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1.
  • Colins, Olivier F., 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Psychopathic Traits in Early Childhood : Further Validation of the Child Problematic Traits Inventory
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Assessment (Odessa, Fla.). - Thousand Oaks, USA : Sage Publications. - 1073-1911. ; 24:5, s. 602-614
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim was to further test the reliability and validity of a newly developed instrument designed to assess psychopathic personality traits in children, the Child Problematic Traits Inventory (CPTI). Data from the Preschool Twin Study in Sweden were used, a national general population study of 5-year-old twins (n = 1,188, 50.3% girls). Both preschool teachers and parents were used as informants. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the intended three-factorial structure of the 28 items of the CPTI. Overall, our findings demonstrated good internal consistency and convergent validity, with all the teacher-rated CPTI scores being associated with teacher and parent ratings of externalizing psychopathology, aggressive behavior, fearlessness, and prosocial peer involvement. In conclusion, the CPTI hold promise as a teacher-rated tool for assessing psychopathic traits in childhood, though more research is needed to see if these findings can be generalized to other countries, settings, and older children.
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2.
  • Friedrichs, Bettina, et al. (författare)
  • Coexisting psychiatric problems and stressful life events in adults with symptoms of ADHD : a large Swedish population-based study of twins
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Attention Disorders. - Sage Publications. - 1087-0547. ; 16:1, s. 13-22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations of subtypes of adult ADHD with other psychiatric problems, stressful life events, and sex differences.METHOD: Odds ratios were calculated using information from 17,899 participants from a population-based survey of adult twins born in Sweden between 1959 and 1985.RESULTS: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were associated with an increased risk for symptoms of (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]): generalized anxiety disorder (5.6 [4.3; 6.5]), major depression (2.8 [2.4; 3.2]), bipolar disorder (8.0 [5.1; 12.6]), obsessive-compulsive disorder (3.9 [3.1; 4.9]), and alcohol dependence (2.6 [2.2; 3.1]). Symptoms of ADHD were found to be associated with an increased risk for stressful life events (1.8 [1.3; 2.4]). No significant difference in comorbidity was observed between the two sexes.CONCLUSION: Both women and men with ADHD are at increased risk for symptoms of other psychiatric disorders. They are also at increased risk for stressful life events.
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3.
  • Larsson, Henrik, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • A genetic factor explains most of the variation in the psychopathic personality
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Abnormal Psychology. - American Psychological Association (APA). - 0021-843X. ; 115:2, s. 221-230
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The psychopathic personality can be conceptualized as three interrelated dimensions, (a) an interpersonal style of glibness, grandiosity, and manipulation; (b) an affective disposition of callousness, lack of empathy, and unemotionality; and (c) a behavioral/lifestyle dimension of impulsivity, need for stimulation, and irresponsibility, underpinning a higher order construct, psychopathic personality. The authors used a self-report questionnaire (The Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory) to study the importance of genetic and environmental influences on psychopathic personality traits in a sample of 1,090 monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs, aged 16-17 years. Results showed a strong genetic influence behind the higher order "psychopathic personality" factor, underpinned by the three psychopathic personality dimensions. Over and above the effects to the higher order factor, significant unique genetic influences were also found in the callous/unemotional and in the impulsive/irresponsible dimension, but not in the grandiose/manipulative dimension. The authors propose that this latent psychopathic personality factor is a meaningful target for future etiological research.
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4.
  • Larsson, Henrik, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic contributions to the development of ADHD subtypes from childhood to adolescence
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0890-8567. ; 45:8, s. 973-981
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Little is known about how genes influence the development of symptoms included in the DSM-IV subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adolescence. The aim of this study was to examine genetic influences contributing to the development of hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and inattentive symptoms of ADHD from childhood to adolescence.METHOD: The sample included all 1,480 twin pairs born in Sweden between May 1985 and December 1986. Parents responded to mailed questionnaires on three occasions, when the twins were 8 to 9, 13 to 14, and 16 to 17 years old. The authors used dimensional scales of hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention derived from a checklist of items based on the DSM symptoms of ADHD.RESULTS: Symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity declined with increasing age, whereas there was no decline in symptoms of inattention. Persistent genetic influences explain between 45% and 90% of the total genetic variance in hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention across age. Persistent genetic variance was primarily operating across subtypes, even though persistent subtype-specific influences were also significant.CONCLUSIONS: The finding of persistent cross-subtype (i.e., combined) and persistent subtype-specific genetic influences (i.e., primarily hyperactive-impulsive and primarily inattentive) are in line with a genetic basis for the DSM-IV classification of ADHD subtypes.
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5.
  • Larsson, Jan-Olov, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic and environmental contributions to stability and change of ADHD symptoms between 8 and 13 years of age : a longitudinal twin study
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. - Philadelphia, USA : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0890-8567. ; 43:10, s. 1267-1275
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To study the genetic and environmental contributions to stability and change of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms between 8 and 9 and 13 and 14 years of age.Method: The sample included 1,480 twin pairs born in Sweden between May 1985 and December 1986. At wave 1 in 1994, when twins were 8-9 years old, 1,106 (75%) of the parents responded to a mailed questionnaire, and at wave 2 when the twins were 13-14 years old, 1,063 (73%) responded. A checklist with 14 items based on the 14 DSM-III-R symptoms for ADHD was completed. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data.Results: A relatively high stability of ADHD symptoms over this 5-year period was found. This continuity was mainly due to the same genetic effects operating at both points in time. Change in symptoms between childhood and early adolescence was to a large extent due to new genetic effects in early adolescence but also due to new nonshared environmental effects that became important during adolescence.Conclusions: The genetic stability highlights the importance of the continuing search for genes and endophenotypes of ADHD.
