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  • Melke, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • A polymorphism in the serotonin receptor 3A (HTR3A) gene and its association with harm avoidance in women.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Archives of general psychiatry. - 0003-990X. ; 60:10, s. 1017-23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The brain neurotransmitter serotonin is known to affect various aspects of human behavior, including personality traits. Serotonin receptor type 3 is a ligand-gated channel encoded by 2 different subunit genes, HTR3A and HTR3B. A polymorphism (C178T) in the 5' region of the HTR3A gene has recently been identified and suggested to be of functional importance. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the possible association between the C178T polymorphism in the HTR3A gene and personality traits in women. DESIGN: Two independent samples of 35- to 45-year-old Swedish women were recruited using the population register. Sample 1 (n = 195) was assessed via the Karolinska Scales of Personality and the Temperament and Character Inventory; sample 2 (n = 175) was assessed using the latter only. Both samples were genotyped with respect to the C178T polymorphism in the HTR3A gene. The A1596G polymorphism in the same gene was also investigated. RESULTS: A significant association between C178T genotype and the Temperament and Character Inventory factor harm avoidance was observed in sample 1 (corrected for multiple comparisons P =.04); this finding was subsequently replicated in sample 2 (P =.004) (pooled populations: P<.001). In the pooled sample, all harm avoidance subscales were found to be significantly associated with the C178T polymorphism: anticipatory worry (P =.001), fear of uncertainty (P<.001), shyness (P<.001), and fatigability and asthenia (P =.008). In addition, a significant association was found in sample 1 between the C178T polymorphism and the Karolinska Scales of Personality nonconformity factor (corrected P =.002), including the subscales of social desirability (P<.001), indirect aggression (P =.002), verbal aggression (P =.05), and irritability (P<.001). Participants homozygous for the less common T allele (<4%) differed from the remaining women by displaying lower ratings on harm avoidance and nonconformity. CONCLUSION: The C178T polymorphism in the HTR3A gene may affect the personality trait of harm avoidance in women.
  • Backlund, Lena, et al. (författare)
  • P2RX7: Expression Responds to Sleep Deprivation and Associates with Rapid Cycling in Bipolar Disorder Type 1
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - 1932-6203. ; 7:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Rapid cycling is a severe form of bipolar disorder with an increased rate of episodes that is particularly treatment-responsive to chronotherapy and stable sleep-wake cycles. We hypothesized that the P2RX7 gene would be affected by sleep deprivation and be implicated in rapid cycling. Objectives: To assess whether P2RX7 expression is affected by total sleep deprivation and if variation in P2RX7 is associated with rapid cycling in bipolar patients. Design: Gene expression analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy volunteers and case-case and case-control SNP/haplotype association analyses in patients. Participants: Healthy volunteers at the sleep research center, University of California, Irvine Medical Center (UCIMC), USA (n = 8) and Swedish outpatients recruited from specialized psychiatric clinics for bipolar disorder, diagnosed with bipolar disorder type 1 (n = 569; rapid cycling: n = 121) and anonymous blood donor controls (n = 1,044). Results: P2RX7 RNA levels were significantly increased during sleep deprivation in PBMCs from healthy volunteers (p = 2.3*10(-9)). The P2RX7 rs2230912_A allele was more common (OR = 2.2, p = 0.002) and the ACGTTT haplotype in P2RX7 (rs1718119 to rs1621388) containing the protective rs2230912_G allele (OR = 0.45-0.49, p = 0.003-0.005) was less common, among rapid cycling cases compared to non-rapid cycling bipolar patients and blood donor controls. Conclusions: Sleep deprivation increased P2RX7 expression in healthy persons and the putatively low-activity P2RX7 rs2230912 allele A variant was associated with rapid cycling in bipolar disorder. This supports earlier findings of P2RX7 associations to affective disorder and is in agreement with that particularly rapid cycling patients have a more vulnerable diurnal system.
