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1.
  • Dumanski, Jan P., et al. (författare)
  • Mosaic Loss of Chromosome Y in Blood Is Associated with Alzheimer Disease
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - 0002-9297 .- 1537-6605. ; 98:6, s. 1208-1219
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Men have a shorter life expectancy compared with women but the underlying factor(s) are not clear. Late-onset, sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD) is a common and lethal neurodegenerative disorder and many germline inherited variants have been found to influence the risk of developing AD. Our previous results show that a fundamentally different genetic variant, i.e., lifetime-acquired loss of chromosome Y (LOY) in blood cells, is associated with all-cause mortality and an increased risk of non-hematological tumors and that LOY could be induced by tobacco smoking. We tested here a hypothesis that men with LOY are more susceptible to AD and show that LOY is associated with AD in three independent studies of different types. In a case-control study, males with AD diagnosis had higher degree of LOY mosaicism (adjusted odds ratio = 2.80, p = 0.0184, AD events = 606). Furthermore, in two prospective studies, men with LOY at blood sampling had greater risk for incident AD diagnosis during follow-up time (hazard ratio [HR] = 6.80, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 2.16-21.43, AD events = 140, p = 0.0011). Thus, LOY in blood is associated with risks of both AD and cancer, suggesting a role of LOY in blood cells on disease processes in other tissues, possibly via defective immunosurveillance. As a male-specific risk factor, LOY might explain why males on average live shorter lives than females.
2.
  • Dumanski, Jan P., et al. (författare)
  • Mutagenesis : smoking is associated with mosaic loss of chromosome Y
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 347:6217, s. 81-83
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for numerous disorders, including cancers affecting organs outside the respiratory tract. Epidemiological data suggest that smoking is a greater risk factor for these cancers in males compared to females. This observation, together with the fact that males have a higher incidence of and mortality from most non-sex-specific cancers, remains unexplained. Loss of chromosome Y (LOY) in blood cells is associated with increased risk of nonhematological tumors. We demonstrate here that smoking is associated with LOY in blood cells in three independent cohorts [TwinGene: odds ratio (OR) = 4.3, 95% CI = 2.8-6.7; ULSAM: OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.6-3.6; and PIVUS: OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.4-8.4] encompassing a total of 6014 men. The data also suggest that smoking has a transient and dose-dependent mutagenic effect on LOY status. The finding that smoking induces LOY thus links a preventable risk factor with the most common acquired human mutation.
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3.
  • Dumanski, Jan P, et al. (författare)
  • Smoking is associated with mosaic loss of chromosome Y
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075. ; 347:6217, s. 81-83
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for numerous disorders, including cancers affecting organs outside the respiratory tract. Epidemiological data suggest that smoking is a greater risk factor for these cancers in males compared to females. This observation, together with the fact that males have a higher incidence of and mortality from most non-sex-specific cancers, remains unexplained. Loss of chromosome Y (LOY) in blood cells is associated with increased risk of nonhematological tumors. We demonstrate here that smoking is associated with LOY in blood cells in three independent cohorts [TwinGene: odds ratio (OR) = 4.3, 95% CI = 2.8-6.7; ULSAM: OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.6-3.6; and PIVUS: OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.4-8.4] encompassing a total of 6014 men. The data also suggest that smoking has a transient and dose-dependent mutagenic effect on LOY status. The finding that smoking induces LOY thus links a preventable risk factor with the most common acquired human mutation.
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6.
  • Forsberg, Lars A., et al. (författare)
  • Mosaic loss of chromosome Y in peripheral blood is associated with shorter survival and higher risk of cancer
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 46:6, s. 624-628
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Incidence and mortality for sex-unspecific cancers are higher among men, a fact that is largely unexplained(1,2). Furthermore, age-related loss of chromosome Y (LOY) is frequent in normal hematopoietic cells(3,4), but the phenotypic consequences of LOY have been elusive(5-10). From analysis of 1,153 elderly men, we report that LOY in peripheral blood was associated with risks of all-cause mortality (hazards ratio (HR) = 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.17-3.13; 637 events) and non-hematological cancer mortality (HR = 3.62, 95% CI = 1.56-8.41; 132 events). LOY affected at least 8.2% of the subjects in this cohort, and median survival times among men with LOY were 5.5 years shorter. Association of LOY with risk of all-cause mortality was validated in an independent cohort (HR = 3.66) in which 20.5% of subjects showed LOY. These results illustrate the impact of post-zygotic mosaicism on disease risk, could explain why males are more frequently affected by cancer and suggest that chromosome Y is important in processes beyond sex determination. LOY in blood could become a predictive biomarker of male carcinogenesis.
