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Sökning: WFRF:(Langstrom Niklas)

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1.
  • Anckarsäter, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS).
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Twin Research and Human Genetics. - 1832-4274. ; 14:6, s. 495-508
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS) is an ongoing longitudinal twin study targeting all twins born in Sweden since July 1, 1992. Since 2004, parents of twins are interviewed regarding the children's somatic and mental health and social environment in connection with their 9th or 12th birthdays (CATSS-9/12). By January 2010, 8,610 parental interviews concerning 17,220 twins had been completed, with an overall response rate of 80%. At age 15 (CATSS-15) and 18 (CATSS-18), twins and parents complete questionnaires that, in addition to assessments of somatic and mental health, include measures of personality development and psychosocial adaptation. Twin pairs in CATSS-9/12 with one or both twins screening positive for autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, tic disorders, developmental coordination disorder, learning disorders, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and/or eating problems have been followed with in-depth questionnaires on family, social environment and personality, and subsequently by clinical assessments at age 15 together with randomly selected population controls, including 195 clinically assessed twin pairs from the first 2 year cohorts (CATSS-15/DOGSS). This article describes the cohorts and study groups, data collection, and measures used. Prevalences, distributions, heritability estimates, ages at onset, and sex differences of mental health problems in the CATSS-9/12, that were analyzed and found to be overall comparable to those of other clinical and epidemiological studies. The CATSS study has the potential of answering important questions on the etiology of childhood mental health problems and their role in the development of later adjustment problems.
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2.
  • Gong, Tong, et al. (författare)
  • Parental socioeconomic status, childhood asthma and medication use : : a population-based study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS One. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 1932-6203.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Little is known about how parental socioeconomic status affects offspring asthma risk in the general population, or its relation to healthcare and medication use among diagnosed children. METHODS: This register-based cohort study included 211,520 children born between April 2006 and December 2008 followed until December 2010. Asthma diagnoses were retrieved from the National Patient Register, and dispensed asthma medications from the Prescribed Drug Register. Parental socioeconomic status (income and education) were retrieved from Statistics Sweden. The associations between parental socioeconomic status and outcomes were estimated by Cox proportional hazard regression. RESULTS: Compared to the highest parental income level, children exposed to all other levels had increased risk of asthma during their first year of life (e.g. hazard ratio, HR 1.19, 95% confidence interval, CI 1.09-1.31 for diagnosis and HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.08-1.26 for medications for the lowest quintile) and the risk was decreased after the first year, especially among children from the lowest parental income quintile (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.77-0.92 for diagnosis, and HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.74-0.86 for medications). Further, compared to children with college-educated parents, those whose parents had lower education had increased risk of childhood asthma regardless of age. Children with the lowest parental education had increased risk of an inpatient (HR 2.07, 95% CI 1.61-2.65) and outpatient (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.18-1.47) asthma diagnosis. Among diagnosed children, those from families with lower education used fewer controller medications than those whose parents were college graduates. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate an age-varying association between parental income and childhood asthma and consistent inverse association regardless of age between parental education and asthma incidence, dispensed controller medications and inpatient care which should be further investigated and remedied.
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3.
