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Sökning: WFRF:(Lake A)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 39
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1.
  • Fitzmauric, C., et al. (författare)
  • Global, Regional, and National Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived with Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life-Years for 29 Cancer Groups, 1990 to 2017 : A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: JAMA Oncology. - : American Medical Association. - 2374-2437 .- 2374-2445. ; 5:12, s. 1749-1768
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance: Cancer and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are now widely recognized as a threat to global development. The latest United Nations high-level meeting on NCDs reaffirmed this observation and also highlighted the slow progress in meeting the 2011 Political Declaration on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases and the third Sustainable Development Goal. Lack of situational analyses, priority setting, and budgeting have been identified as major obstacles in achieving these goals. All of these have in common that they require information on the local cancer epidemiology. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study is uniquely poised to provide these crucial data.Objective: To describe cancer burden for 29 cancer groups in 195 countries from 1990 through 2017 to provide data needed for cancer control planning.Evidence Review: We used the GBD study estimation methods to describe cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). Results are presented at the national level as well as by Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income, educational attainment, and total fertility rate. We also analyzed the influence of the epidemiological vs the demographic transition on cancer incidence.Findings: In 2017, there were 24.5 million incident cancer cases worldwide (16.8 million without nonmelanoma skin cancer [NMSC]) and 9.6 million cancer deaths. The majority of cancer DALYs came from years of life lost (97%), and only 3% came from years lived with disability. The odds of developing cancer were the lowest in the low SDI quintile (1 in 7) and the highest in the high SDI quintile (1 in 2) for both sexes. In 2017, the most common incident cancers in men were NMSC (4.3 million incident cases); tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer (1.5 million incident cases); and prostate cancer (1.3 million incident cases). The most common causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for men were TBL cancer (1.3 million deaths and 28.4 million DALYs), liver cancer (572000 deaths and 15.2 million DALYs), and stomach cancer (542000 deaths and 12.2 million DALYs). For women in 2017, the most common incident cancers were NMSC (3.3 million incident cases), breast cancer (1.9 million incident cases), and colorectal cancer (819000 incident cases). The leading causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for women were breast cancer (601000 deaths and 17.4 million DALYs), TBL cancer (596000 deaths and 12.6 million DALYs), and colorectal cancer (414000 deaths and 8.3 million DALYs).Conclusions and Relevance: The national epidemiological profiles of cancer burden in the GBD study show large heterogeneities, which are a reflection of different exposures to risk factors, economic settings, lifestyles, and access to care and screening. The GBD study can be used by policy makers and other stakeholders to develop and improve national and local cancer control in order to achieve the global targets and improve equity in cancer care. 
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2.
  • Cozen, W., et al. (författare)
  • A meta-analysis of Hodgkin lymphoma reveals 19p13.3 TCF3 as a novel susceptibility locus
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 5, s. 3856-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) have identified associations with genetic variation at both HLA and non-HLA loci; however, much of heritable HL susceptibility remains unexplained. Here we perform a meta-analysis of three HL GWAS totaling 1,816 cases and 7,877 controls followed by replication in an independent set of 1,281 cases and 3,218 controls to find novel risk loci. We identify a novel variant at 19p13.3 associated with HL (rs1860661; odds ratio (OR) = 0.81, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.76-0.86, P-combined 3.5 x 10(-10)), located in intron 2 of TCF3 (also known as E2A), a regulator of B-and T-cell lineage commitment known to be involved in HL pathogenesis. This meta-analysis also notes associations between previously published loci at 2p16, 5q31, 6p31, 8q24 and 10p14 and HL subtypes. We conclude that our data suggest a link between the 19p13.3 locus, including TCF3, and HL risk.
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3.
  • Meyer, H., et al. (författare)
  • Overview of physics results from MAST towards ITER/DEMO and the MAST Upgrade
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 53:10, s. 104008-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • New diagnostic, modelling and plant capability on the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) have delivered important results in key areas for ITER/DEMO and the upcoming MAST Upgrade, a step towards future ST devices on the path to fusion currently under procurement. Micro-stability analysis of the pedestal highlights the potential roles of micro-tearing modes and kinetic ballooning modes for the pedestal formation. Mitigation of edge localized modes (ELM) using resonant magnetic perturbation has been demonstrated for toroidal mode numbers n = 3, 4, 6 with an ELM frequency increase by up to a factor of 9, compatible with pellet fuelling. The peak heat flux of mitigated and natural ELMs follows the same linear trend with ELM energy loss and the first ELM-resolved T-i measurements in the divertor region are shown. Measurements of flow shear and turbulence dynamics during L-H transitions show filaments erupting from the plasma edge whilst the full flow shear is still present. Off-axis neutral beam injection helps to strongly reduce the redistribution of fast-ions due to fishbone modes when compared to on-axis injection. Low-k ion-scale turbulence has been measured in L-mode and compared to global gyro-kinetic simulations. A statistical analysis of principal turbulence time scales shows them to be of comparable magnitude and reasonably correlated with turbulence decorrelation time. T-e inside the island of a neoclassical tearing mode allow the analysis of the island evolution without assuming specific models for the heat flux. Other results include the discrepancy of the current profile evolution during the current ramp-up with solutions of the poloidal field diffusion equation, studies of the anomalous Doppler resonance compressional Alfven eigenmodes, disruption mitigation studies and modelling of the new divertor design for MAST Upgrade. The novel 3D electron Bernstein synthetic imaging shows promising first data sensitive to the edge current profile and flows.
