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Sökning: WFRF:(Langhorne Peter)

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1.
  • Dennis, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of fluoxetine on functional outcomes after acute stroke (FOCUS) : a pragmatic, double-blind, randomised, controlled trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 393:10168, s. 265-274
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Results of small trials indicate that fluoxetine might improve functional outcomes after stroke. The FOCUS trial aimed to provide a precise estimate of these effects.Methods FOCUS was a pragmatic, multicentre, parallel group, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial done at 103 hospitals in the UK. Patients were eligible if they were aged 18 years or older, had a clinical stroke diagnosis, were enrolled and randomly assigned between 2 days and 15 days after onset, and had focal neurological deficits. Patients were randomly allocated fluoxetine 20 mg or matching placebo orally once daily for 6 months via a web-based system by use of a minimisation algorithm. The primary outcome was functional status, measured with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), at 6 months. Patients, carers, health-care staff, and the trial team were masked to treatment allocation. Functional status was assessed at 6 months and 12 months after randomisation. Patients were analysed according to their treatment allocation. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN83290762.Findings Between Sept 10,2012, and March 31,2017,3127 patients were recruited. 1564 patients were allocated fluoxetine and 1563 allocated placebo. mRS data at 6 months were available for 1553 (99.3%) patients in each treatment group. The distribution across mRS categories at 6 months was similar in the fluoxetine and placebo groups (common odds ratio adjusted for minimisation variables 0.951 [95% CI 0.839-1.079]; p=0.439). Patients allocated fluoxetine were less likely than those allocated placebo to develop new depression by 6 months (210 [13.43%] patients vs 269 [17.21%]; difference 3.78% [95% CI 1.26-6.30]; p=0.0033), but they had more bone fractures (45 [2.88%] vs 23 [1.47%]; difference 1.41% [95% CI 0.38-2.43]; p=0.0070). There were no significant differences in any other event at 6 or 12 months.Interpretation Fluoxetine 20 mg given daily for 6 months after acute stroke does not seem to improve functional outcomes. Although the treatment reduced the occurrence of depression, it increased the frequency of bone fractures. These results do not support the routine use of fluoxetine either for the prevention of post-stroke depression or to promote recovery of function.
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  • Langhorne, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Practice patterns and outcomes after stroke across countries at different economic levels (INTERSTROKE): an international observational study.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Lancet (London, England). - 1474-547X. ; 391:10134, s. 2019-2027
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Stroke disproportionately affects people in low-income and middle-income countries. Although improvements in stroke care and outcomes have been reported in high-income countries, little is known about practice and outcomes in low and middle-income countries. We aimed to compare patterns of care available and their association with patient outcomes across countries at different economic levels.We studied the patterns and effect of practice variations (ie, treatments used and access to services) among participants in the INTERSTROKE study, an international observational study that enrolled 13 447 stroke patients from 142 clinical sites in 32 countries between Jan 11, 2007, and Aug 8, 2015. We supplemented patient data with a questionnaire about health-care and stroke service facilities at all participating hospitals. Using univariate and multivariate regression analyses to account for patient casemix and service clustering, we estimated the association between services available, treatments given, and patient outcomes (death or dependency) at 1 month.We obtained full information for 12 342 (92%) of 13 447 INTERSTROKE patients, from 108 hospitals in 28 countries; 2576 from 38 hospitals in ten high-income countries and 9766 from 70 hospitals in 18 low and middle-income countries. Patients in low-income and middle-income countries more often had severe strokes, intracerebral haemorrhage, poorer access to services, and used fewer investigations and treatments (p<0·0001) than those in high-income countries, although only differences in patient characteristics explained the poorer clinical outcomes in low and middle-income countries. However across all countries, irrespective of economic level, access to a stroke unit was associated with improved use of investigations and treatments, access to other rehabilitation services, and improved survival without severe dependency (odds ratio [OR] 1·29; 95% CI 1·14-1·44; all p<0·0001), which was independent of patient casemix characteristics and other measures of care. Use of acute antiplatelet treatment was associated with improved survival (1·39; 1·12-1·72) irrespective of other patient and service characteristics.Evidence-based treatments, diagnostics, and stroke units were less commonly available or used in low and middle-income countries. Access to stroke units and appropriate use of antiplatelet treatment were associated with improved recovery. Improved care and facilities in low-income and middle-income countries are essential to improve outcomes.Chest, Heart and Stroke Scotland.