  • Henningsson, Susanne, et al. (författare)
  • Possible association between the androgen receptor gene and autism spectrum disorder.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology. - 0306-4530. ; 34:5, s. 752-761
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autism is a highly heritable disorder but the specific genes involved remain largely unknown. The higher prevalence of autism in men than in women, in conjunction with a number of other observations, has led to the suggestion that prenatal brain exposure to androgens may be of importance for the development of this condition. Prompted by this hypothesis, we investigated the potential influence of variation in the androgen receptor (AR) gene on the susceptibility for autism. To this end, 267 subjects with autism spectrum disorder and 617 controls were genotyped for three polymorphisms in exon I of the AR gene: the CAG repeat, the GGN repeat and the rs6152 SNP. In addition, parents and affected siblings were genotyped for 118 and 32 of the cases, respectively. Case-control comparisons revealed higher prevalence of short CAG alleles as well as of the A allele of the rs6152 SNP in female cases than in controls, but revealed no significant differences with respect to the GGN repeat. Analysis of the 118 families using transmission disequilibrium test, on the other hand, suggested an association with the GGN polymorphism, the rare 20-repeat allele being undertransmitted to male cases and the 23-repeat allele being overtransmitted to female cases. Sequencing of the AR gene in 46 patients revealed no mutations or rare variants. The results tend some support for an influence of the studied polymorphisms on the susceptibility for autism, but argue against the possibility that mutations in the AR gene are common in subjects with this condition. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Hukic, Dzana Sudic, et al. (författare)
  • Cognitive Manic Symptoms in Bipolar Disorder Associated with Polymorphisms in the DAOA and COMT Genes
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 8:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Bipolar disorder is characterized by severe mood symptoms including major depressive and manic episodes. During manic episodes, many patients show cognitive dysfunction. Dopamine and glutamate are important for cognitive processing, thus the COMT and DAOA genes that modulate the expression of these neurotransmitters are of interest for studies of cognitive function. Methodology: Focusing on the most severe episode of mania, a factor was found with the combined symptoms of talkativeness, distractibility, and thought disorder, considered a cognitive manic symptoms (CMS) factor. 488 patients were genotyped, out of which 373 (76%) had talkativeness, 269 (55%) distractibility, and 372 (76%) thought disorder. 215 (44%) patients were positive for all three symptoms, thus showing CMS (Table 1). As population controls, 1,044 anonymous blood donors (ABD) were used. Case-case and case-control design models were used to investigate genetic associations between cognitive manic symptoms in bipolar 1 disorder and SNPs in the COMT and DAOA genes. Results: The finding of this study was that cognitive manic symptoms in patients with bipolar 1 disorder was associated with genetic variants in the DAOA and COMT genes. Nominal association for DAOA SNPs and COMT SNPs to cognitive symptoms factor in bipolar 1 disorder was found in both allelic (Table 2) and haplotypic (Table 3) analyses. Genotypic association analyses also supported our findings. However, only one association, when CMS patients were compared to ABD controls, survived correction for multiple testing by max (T) permutation. Data also suggested interaction between SNPs rs2391191 in DAOA and rs5993883 in COMT in the case-control model. Conclusion: Identifying genes associated with cognitive functioning has clinical implications for assessment of prognosis and progression. Our finding are consistent with other studies showing genetic associations between the COMT and DAOA genes and impaired cognition both in psychiatric disorders and in the general population.
  • Westberg, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Influence of androgen receptor repeat polymorphisms on personality traits in men
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience. - 1488-2434. ; 34:3, s. 205-213
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Testosterone has been attributed importance for various aspects of behaviour. The aim of our study was to investigate the potential influence of 2 functional polymorphisms in the amino terminal of the androgen receptor on personality traits in men. Methods: We assessed and genotyped 141 men born in 1944 recruited from the general population. We used 2 different instruments: the Karolinska Scales of Personality and the Temperament and Character Inventory. For replication, we similarly assessed 63 men recruited from a forensic psychiatry study group. Results: In the population-recruited sample, the lengths of the androgen receptor repeats were associated with neuroticism, extraversion and self-transcendence. The association with extraversion was replicated in the independent sample. Limitations: Our 2 samples differed in size; sample 1 was of moderate size and sample 2 was small. In addition, the homogeneity of sample 1 probably enhanced our ability to detect significant associations between genotype and phenotype. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the repeat polymorphisms in the androgen receptor gene may influence personality traits in men.