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4.
  • Urayama, Kevin Y., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-Wide Association Study of Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma and Epstein-Barr Virus Status-Defined Subgroups
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 104:3, s. 240-253
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Accumulating evidence suggests that risk factors for classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) differ by tumor Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status. This potential etiological heterogeneity is not recognized in current disease classification. We conducted a genome-wide association study of 1200 cHL patients and 6417 control subjects, with validation in an independent replication series, to identify common genetic variants associated with total cHL and subtypes defined by tumor EBV status. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) assuming a log-additive genetic model for the variants. All statistical tests were two-sided. Two novel loci associated with total cHL irrespective of EBV status were identified in the major histocompatibility complex region; one resides adjacent to MICB (rs2248462: OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.53 to 0.69, P = 1.3 x 10(-13)) and the other at HLA-DRA (rs2395185: OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.50 to 0.62, P = 8.3 x 10(-25)) with both results confirmed in an independent replication series. Consistent with previous reports, associations were found between EBV-positive cHL and genetic variants within the class I region (rs2734986, HLA-A: OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 2.00 to 3.00, P = 1.2 x 10(-15); rs6904029, HCG9: OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.36 to 0.59, P = 5.5 x 10(-10)) and between EBV-negative cHL and rs6903608 within the class II region (rs6903608, HLA-DRA: OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.84 to 2.35, P = 6.1 x 10(-31)). The association between rs6903608 and EBV-negative cHL was confined to the nodular sclerosis histological subtype. Evidence for an association between EBV-negative cHL and rs20541 (5q31, IL13: OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.32 to 1.76, P = 5.4 x 10(-9)), a variant previously linked to psoriasis and asthma, was observed; however, the evidence for replication was less clear. Notably, one additional psoriasis-associated variant, rs27524 (5q15, ERAP1), showed evidence of an association with cHL in the genome-wide association study (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.33, P = 1.5 x 10(-4)) and replication series (P = .03). Overall, these results provide strong evidence that EBV status is an etiologically important classification of cHL and also suggest that some components of the pathological process are common to both EBV-positive and EBV-negative patients.
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5.
  • Enciso-Mora, Victor, et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide association study of Hodgkin's lymphoma identifies new susceptibility loci at 2p16.1 (REL), 8q24.21 and 10p14 (GATA3)
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 42:12, s. 1126-1126
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • To identify susceptibility loci for classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL), we conducted a genome-wide association study of 589 individuals with cHL (cases) and 5,199 controls with validation in four independent samples totaling 2,057 cases and 3,416 controls. We identified three new susceptibility loci at 2p16.1 (rs1432295, REL, odds ratio (OR) = 1.22, combined P = 1.91 x 10(-8)), 8q24.21 (rs2019960, PVT1, OR = 1.33, combined P = 1.26 x 10(-13)) and 10p14 (rs501764, GATA3, OR = 1.25, combined P = 7.05 x 10(-8)). Furthermore, we confirmed the role of the major histocompatibility complex in disease etiology by revealing a strong human leukocyte antigen (HLA) association (rs6903608, OR = 1.70, combined P = 2.84 x 10(-50)). These data provide new insight into the pathogenesis of cHL.
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7.
  • Lloyd-Price, Jason, et al. (författare)
  • Multi-omics of the gut microbial ecosystem in inflammatory bowel diseases
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ; 569:7758, s. 655-661
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Inflammatory bowel diseases, which include Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, affect several million individuals worldwide. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are complex diseases that are heterogeneous at the clinical, immunological, molecular, genetic, and microbial levels. Individual contributing factors have been the focus of extensive research. As part of the Integrative Human Microbiome Project (HMP2 or iHMP), we followed 132 subjects for one year each to generate integrated longitudinal molecular profiles of host and microbial activity during disease (up to 24 time points each; in total 2,965 stool, biopsy, and blood specimens). Here we present the results, which provide a comprehensive view of functional dysbiosis in the gut microbiome during inflammatory bowel disease activity. We demonstrate a characteristic increase in facultative anaerobes at the expense of obligate anaerobes, as well as molecular disruptions in microbial transcription (for example, among clostridia), metabolite pools (acylcarnitines, bile acids, and short-chain fatty acids), and levels of antibodies in host serum. Periods of disease activity were also marked by increases in temporal variability, with characteristic taxonomic, functional, and biochemical shifts. Finally, integrative analysis identified microbial, biochemical, and host factors central to this dysregulation. The study's infrastructure resources, results, and data, which are available through the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Multi'omics Database (http://ibdmdb.org), provide the most comprehensive description to date of host and microbial activities in inflammatory bowel diseases.