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  • Norrving, Bo, et al. (författare)
  • Cross-National Key Performance Measures of the Quality of Acute Stroke Care in Western Europe
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - : American Heart Association. - 0039-2499 .- 1524-4628. ; 46:10, s. 2891-2895
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Purpose There are no agreed measures of stroke care quality that enable the standardized comparison of stroke care between countries. We aimed to develop a set of measures of quality of acute stroke care involving stroke quality registers in Western Europe. Methods A multinational working group identified 6 regional or national stroke quality registers in Europe and reviewed their data sets, performance measures, and the method by which these had been developed. Measures used in the registers were presented for discussion to a consensus group of representatives from the quality registers identified, as well as other stroke experts, and the final set of common performance measures was agreed through majority consensus. Results Thirty final performance measures were agreed by the European consensus group, encompassing the domains of coordination of care (stroke unit-based care), diagnosis (brain imaging, vascular imaging, cardiac arrhythmia detection, and therapy assessment), preservation of neural tissue (thrombolytic therapy and door-to-needle time), prevention of complications (dysphagia screening), initiation of secondary prevention (antiplatelet, anticoagulation, lipid lowering, blood pressure lowering, carotid surgery, time from vascular imaging to carotid surgery, and smoking cessation), survival (90-day poststroke mortality), and functional outcomes (90-day modified Rankin Scale). Conclusions On the basis of experience of quality registers in Europe, we have proposed a common set of performance measures that will facilitate the international comparison of acute stroke care quality.
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  • Poggesi, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Urinary complaints in nondisabled elderly people with age-related white matter changes: the Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. - 1532-5415. ; 56:9, s. 1638-43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To investigate, in a cohort of nondisabled elderly people, the association between urinary complaints and severity of age-related white matter changes (ARWMC). DESIGN: Cross-sectional data analysis from a longitudinal multinational study. SETTING: The Leukoaraiosis And DISability Study, assessing ARWMC as an independent predictor of the transition from functional autonomy to disability in elderly subjects. PARTICIPANTS: Six hundred thirty-nine subjects (288 men, 351 women, mean age 74.1+/-5.0) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected ARWMC of different severity. MEASUREMENTS: ARWMC severity was graded on MRI as mild, moderate, and severe (Fazekas scale). MRI assessment also included ARWMC volumetric analysis and the count of infarcts. Urinary complaints (nocturia, urinary frequency, urgency, incontinence) were recorded based on subjects' answers to four questions. RESULTS: In comparing the three ARWMC severity groups, there was a significant difference only in prevalence of urgency, with 16% of subjects in the mild severity group, 17% in the moderate severity group, and 25% in the severe group (P=.03). Adjusting for age, sex, lacunar and nonlacunar infarcts, diabetes mellitus, and use of diuretics, severe ARWMC retained an independent effect in the association with urinary urgency (odds ratio=1.74, 95% confidence interval=1.04-2.90, severe vs mild group). Subjects with urinary urgency also had higher ARWMC volumes (25.2, vs 20.4 mm(3) in those without urinary urgency; P<.001). Urgency was confirmed to be associated with the severe degree of ARWMC, irrespective of complaints of memory, gait disturbances, or history of depression. CONCLUSION: In a cohort of nondisabled elderly people, severe ARWMC were associated with urinary urgency, independent of other potential confounders and vascular lesions of the brain.