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7.
  • Israelsson, Charlotte, et al. (författare)
  • Appearance of Cxcl10-expressing cell clusters is common for traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative disorders
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Neuroscience. - 0953-816X .- 1460-9568. ; 31:5, s. 852-863
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the mouse results in the rapid appearance of scattered clusters of cells expressing the chemokine Cxcl10 in cortical and subcortical areas. To extend the observation of this unique pattern, we used neuropathological mouse models using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, gene array analysis, in-situ hybridization and flow cytometry. As for TBI, cell clusters of 150–200 μm expressing Cxcl10 characterize the cerebral cortex of mice carrying a transgene encoding the Swedish mutation of amyloid precursor protein, a model of amyloid Alzheimer pathology. The same pattern was found in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice modelling multiple sclerosis. In contrast, mice carrying a SOD1G93A mutant mimicking amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathology lacked such cell clusters in the cerebral cortex, whereas clusters appeared in the brainstem and spinal cord. Mice homozygous for a null mutation of the Cxcl10 gene did not show detectable levels of Cxcl10 transcript after TBI, confirming the quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in-situ hybridization signals. Moreover, unbiased microarray expression analysis showed that Cxcl10 was among 112 transcripts in the neocortex upregulated at least threefold in both TBI and ageing TgSwe mice, many of them involved in inflammation. The identity of the Cxcl10+ cells remains unclear but flow cytometry showed increased numbers of activated microglia/macrophages as well as myeloid dendritic cells in the TBI and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis models. It is concluded that the Cxcl10+ cells appear in the inflamed central nervous system and may represent a novel population of cells that it may be possible to target pharmacologically in a broad range of neurodegenerative conditions.
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8.
  • Lord, Anna, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Amyloid-β protofibril levels correlate with spatial learning in Arctic Alzheimer’s disease transgenic mice
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: The FEBS Journal. - 1742-464X .- 1742-4658. ; 276:4, s. 995-1006
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Oligomeric assemblies of amyloid-β (Aβ) are suggested to be central in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease because levels of soluble Aβ correlate much better with the extent of cognitive dysfunctions than do senile plaque counts. Moreover, such Aβ species have been shown to be neurotoxic, to interfere with learned behavior and to inhibit the maintenance of hippocampal long-term potentiation. The tg-ArcSwe model (i.e. transgenic mice with the Arctic and Swedish Alzheimer mutations) expresses elevated levels of Aβ protofibrils in the brain, making tg-ArcSwe a highly suitable model for investigating the pathogenic role of these Aβ assemblies. In the present study, we estimated Aβ protofibril levels in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid of tg-ArcSwe mice, and also assessed their role with respect to cognitive functions. Protofibril levels, specifically measured with a sandwich ELISA, were found to be elevated in young tg-ArcSwe mice compared to several transgenic models lacking the Arctic mutation. In aged tg-ArcSwe mice with considerable plaque deposition, Aβ protofibrils were approximately 50% higher than in younger mice, whereas levels of total Aβ were exponentially increased. Young tg-ArcSwe mice showed deficits in spatial learning, and individual performances in the Morris water maze were correlated inversely with levels of Aβ protofibrils, but not with total Aβ levels. We conclude that Aβ protofibrils accumulate in an age-dependent manner in tg-ArcSwe mice, although to a far lesser extent than total Aβ. Our findings suggest that increased levels of Aβ protofibrils could result in spatial learning impairment.
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9.
  • Nikpay, Majid, et al. (författare)
  • A comprehensive 1000 Genomes-based genome-wide association meta-analysis of coronary artery disease
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 47:10, s. 1121-1130
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Existing knowledge of genetic variants affecting risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) is largely based on genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis of common SNPs. Leveraging phased haplotypes from the 1000 Genomes Project, we report a GWAS meta-analysis of similar to 185,000 CAD cases and controls, interrogating 6.7 million common (minor allele frequency (MAF) > 0.05) and 2.7 million low-frequency (0.005 < MAF < 0.05) variants. In addition to confirming most known CAD-associated loci, we identified ten new loci (eight additive and two recessive) that contain candidate causal genes newly implicating biological processes in vessel walls. We observed intralocus allelic heterogeneity but little evidence of low-frequency variants with larger effects and no evidence of synthetic association. Our analysis provides a comprehensive survey of the fine genetic architecture of CAD, showing that genetic susceptibility to this common disease is largely determined by common SNPs of small effect size.
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