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Sökning: WFRF:(Langer Christian)

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  • Aksyutina, Yuliya, et al. (författare)
  • Properties of the 7He ground state from 8He neutron knockout
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters B. - 0370-2693. ; 679:3, s. 191 - 196
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The unbound nucleus 7He, produced in neutron-knockout reactions with a 240 MeV/u 8He beam in a liquid-hydrogen target, has been studied in an experiment at the ALADIN-LAND setup at GSI. From an R-matrix analysis the resonance parameters for 7He as well as the spectroscopic factor for the 6He(0+) + n configuration in its ground-state have been obtained. The spectroscopic factor is 0.61 confirming that 7He is not a pure single-particle state. An analysis of 5He data from neutron-knockout reactions of 6He in a carbon target reveals the presence of an s-wave component at low energies in the α+n relative energy spectrum. A possible low-lying exited state in 7He observed in neutron knockout data from 8He in a carbon target and tentatively interpreted as a Iπ=1/2− state, could not be observed in the present experiment. Possible explanations of the shape difference between the 7He resonance obtained in the two knockout reactions are discussed in terms of target-dependence or different reaction mechanisms at relativistic energies.
  • Biurrun, Idoia, et al. (författare)
  • Benchmarking plant diversity of Palaearctic grasslands and other open habitats
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Vegetation Science. - Oxford : John Wiley & Sons. - 1100-9233 .- 1654-1103. ; 32:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Journal of Vegetation Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association for Vegetation Science.Aims: Understanding fine-grain diversity patterns across large spatial extents is fundamental for macroecological research and biodiversity conservation. Using the GrassPlot database, we provide benchmarks of fine-grain richness values of Palaearctic open habitats for vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens and complete vegetation (i.e., the sum of the former three groups). Location: Palaearctic biogeographic realm. Methods: We used 126,524 plots of eight standard grain sizes from the GrassPlot database: 0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1,000 m2 and calculated the mean richness and standard deviations, as well as maximum, minimum, median, and first and third quartiles for each combination of grain size, taxonomic group, biome, region, vegetation type and phytosociological class. Results: Patterns of plant diversity in vegetation types and biomes differ across grain sizes and taxonomic groups. Overall, secondary (mostly semi-natural) grasslands and natural grasslands are the richest vegetation type. The open-access file ”GrassPlot Diversity Benchmarks” and the web tool “GrassPlot Diversity Explorer” are now available online (https://edgg.org/databases/GrasslandDiversityExplorer) and provide more insights into species richness patterns in the Palaearctic open habitats. Conclusions: The GrassPlot Diversity Benchmarks provide high-quality data on species richness in open habitat types across the Palaearctic. These benchmark data can be used in vegetation ecology, macroecology, biodiversity conservation and data quality checking. While the amount of data in the underlying GrassPlot database and their spatial coverage are smaller than in other extensive vegetation-plot databases, species recordings in GrassPlot are on average more complete, making it a valuable complementary data source in macroecology. © 2021 The Authors.
  • Chubb, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • Common variation at 3q26.2, 6p21.33, 17p11.2 and 22q13.1 influences multiple myeloma risk
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 45:10, s. 366-1221
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To identify variants for multiple myeloma risk, we conducted a genome-wide association study with validation in additional series totaling 4,692 individuals with multiple myeloma (cases) and 10,990 controls. We identified four risk loci at 3q26.2 (rs10936599, P = 8.70 x 10(-14)), 6p21.33 (rs2285803, PSORS1C2, P = 9.67 x 10(-11)), 17p11.2 (rs4273077, TNFRSF13B, P = 7.67 x 10(-9)) and 22q13.1 (rs877529, CBX7, P = 7.63 x 10(-16)). These data provide further evidence for genetic susceptibility to this B-cell hematological malignancy, as well as insight into the biological basis of predisposition.
  • Marganiec, C., et al. (författare)
  • Coulomb breakup of 17Ne from the viewpoint of nuclear astrophysics
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of Science.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • By the Coulomb breakup of 17Ne, the time-reversed reaction 15O(2p,γ)17Ne has been studied. This reaction might play an important role in the rp process, as a break-out reaction of the hot CNO cycle. The secondary 17Ne ion beam with an energy of 500 MeV/nucleon has been dissociated in a Pb target. The reaction products have been detected with the LAND-R3B experimental setup at GSI. The preliminary differential and integral Coulomb dissociation cross section sCoul has been determined, which then will be converted into a photo-absorption cross section sphot o, and a two-proton radiative capture cross section σcap. Additionally, information about the structure of the 17Ne, a potential two-proton halo nucleus, will be received. The analysis is in progress.
  • Mitchell, Jonathan S., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for multiple myeloma
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy with a significant heritable basis. Genome-wide association studies have transformed our understanding of MM predisposition, but individual studies have had limited power to discover risk loci. Here we perform a meta-analysis of these GWAS, add a new GWAS and perform replication analyses resulting in 9,866 cases and 239,188 controls. We confirm all nine known risk loci and discover eight new loci at 6p22.3 (rs34229995, P = 1.31 x 10(-8)), 6q21 (rs9372120, P = 9.09 x 10(-15)), 7q36.1 (rs7781265, P = 9.71 x 10(-9)), 8q24.21 (rs1948915, P = 4.20 x 10(-11)), 9p21.3 (rs2811710, P = 1.72 x 10(-13)), 10p12.1 (rs2790457, P = 1.77 x 10(-8)), 16q23.1 (rs7193541, P = 5.00 x 10(-12)) and 20q13.13 (rs6066835, P = 1.36 x 10(-13)), which localize in or near to JARID2, ATG5, SMARCD3, CCAT1, CDKN2A, WAC, RFWD3 and PREX1. These findings provide additional support for a polygenic model of MM and insight into the biological basis of tumour development.