  • Baghaei, Fariba, 1964-, et al. (författare)
  • Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of women in relation to personality traits.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: International journal of behavioral medicine. - 1070-5503. ; 10:4, s. 365-78
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The associations were examined in women between personality traits and steroid hormones, particularly androgens, as well as polymorphisms in genes regulating androgen concentration and effects. Women, all 42 years of age and premenopausal (n = 270), were recruited randomly. Conventional "masculine" and "feminine" personality traits were examined by questionnaire and set in relation to psychosocial and socioeconomic conditions, behavior in childhood, hormones, risk factors for disease, and polymorphisms in microsatellites in the CYP aromatase and the androgen receptor gene. The proportions of personality traits considered as being dominated by "masculinity" (M) or "femininity" (F) were 44.9%, respectively 15.0%, the rest consisting of a combination of M and F (33.2%) or "undifferentiated" (6.9%). M characteristics were positively associated with education, sporting, self-confidence, and good adaptation to work situation. M scores correlated with reports of "tomboyism" as girls. There was essentially no difference in hormones or disease risk factors between M and F women. The number of (CAG) repeats in the microsatellite of the transactivating domain of the androgen receptor was 19 (2.3; M and SD). M characteristics were more pronounced in the presence of longer repeat stretches (n > 20). No associations were found with F scores. There were no significant associations to the number of tetranucleotide repeats (TTTA) in the fourth introne of the aromatase gene. It was concluded that a majority of women showed M type of personality traits, associated with normal hormones, somatic health, and a long microsatellite in the transactivating domain of the AR gene.
  • Baghaei, Fariba, 1964-, et al. (författare)
  • The lean woman.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Obesity research. - 1071-7323. ; 10:2, s. 115-21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: In the current obesity epidemic, the ability to remain lean is beginning to be uncommon. Therefore, it was considered of interest to characterize such subjects. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: From a population of premenopausal women (n = 270), all 40 years of age, those with a similar body mass index (BMI) as women at the age of 21 years, born the same year (BMI = 21.1 kg/m(2)) were selected among nonsmokers and compared with the remaining nonsmoking women. RESULTS: Lean women showed, as expected, low waist-to-hip circumference ratio and abdominal sagittal diameter as well as absence of other disease risk factors. Compared with the remaining women, 17 beta-estradiol was high and androgens were low, whereas insulin-like growth factor I and thyroid hormones showed no differences. Dihydroepiandrosterone sulfate was lower, whereas cortisol, measured in saliva repeatedly over a day, and adrenocorticotropin hormone were not different. Results from questionnaires indicated higher education and socioeconomic status, frequent sports activities, and better psychosocial adaptation and psychological health. A tetranucleotide repeat polymorphism in the fourth [corrected] intron of the aromatase P450 gene was longer among the lean (187 base pairs) than the rest of the women. Women with opposite phylogenetic characteristic have a short microsatellite (168 base pairs) in this gene locus. DISCUSSION: Lean, nonsmoking women enjoy an excellent health in not only anthropometric and metabolic factors, but also in neuroendocrine, endocrine, and psychological variables. The endocrine measurements suggest a well-functioning aromatase, which in turn might have a genetic background, contributing to health. The aromatase gene might be important for regulation of body fat mass.
