the microsatellite locus Cpa112 remains stable over the 24-year period studied here. Despite little genetic differentiation, migration among localities appears small enough to permit demographic independence between populations. Heredity (2010) 104, 40-51; doi:10.1038/hdy.2009.98; published online 5 August 2009
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4.
  • Reusch, T. B. H., et al. (författare)
  • The Baltic Sea as a time machine for the future coastal ocean
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Science Advances. - : AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE. - 2375-2548. ; 4:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Coastal global oceans are expected to undergo drastic changes driven by climate change and increasing anthropogenic pressures in coming decades. Predicting specific future conditions and assessing the best management strategies to maintain ecosystem integrity and sustainable resource use are difficult, because of multiple interacting pressures, uncertain projections, and a lack of test cases for management. We argue that the Baltic Sea can serve as a time machine to study consequences and mitigation of future coastal perturbations, due to its unique combination of an early history of multistressor disturbance and ecosystem deterioration and early implementation of cross-border environmental management to address these problems. The Baltic Sea also stands out in providing a strong scientific foundation and accessibility to long-term data series that provide a unique opportunity to assess the efficacy of management actions to address the breakdown of ecosystem functions. Trend reversals such as the return of top predators, recovering fish stocks, and reduced input of nutrient and harmful substances could be achieved only by implementing an international, cooperative governance structure transcending its complex multistate policy setting, with integrated management of watershed and sea. The Baltic Sea also demonstrates how rapidly progressing global pressures, particularly warming of Baltic waters and the surrounding catchment area, can offset the efficacy of current management approaches. This situation calls for management that is (i) conservative to provide a buffer against regionally unmanageable global perturbations, (ii) adaptive to react to new management challenges, and, ultimately, (iii) multisectorial and integrative to address conflicts associated with economic trade-offs.
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5.
  • Wennerström, L., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic biodiversity in the Baltic Sea: Species-specific patterns challenge management
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Biodiversity and Conservation. - 0960-3115 .- 1572-9710. ; 22:13-14, s. 3045-3065
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Information on spatial and temporal patterns of genetic diversity is a prerequisite to understanding the demography of populations, and is fundamental to successful management and conservation of species. In the sea, it has been observed that oceanographic and other physical forces can constitute barriers to gene flow that may result in similar population genetic structures in different species. Such similarities among species would greatly simplify management of genetic biodiversity. Here, we tested for shared genetic patterns in a complex marine area, the Baltic Sea. We assessed spatial patterns of intraspecific genetic diversity and differentiation in seven ecologically important species of the Baltic ecosystem-Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), northern pike (Esox lucius), European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus), three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius), blue mussel (Mytilus spp.), and bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus). We used nuclear genetic data of putatively neutral microsatellite and SNP loci from samples collected from seven regions throughout the Baltic Sea, and reference samples from North Atlantic areas. Overall, patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation among sampling regions were unique for each species, although all six species with Atlantic samples indicated strong resistence to Atlantic-Baltic gene-flow. Major genetic barriers were not shared among species within the Baltic Sea; most species show genetic heterogeneity, but significant isolation by distance was only detected in pike and whitefish. These species-specific patterns of genetic structure preclude generalizations and emphasize the need to undertake genetic surveys for species separately, and to design management plans taking into consideration the specific structures of each species. © 2013 The Author(s).
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6.
  • Andersson, Anastasia, et al. (författare)
  • Complex genetic diversity patterns of cryptic, sympatric brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations in tiny mountain lakes
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Conservation Genetics. - 1566-0621 .- 1572-9737. ; 18:5, s. 1213-1227
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intraspecific genetic variation can have similar effects as species diversity on ecosystem function; understanding such variation is important, particularly for ecological key species. The brown trout plays central roles in many northern freshwater ecosystems, and several cases of sympatric brown trout populations have been detected in freshwater lakes based on apparent morphological differences. In some rare cases, sympatric, genetically distinct populations lacking visible phenotypic differences have been detected based on genetic data alone. Detecting such cryptic sympatric populations without prior grouping of individuals based on phenotypic characteristics is more difficult statistically, though. The aim of the present study is to delineate the spatial connectivity of two cryptic, sympatric genetic clusters of brown trout discovered in two interconnected, tiny subarctic Swedish lakes. The structures were detected using allozyme markers, and have been monitored over time. Here, we confirm their existence for almost three decades and report that these cryptic, sympatric populations exhibit very different connectivity patterns to brown trout of nearby lakes. One of the clusters is relatively isolated while the other one shows high genetic similarity to downstream populations. There are indications of different spawning sites as reflected in genetic structuring among parr from different creeks. We used > 3000 SNPs on a subsample and find that the SNPs largely confirm the allozyme pattern but give considerably lower F (ST) values, and potentially indicate further structuring within populations. This type of complex genetic substructuring over microgeographical scales might be more common than anticipated and needs to be considered in conservation management.