  • Went, Molly, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of multiple risk loci and regulatory mechanisms influencing susceptibility to multiple myeloma
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have transformed our understanding of susceptibility to multiple myeloma (MM), but much of the heritability remains unexplained. We report a new GWAS, a meta-analysis with previous GWAS and a replication series, totalling 9974 MM cases and 247,556 controls of European ancestry. Collectively, these data provide evidence for six new MM risk loci, bringing the total number to 23. Integration of information from gene expression, epigenetic profiling and in situ Hi-C data for the 23 risk loci implicate disruption of developmental transcriptional regulators as a basis of MM susceptibility, compatible with altered B-cell differentiation as a key mechanism. Dysregulation of autophagy/apoptosis and cell cycle signalling feature as recurrently perturbed pathways. Our findings provide further insight into the biological basis of MM.
  • Zamora, Juan Carlos, et al. (författare)
  • Considerations and consequences of allowing DNA sequence data as types of fungal taxa
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: IMA Fungus. - : INT MYCOLOGICAL ASSOC. - 2210-6340 .- 2210-6359. ; 9:1, s. 167-185
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nomenclatural type definitions are one of the most important concepts in biological nomenclature. Being physical objects that can be re-studied by other researchers, types permanently link taxonomy (an artificial agreement to classify biological diversity) with nomenclature (an artificial agreement to name biological diversity). Two proposals to amend the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), allowing DNA sequences alone (of any region and extent) to serve as types of taxon names for voucherless fungi (mainly putative taxa from environmental DNA sequences), have been submitted to be voted on at the 11th International Mycological Congress (Puerto Rico, July 2018). We consider various genetic processes affecting the distribution of alleles among taxa and find that alleles may not consistently and uniquely represent the species within which they are contained. Should the proposals be accepted, the meaning of nomenclatural types would change in a fundamental way from physical objects as sources of data to the data themselves. Such changes are conducive to irreproducible science, the potential typification on artefactual data, and massive creation of names with low information content, ultimately causing nomenclatural instability and unnecessary work for future researchers that would stall future explorations of fungal diversity. We conclude that the acceptance of DNA sequences alone as types of names of taxa, under the terms used in the current proposals, is unnecessary and would not solve the problem of naming putative taxa known only from DNA sequences in a scientifically defensible way. As an alternative, we highlight the use of formulas for naming putative taxa (candidate taxa) that do not require any modification of the ICN.
  • Chadburn, Sarah E., et al. (författare)
  • Carbon stocks and fluxes in the high latitudes : Using site-level data to evaluate Earth system models
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Biogeosciences. - : Copernicus Publications. - 1726-4170 .- 1726-4189. ; 14:22, s. 5143-5169
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is important that climate models can accurately simulate the terrestrial carbon cycle in the Arctic due to the large and potentially labile carbon stocks found in permafrost-affected environments, which can lead to a positive climate feedback, along with the possibility of future carbon sinks from northward expansion of vegetation under climate warming. Here we evaluate the simulation of tundra carbon stocks and fluxes in three land surface schemes that each form part of major Earth system models (JSBACH, Germany; JULES, UK; ORCHIDEE, France). We use a site-level approach in which comprehensive, high-frequency datasets allow us to disentangle the importance of different processes. The models have improved physical permafrost processes and there is a reasonable correspondence between the simulated and measured physical variables, including soil temperature, soil moisture and snow. We show that if the models simulate the correct leaf area index (LAI), the standard C3 photosynthesis schemes produce the correct order of magnitude of carbon fluxes. Therefore, simulating the correct LAI is one of the first priorities. LAI depends quite strongly on climatic variables alone, as we see by the fact that the dynamic vegetation model can simulate most of the differences in LAI between sites, based almost entirely on climate inputs. However, we also identify an influence from nutrient limitation as the LAI becomes too large at some of the more nutrient-limited sites. We conclude that including moss as well as vascular plants is of primary importance to the carbon budget, as moss contributes a large fraction to the seasonal CO2 flux in nutrient-limited conditions. Moss photosynthetic activity can be strongly influenced by the moisture content of moss, and the carbon uptake can be significantly different from vascular plants with a similar LAI. The soil carbon stocks depend strongly on the rate of input of carbon from the vegetation to the soil, and our analysis suggests that an improved simulation of photosynthesis would also lead to an improved simulation of soil carbon stocks. However, the stocks are also influenced by soil carbon burial (e.g. through cryoturbation) and the rate of heterotrophic respiration, which depends on the soil physical state. More detailed below-ground measurements are needed to fully evaluate biological and physical soil processes. Furthermore, even if these processes are well modelled, the soil carbon profiles cannot resemble peat layers as peat accumulation processes are not represented in the models. Thus, we identify three priority areas for model development: (1) dynamic vegetation including (a) climate and (b) nutrient limitation effects; (2) adding moss as a plant functional type; and an (3) improved vertical profile of soil carbon including peat processes.
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