  • Kjellgren, Cecilia, 1951-, et al. (författare)
  • Adolescent sexual offenders: a total survey of referrals to social services in sweden and subgroup characteristics.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Sexual Abuse. - Springer. - 1079-0632. ; 18:4, s. 357-372
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sampling methodology (e.g. population-based vs. clinical samples, anonymous self-reports vs. data collected as part of mandated treatment) affects the validity of conclusions drawn from research addressing the etiology of adolescent sexual offending. Studies of unselected samples allow testing of the generalizability of etiological models suggested from investigation of selected clinical or forensic populations. Further, representative epidemiological data on adolescent sexual offending is needed for policy-making and the planning of services. We conducted a national survey of all adolescent sexual offenders (ASOs, 12-17 years) referred to Social Services during 2000. Social workers at all child and adolescent units in Social Service authorities throughout Sweden (N=285, 99% response rate) completed a questionnaire about new ASO referrals in 2000. The National Board of Health and Welfare commissioned the survey and questionnaire items tapped offender, offence, and victim characteristics. A total of 197 boys and 2 girls aged 12-17 years were referred to Social Services because of sexually abusive behavior in 2000. Focusing specifically on males, this yielded a one-year incidence of .060% (95% confidence interval = .052-.068). Forty-six percent of male ASOs abused at least one child younger than age 12 years (child offenders) whereas the rest had abused peer or adult victims (peer offenders). Forty-two percent of male ASOs had ever committed sexual offences together with at least one other offender (group offenders). Child- vs. peer offenders and group vs. single offenders, suggested typologies in the literature, were compared to explore potential subtype-specific risk factors and correlates. The results suggested a higher proportion of group ASOs than previously reported and stronger support for subdividing ASOs into child vs. peer offenders than into group vs. single ASOs.
4.
  • Kjellgren, Cecilia, 1951-, et al. (författare)
  • Female Youth Who Sexually Coerce: Prevalence, Risk, and Protective Factors in Two National High School Surveys.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Sexual Medicine. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 1743-6109. ; 8, s. 3354-3362
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACT Introduction. Sexual coercion is recognized as a serious societal problem. Correlates and risk factors of sexually abusive behavior in females are not well known. Aim. Etiological theory and empirical study of female perpetrators of sexual coercion are usually based on small or highly selected samples. Specifically, population-based data are needed to elucidate risk/protective factors. Main Outcome Measures. Main outcome measures include a self-report questionnaire containing 65 items tapping socio-demographic and health conditions, social relations, sexual victimization, conduct problems and a set of normative and deviant sexual cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors. Methods. We used a 2003-2004 survey of sexual attitudes and experiences among high school students in Norway and Sweden to identify risk factors and correlates to sexually coercive behavior (response rate 80%); 4,363 females participated (Mean = 18.1 years). Results. Thirty-seven women (0.8%) reported sexual coercion (ever talked someone into, used pressure, or forced somebody to have sex). Sexually coercive compared with non-coercive women were similar on socio-demographic variables, but reported less parental care and more parental overprotection, aggression, depressive symptoms, and substance misuse. Also, sexually coercive females reported more sexual lust, sex partners, penetrative sexual victimization, rape myths, use of violent porn, and friends more likely to use porn. When using the Swedish subsample to differentiate risk factors specific for sexual coercion from those for antisocial behavior in general, we found less cannabis use, but more sexual preoccupation, pro-rape attitudes, and friends using violent porn in sexually coercive compared with non-sex conduct problem females. Conclusions. Sexually coercive behavior in high school women was associated with general risk/needs factors for antisocial behavior, but also with specific sexuality-related risk factors. This differential effect has previously been overlooked, agrees with similar findings in men, and should have substantial etiological importance. Kjellgren C, Priebe G, Svedin CG, Mossige S, and Långström N. Female youth who sexually coerce: Prevalence, risk, and protective factors in two national high school surveys. J Sex Med **;**:**-**.
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5.
  • Kjellgren, Cecilia, 1951-, et al. (författare)
  • Sexually Coercive Behavior in Male Youth: Population Survey of General and Specific Risk Factors.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Archives of Sexual Behavior. - Springer. - 0004-0002. ; 39:5, s. 1161-1169
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Little is known about risk/protective factors for sexually coercive behavior in general population youth. We used a Swedish school-based population survey of sexual attitudes and experiences (response rate 77%) and investigated literature-based variables across sexually coercive (SEX), non-sexual conduct problem (CP), and normal control (NC) participants to identify general and specific risk/protective factors for sexual coercion. Among 1,933 male youth, 101 (5.2%) reported sexual coercion (ever talked or forced somebody into genital, oral, or anal sex) (SEX), 132 (6.8%) were classified as CP, and the remaining 1,700 (87.9%) as NC. Of 29 tested variables, 25 were more common in both SEX and CP compared to NC youth, including minority ethnicity, separated parents, vocational study program, risk-taking, aggressiveness, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, sexual victimization, extensive sexual experiences, and sexual preoccupation. When compared to CP youth only, SEX youth more often followed academic study programs, used less drugs and were less risk-taking. Further, SEX more frequently than CP youth reported gender stereotypic and pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, prostitution, and friends using violent porn. Finally, in a multivariate logistic regression, academic study program, pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, and less risk-taking independently remained more strongly associated with SEX compared to CP offending. In conclusion, several sociodemographic, family, and individual risk/protective factors were common to non-sexual and sexually coercive antisocial behavior in late adolescence. However, pro-rape cognitions, and sexual preoccupation, were sexuality-related, specific risk factors. The findings could inform preventive efforts and the assessment and treatment of sexually coercive male youth.