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7.
  • Andersson, Anastasia, et al. (författare)
  • Lack of trophic polymorphism despite substantial genetic differentiation in sympatric brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Ecology of Freshwater Fish. - : WILEY. - 0906-6691 .- 1600-0633. ; 26:4, s. 643-652
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sympatric populations occur in many freshwater fish species; such populations are typically detected through morphological distinctions that are often coupled to food niche and genetic separations. In salmonids, trophic and genetically separate sympatric populations have been reported in landlocked Arctic char, whitefish and brown trout. In Arctic char and brown trout rare cases of sympatric, genetically distinct populations have been detected based on genetic data alone, with no apparent morphological differences, that is cryptic structuring. It remains unknown whether such cryptic, sympatric structuring can be coupled to food niche separation. Here, we perform an extensive screening for trophic divergence of two genetically divergent, seemingly cryptic, sympatric brown trout populations documented to remain in stable sympatry over several decades in two interconnected, tiny mountain lakes in a nature reserve in central Sweden. We investigate body shape, body length, gill raker metrics, breeding status and diet (stomach content analysis and stable isotopes) in these populations. We find small significant differences for body shape, body size and breeding status, and no evidence of food niche separation between these two populations. In contrast, fish in the two lakes differed in body shape, diet, and nitrogen and carbon isotope signatures despite no genetic difference between lakes. These genetically divergent populations apparently coexist using the same food resources and showing the same adaptive plasticity to the local food niches of the two separate lakes. Such observations have not been reported previously but may be more common than recognised as genetic screenings are necessary to detect the structures.
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8.
  • Andersson, Anastasia, et al. (författare)
  • Two shades of boldness : novel object and anti-predator behavior reflect different personality dimensions in domestic rabbits
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of ethology. - : Springer Verlag (Germany). - 0289-0771 .- 1439-5444. ; 32:3, s. 123-136
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is increasingly common to quantify and describe behavioral variation in domestic and wild animals in terms of personality. Correlating behavioral traits are referred to as personality dimensions or factors and different dimensions have been reported in different species. Boldness is a well-described personality dimension in several species, although some issues remain unclear. Previous models of boldness include both novelty and risk taking, but recent studies indicate that these types of behaviors may reflect separate personality dimensions. In this study, we developed a behavioral test battery for domestic rabbits, and recorded behaviors of 61 individuals in four different situations (novel object, novel arena, social, and predator interactions). We used domestic rabbits as a model because behavioral variation in rabbits has rarely been quantified in terms of personality dimensions, although rabbit behavior is described. We also wanted to investigate behavioral variation in a Swedish rabbit breed of conservation concern - the Gotland rabbit. Factor analysis of the behavioral test measures suggested three personality dimensions: exploration, boldness, and anxiety. Novel object scores clustered in the exploration and boldness factors, whereas scores associated with predator interactions were explained by anxiety, indicating that novel object and anti-predator behavior reflect different personality dimensions in rabbits.
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9.
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10.
  • Anrup, Roland, et al. (författare)
  • Centrala universitetsvärden hotas av bolagiseringsidén
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Dagens nyheter. - 1101-2447.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Högskolestiftelser. Förslaget att driva svenska universitet i stiftelseform ­öppnar för bolagisering. Men det är ingen riktig utredning, utan en politisk pamflett utan ­eftertanke. Privatisering av universitet hotar både oberoendet, forskningskvaliteten och samhällsnyttan, skriver 36 forskare vid svenska högskolor och universitet.
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