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  • Ropele, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Quantitation of brain tissue changes associated with white matter hyperintensities by diffusion-weighted and magnetization transfer imaging: the LADIS (Leukoaraiosis and Disability in the Elderly) study.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI. - 1053-1807. ; 29:2, s. 268-74
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: To explore the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) for the improved detection and quantification of cerebral tissue changes associated with ageing and white matter hyperintensities (WMH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: DWI (n = 340) and MTI (n = 177) were performed in nine centers of the multinational Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) study investigating the impact of WMH on 65- to 85-year-old individuals without prior disability. We assessed the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) of normal appearing brain tissue (NABT) and within WMH and related them to subjects' age and WHM severity according to the Fazekas score. RESULTS: ADC and MTR values showed a significant inter-site variation, which was stronger for the MTR. After z-transformation multiple regression analysis revealed WMH severity and age as significant predictors of global ADC and MTR changes. Only lesional ADC, but not MTR was related to WMH severity. CONCLUSION: ADC and MTR are both sensitive for age and WMH related changes in NABT. The ADC is more sensitive for tissue changes within WMH and appears to be more robust for multicenter settings.
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  • Ali, Myzoon, et al. (författare)
  • VISTA-Rehab: a resource for stroke rehabilitation trials.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International journal of stroke : official journal of the International Stroke Society. - 1747-4949. ; 5:6, s. 447-52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Stroke rehabilitation is a complex intervention. Many factors influence the interaction between the patient and the elements of the intervention. Rehabilitation interventions are aimed at altering different domains of patient outcome including body functions, activity and participation. As a consequence, randomised clinical trials in this area are difficult to design. We developed an archive of stroke rehabilitation trials (VISTA-Rehab) to act as a resource to help trialists model and design future rehabilitation studies. METHODS: We developed specific eligibility criteria for the entry of stroke rehabilitation trials into the archive. We established a Steering Committee to oversee projects and publications and commenced the recruitment of rehabilitation trials into this resource. RESULTS: As of August 2009, VISTA-Rehab contains data from 23 stroke rehabilitation trials (>3400 patients). Demographic data, including age [median=73, interquartile range (63,79)], gender (male=53%) and initial dependency [median baseline Barthel index score=6, interquartile range (9,19)], are available for all patients. Outcome measures include the modified Rankin Scale, Barthel Index, Rivermead Motor Assessment, Fugl-Meyer Assessment, General Health Questionnaire and Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living Scale. CONCLUSION: VISTA-Rehab expands the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive to include rehabilitation trials. Anonymised data can be used to examine questions specific to stroke rehabilitation and to generate novel hypotheses.
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  • Jones, Kelly M., et al. (författare)
  • Determining the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a stroke instructional and educational DVD in a multinational context : a randomized controlled pilot study
  • Ingår i: Clinical Rehabilitation. - : SAGE Publications. - 0269-2155. ; 32:8, s. 1086-1097
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To assess the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial of an instructional and educational stroke DVD and determine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of this intervention in a multinational context. Design: Non-funded, pilot randomized controlled trial of intervention versus usual care. Setting: International, multicentre, community-based. Participants: Community-living adults up to three years post stroke with moderate to severe disability and their nominated informal caregivers. Interventions: Intervention patients viewed and practised rehabilitation techniques demonstrated in the DVD over six weeks. Main measures: Trial feasibility by number of active recruitment sites, recruitment efficiency, randomization and follow-up. Intervention feasibility by patient and caregiver impressions. Preliminary efficacy by the quality of life – 5-level EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) health status measure, General Health Questionnaire and Centre for Epidemiological Studies–Depression at two months. Results: In total, 14 recruitment sites were established across eight countries. Recruitment was achieved at nine (64%) sites. Over 16 months, 66 participants were recruited (mean (SD) age = 63.5 (12.47) years) and randomized to intervention (n = 34) and control (n = 32) groups. In total, 54 (82%) completed a follow-up assessment. Patient and/or caregiver comments about the benefits and barriers to accessing the intervention were mixed. There were no significant between-group differences in outcomes at two months (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Conducting a multinational trial of a stroke DVD requires full funding. The intervention was acceptable to some patients and their caregivers, yet a generalized education approach did not fully meet their needs and/or expectations. A more individualized method may be required to meet peoples’ changing needs during stroke recovery.
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