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6.
  • Seto, Michael C., et al. (författare)
  • Sexual Coercion Experience and Sexually Coercive Behavior: A Population Study of Swedish and Norwegian Male Youth
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Child Maltreatment. - SAGE Publications Inc.. - 1077-5595. ; 15:3, s. 219-228
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The authors tested the hypothesis that experiencing sexual coercion and engaging in sexually coercive behavior are positively associated in a representative sample totaling almost 4,000 Swedish or Norwegian male high school students (estimated response rate 80%). In both surveys, youths who had experienced sexual coercion were approximately three times more likely to engage in sexually coercive behavior than those without such experience (10%-12% vs. 4%). The association between sexual coercion experience and sexually coercive behavior was attenuated but remained significant and moderately strong in both surveys when controlling for nonsexual antisocial behavior, substance use, and noncoercive sexual behavior in multivariate logistic regression models. The population attributable fraction (proportion of sexually coercive behavior that can be explained by sexual coercion experience) was 18%-25%. The findings support a robust link between having been sexually coerced and engaging in coercive sexual behavior in the general population.
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7.
  • Seto, Michael C., et al. (författare)
  • Viewing child pornography: Prevalence and correlates in a representative community sample of young Swedish men
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Archives of Sexual Behavior. - Springer. - 0004-0002. ; 44:1, s. 67-79
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most research on child pornography use has been basedonselected clinical or criminal justice samples;riskfactors for child pornography use in the general population remain largely unexplored. In this study, we examined prevalence, risk factors,andcorrelates of viewingdepictions of adult–child sex in a population-representative sample of 1,978 young Swedish men(17–20 years,Mdn=18 years, overall response rate,77 %). In an anonymous, school-based survey, participants self-reported sexual coercion xperiences, attitudes and beliefs about sex, perceived peer attitudes, and sexual interests and behaviors; including pornography use, sexual interest in children, and sexually coercive behavior. A total of 84 (4.2 %) young men reported they had ever viewed child pornography. Most theorybased variables were moderately and significantly associated with child pornography viewing and were consistent with models of sexual offending implicating both antisociality and sexual deviance. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, 7 of 15 tested factors independently predicted child pornography viewing and explained 42%of the variance: ever had sex with a male, likely to have sex with a child aged 12–14, likely to have sexwith a child 12 or less, perception of children as seductive, having friends who have watched child pornography, frequent pornography use, and ever viewed violent pornography. From these, a 6-item Child Pornography Correlates Scale was constructed and then cross-validated in a similar but independent Norwegian sample.
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8.