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8.
  • Gardner, T. A., et al. (författare)
  • Transparency and sustainability in global commodity supply chains
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Analys av hur internationell handel med jordbruksprodukter bidrar till växthusgasutsläpp och förlust av biodiversitet från förändrad markanvändning i tropikerna. ; 121, s. 163-177
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Over the last few decades rapid advances in processes to collect, monitor, disclose, and disseminate information have contributed towards the development of entirely new modes of sustainability governance for global commodity supply chains. However, there has been very little critical appraisal of the contribution made by different transparency initiatives to sustainability and the ways in which they can (and cannot)influence new governance arrangements. Here we seek to strengthen the theoretical underpinning of research and action on supply chain transparency by addressing four questions: (1)What is meant by supply chain transparency? (2)What is the relevance of supply chain transparency to supply chain sustainability governance? (3)What is the current status of supply chain transparency, and what are the strengths and weaknesses of existing initiatives? and (4)What propositions can be advanced for how transparency can have a positive transformative effect on the governance interventions that seek to strengthen sustainability outcomes? We use examples from agricultural supply chains and the zero-deforestation agenda as a focus of our analysis but draw insights that are relevant to the transparency and sustainability of supply chains in general. We propose a typology to distinguish among types of supply chain information that are needed to support improvements in sustainability governance, and illustrate a number of major shortfalls and systematic biases in existing information systems. We also propose a set of ten propositions that, taken together, serve to expose some of the potential pitfalls and undesirable outcomes that may result from (inevitably)limited or poorly designed transparency systems, whilst offering guidance on some of the ways in which greater transparency can make a more effective, lasting and positive contribution to sustainability.
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9.
  • Hjalgrim, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • HLA-A alleles and infectious mononucleosis suggest a critical role for cytotoxic T-cell response in EBV-related Hodgkin lymphoma
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 107:14, s. 6400-6405
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A proportion of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is believed to be causally related to infection with the ubiquitous lymphotropic EBV. The determining factors for development of EBV-related HL remain poorly understood, but likely involve immunological control of the viral infection. Accordingly, markers of the HLA class I region have been associated with risk of EBV-related HL. To study the host genetic component of EBV-related HL further, we investigated the lymphoma's association with HLA-A*01 and HLA-A*02 simultaneously in the setting of infectious mononucleosis (IM), a risk factor for EBV-related HL, in a case-series analysis including 278 EBV-related and 656 EBV-unrelated cases of HL. By logistic regression, HLA-A*01 alleles [odds ratio (OR) per allele, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.60-2.88] were associated with increased and HLA-A*02 alleles (OR per allele, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.51-0.97) with decreased risk of EBV-related HL. These allele-specific associations corresponded to nearly 10-fold variation in risk of EBV-related HL between HLA-A*01 and HLA-A*02 homozygotes. History of IM was also associated with risk of EBV-related HL (OR, 3.40; 95% CI, 1.74-6.66). The association between history of IM and EBV-related HL was not seen in the presence of HLA-A*02 because this allele appeared to neutralize the effect of IM on EBV-related HL risk. Our findings suggest that HLA class I-restricted EBV-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses and events in the early immune response to EBV infection in IM play critical roles in the pathogenesis of EBV-related HL.
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10.
  • Klyushina, E. S., et al. (författare)
  • Investigation of the spin-1 honeycomb antiferromagnet BaNi2V2O8 with easy-plane anisotropy
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Physical Review B. - : AMER PHYSICAL SOC. - 2469-9950 .- 2469-9969. ; 96:21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The magnetic properties of the two-dimensional, S = 1 honeycomb antiferromagnet BaNi2V2O8 have been comprehensively studied using dc susceptibility measurements and inelastic neutron scattering techniques. The magnetic excitation spectrum is found to be dispersionless within experimental resolution between the honeycomb layers, while it disperses strongly within the honeycomb plane where it consists of two gapped spin-wave modes. The magnetic excitations are compared to linear spin-wave theory allowing the Hamiltonian to be determined. The first-and second-neighbor magnetic exchange interactions are antiferromagnetic and lie within the ranges 10.90 meV <= J(n) <= 13.35 meV and 0.85 meV <= J(nn) <= 1.65 meV, respectively. The interplane coupling J(out) is four orders of magnitude weaker than the intraplane interactions, confirming the highly two-dimensional magnetic behavior of this compound. The sizes of the energy gaps are used to extract the magnetic anisotropies and reveal substantial easy-plane anisotropy and a very weak in-plane easy-axis anisotropy. Together these results reveal that BaNi2V2O8 is a candidate compound for the investigation of vortex excitations and Berezinsky-Kosterliz-Thouless phenomenon.
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