  • Henningsson, Susanne, et al. (författare)
  • Association between serum levels of C-reactive protein and personality traits in women.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Behavioral and brain functions : BBF. - 1744-9081. ; 4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background While low-grade inflammation has consistently been observed in subjects with depression, studies on the possible relationship between inflammation and other aspects of brain function are as yet sparse. In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible association between serum levels of the inflammation marker C-reactive protein (CRP) and personality traits. Methods In this study, serum levels of high-sensitivity CRP were determined by ELISA in a population of 270 42-year-old women recruited from the population registry who had been assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory. Self-reported previous or ongoing depression was also recorded. Unpaired two-tailed t-tests were used for comparison between two groups and correlations were evaluated by the calculation of Pearson's r-coefficient. Results The temperament trait harm avoidance was positively (r = 0.227, p < 0.05) and the character trait self-directedness was negatively (r = -0.261, p < 0.01) associated with serum levels of CRP (p-values corrected for multiple comparisons). The correlations between the personality traits and CRP were observed also after exclusion of subjects reporting ongoing depression (n = 26). Whereas women reporting ongoing depression showed significantly increased levels of CRP as compared to non-depressed women (n = 155), women reporting a history of depression displayed no significant difference in CRP levels as compared to women that reported that they had never been depressed. Conclusion Serum levels of CRP in women was found to be associated with the personality traits harm avoidance and self-directedness. In addition, moderately elevated levels may be a state dependent marker of depression.
  • Henningsson, Susanne, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Sex steroid-related genes and male-to-female transsexualism
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology. ; 30:7, s. 657-664
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Transsexualism is characterised by lifelong discomfort with the assigned sex and a strong identification with the opposite sex. The cause of transsexualism is unknown, but it has been suggested that an aberration in the early sexual differentiation of various brain structures may be involved. Animal experiments have revealed that the sexual differentiation of the brain is mainly due to an influence of testosterone, acting both via androgen receptors (ARs) and—after aromatase-catalyzed conversion to estradiol—via estrogen receptors (ERs). The present study examined the possible importance of three polymorphisms and their pairwise interactions for the development of male-to-female transsexualism: a CAG repeat sequence in the first exon of the AR gene, a tetra nucleotide repeat polymorphism in intron 4 of the aromatase gene, and a CA repeat polymorphism in intron 5 of the ERβ gene. Subjects were 29 Caucasian male-to-female transsexuals and 229 healthy male controls. Transsexuals differed from controls with respect to the mean length of the ERβ repeat polymorphism, but not with respect to the length of the other two studied polymorphisms. However, binary logistic regression analysis revealed significant partial effects for all three polymorphisms, as well as for the interaction between the AR and aromatase gene polymorphisms, on the risk of developing transsexualism. Given the small number of transsexuals in the study, the results should be interpreted with the utmost caution. Further study of the putative role of these and other sex steroid-related genes for the development of transsexualism may, however, be worthwhile.
  • Jedel, Elizabeth, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Anxiety and depression symptoms in women with polycystic ovary syndrome compared with controls matched for body mass index.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Human reproduction. - 1460-2350. ; 25:2, s. 450-456
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND Anxiety and depression are more prevalent in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) than in those without this disorder. Possible confounding effects of overweight and obesity are suggested. The aim was to compare symptoms of anxiety and depression in women with PCOS and controls matched for age, body weight and body mass index (BMI). METHODS Women with PCOS (n = 30) and controls (n = 30) were recruited from the community. Persons with ongoing psychotropic medication were excluded. All potential participants underwent gynecological examination to confirm case-control status. Participants completed the self-reported versions of the Brief Scale for Anxiety (BSA-S) and Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-S). RESULTS Women with PCOS had a higher BSA-S score compared with controls (median, range: 10.5, 1-24 versus 5.0, 0-28, P < 0.001). They scored higher on the following four individual symptoms: reduced sleep (2.0, 0-5 versus 0, 0-2, P < 0.001), worry (1.5, 0-4 versus 0, 0-6, P = 0.004), phobias (1, 0-4 versus 0, 0-3, P < 0.001), and pain (1, 0-3 versus 0, 0-2, P < 0.001). No statistical difference was demonstrated regarding MADRS-S scores (10.0, 0-27 versus 5.5, 0-24, P = 0.053). Only one of the nine MADRS-S symptoms, reduced sleep, which is also included in the BSA-S, differed between cases and controls. CONCLUSIONS Several anxiety symptoms distinguished women with PCOS from a control group matched on BMI. A better understanding of the symptoms is needed to identify and alleviate anxiety symptoms in this vulnerable group.
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