  • Abé, Christoph, et al. (författare)
  • Cortical brain structure and sexual orientation in adult females with bipolar disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Brain and Behavior. - 2162-3279 .- 2162-3279. ; 8:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Nonheterosexual individuals have higher risk of psychiatric morbidity. Together with growing evidence for sexual orientation‐related brain differences, this raises the concern that sexual orientation may be an important factor to control for in neuroimaging studies of neuropsychiatric disorders.Methods: We studied sexual orientation in adult psychiatric patients with bipolar disorder (BD) or ADHD in a large clinical cohort (N = 154). We compared cortical brain structure in exclusively heterosexual women (HEW, n = 29) with that of nonexclusively heterosexual women (nHEW, n = 37) using surface‐based reconstruction techniques provided by FreeSurfer.Results: The prevalence of nonheterosexual sexual orientation was tentatively higher than reported in general population samples. Consistent with previously reported cross‐sex shifted brain patterns among homosexual individuals, nHEW patients showed significantly larger cortical volumes than HEW in medial occipital brain regions.Conclusion: We found evidence for a sex‐reversed difference in cortical volume among nonheterosexual female patients, which provides insights into the neurobiology of sexual orientation, and may provide the first clues toward a better neurobiological understanding of the association between sexual orientation and mental health. We also suggest that sexual orientation is an important factor to consider in future neuroimaging studies of populations with certain mental health disorders.
9.
  • Babchishin, Kelly M., et al. (författare)
  • Are There Early Risk Markers for Pedophilia? : A Nationwide Case-Control Study of Child Sexual Exploitation Material Offenders
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Sex Research. - ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. - 0022-4499 .- 1559-8519. ; 56:2, s. 203-212
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although prior research suggests associations between parental characteristics and later sexual offending in offspring, possible links between early pregnancy-related factors and sexual offending remain unclear. Early risk markers unique to sexual offending, however, may be more prominent among sexual offenders with atypical sexual interests, such as individuals involved with child sexual exploitation material (CSEM; also referred to as child pornography). We examined the prospective association between parental and pregnancy-related risk markers and a behavioral indicator of pedophilic interest, CSEM offending. All 655 men born in Sweden and convicted of CSEM offending between 1988 to 2009 were matched 1:5 on sex, birth year, and county of birth in Sweden to 3,928 controls without sexual or nonsexual violent convictions. Paternal age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.1, 1.7]), parental education (AOR = 0.8, 95% CI [0.6, 0.9]), parental violent criminality (AOR = 2.9, 95% CI [2.2, 3.8]), number of older brothers (AOR = 0.8, 95% CI [0.6, 0.9] per brother), and congenital malformations (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI [1.2, 2.4]) all independently predicted CSEM convictions. This large-scale, nationwide study suggests parental risk markers for CSEM offending. We did not, however, find convincing evidence for pregnancy-related risk markers, with the exception of congenital malformations and having fewer older brothers.
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10.
  • Babchishin, K. M., et al. (författare)
  • Parental and perinatal risk factors for sexual offending in men a nationwide case-control study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Psychological Medicine. - 0033-2917 .- 1469-8978. ; 47:2, s. 305-315
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Prior studies suggest parental and perinatal risk factors are associated with later offending. It remains uncertain, however, if such risk factors are similarly related to sexual offending. Method. We linked socio-demographic, family relations, and perinatal (obtained at birth) data from the nationwide Swedish registers from 1973 to 2009 with information on criminal convictions of cases and control subjects. Male sex offenders (n = 13 773) were matched 1: 5 on birth year and county of birth in Sweden to male controls without sexual or non-sexual violent convictions. To examine risk-factor specificity for sexual offending, we also compared male violent, non-sexual offenders (n = 135 953) to controls without sexual or non-sexual violent convictions. Predictors included parental (young maternal or paternal age at son's birth, educational attainment, violent crime, psychiatric disorder, substance misuse, suicide attempt) and perinatal (number of older brothers, low Apgar score, low birth weight, being small for gestational age, congenital malformations, small head size) variables. Results. Conditional logistic regression models found consistent patterns of statistically significant, small to moderate independent associations of parental risk factors with sons' sexual offending and non-sexual violent offending. For perinatal risk factors, patterns varied more; small for gestational age and small head size exhibited similar risk effects for both offence types whereas a higher number of older biological brothers and any congenital malformation were small, independent risk factors only for non-sexual violence. Conclusions. This nationwide study suggests substantial commonalities in parental and perinatal risk factors for the onset of sexual and non-sexual violent offending.
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