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6.
  • Drislane, Laura E., et al. (författare)
  • A triarchic model analysis of the youth psychopathic traits inventory
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Personality Disorders. - Guilford Publications. - 0885-579X .- 1943-2763. ; 29:1, s. 15-41
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The Triarchic model of psychopathy characterizes this complex condition in terms of distinct phenotypic constructs of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. The current study evaluated the coverage of these constructs provided by a well-established inventory for assessing psychopathy in adolescents, the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI). A consensus rating approach was used to identify YPI items relevant to each Triarchic model construct, and convergent and discriminant validity of the resulting YPI-Triarchic scales were examined in relation to criterion measures consisting of scores on other psychopathy measures and relevant personality trait variables (N = 618, M age = 18.8). The YPI-Triarchic scales showed good internal consistency and exhibited properties largely consistent with predictions based on the Triarchic model, aside from somewhat greater than expected covariance between boldness and other facet scales. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for interpreting scores on the YPI and for investigating distinctive components of psychopathy in youth.</p>
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7.
  • Lundström, Sebastian, et al. (författare)
  • Autism spectrum disorders and autistic like traits: similar etiology in the extreme end and the normal variation.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Archives of General Psychiatry. - 0003-990X. ; 69:1, s. 46-52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been suggested to represent the extreme end of a normal distribution of autistic like traits (ALTs). However, the evidence of this notion is inconclusive.Objective: To study whether there are similar genetic and/or environmental etiologies behind ASDs and ALTs.Design: A nationwide twin study.Participants: Consenting parents of all Swedish twins aged 9 and 12 years, born between July 1, 1992, and December 31, 2001 (n = 19 208), were interviewed by telephone to screen for child psychiatric conditions, including ASDs.Main outcome measures: Two validated cutoffs for ASDs, 2 cutoffs encompassing the normal variation, and 1 continuous measure of ALTs were used with DeFries-Fulker extreme-end analyses and standard twin study methods.Results: We discerned a strong correlation between the 4 cutoffs and the full variation of ALTs. The correlation was primarily affected by genes. We also found that the heritability for the 4 cutoffs was similar.Conclusion: We demonstrate an etiological similarity between ASDs and ALTs in the normal variation and, with results from previous studies, our data suggest that ASDs and ALTs are etiologically linked.
8.
  • Nilsson, R. Henrik, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • Improving ITS sequence data for identification of plant pathogenic fungi
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Fungal diversity. - 1560-2745. ; 67:1, s. 11-19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Plant pathogenic fungi are a large and diverse assemblage of eukaryotes with substantial impacts on natural ecosystems and human endeavours. These taxa often have complex and poorly understood life cycles, lack observable, discriminatory morphological characters, and may not be amenable to in vitro culturing. As a result, species identification is frequently difficult. Molecular (DNA sequence) data have emerged as crucial information for the taxonomic identification of plant pathogenic fungi, with the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region being the most popular marker. However, international nucleotide sequence databases are accumulating numerous sequences of compromised or low-resolution taxonomic annotations and substandard technical quality, making their use in the molecular identification of plant pathogenic fungi problematic. Here we report on a concerted effort to identify high-quality reference sequences for various plant pathogenic fungi and to re-annotate incorrectly or insufficiently annotated public ITS sequences from these fungal lineages. A third objective was to enrich the sequences with geographical and ecological metadata. The results – a total of 31,954 changes – are incorporated in and made available through the UNITE database for molecular identification of fungi (http://unite.ut.ee), including standalone FASTA files of sequence data for local BLAST searches, use in the next-generation sequencing analysis platforms QIIME and mothur, and related applications. The present initiative is just a beginning to cover the wide spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi, and we invite all researchers with pertinent expertise to join the annotation effort.
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9.
  • Nilsson, R Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Improving ITS sequence data for identification of plant pathogenic fungi
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Fungal diversity. - 1560-2745 .- 1878-9129. ; 67:1, s. 11-19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Plant pathogenic fungi are a large and diverse assemblage of eukaryotes with substantial impacts on natural ecosystems and human endeavours. These taxa often have complex and poorly understood life cycles, lack observable, discriminatory morphological characters, and may not be amenable to in vitro culturing. As a result, species identification is frequently difficult. Molecular (DNA sequence) data have emerged as crucial information for the taxonomic identification of plant pathogenic fungi, with the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region being the most popular marker. However, international nucleotide sequence databases are accumulating numerous sequences of compromised or low-resolution taxonomic annotations and substandard technical quality, making their use in the molecular identification of plant pathogenic fungi problematic. Here we report on a concerted effort to identify high-quality reference sequences for various plant pathogenic fungi and to re-annotate incorrectly or insufficiently annotated public ITS sequences from these fungal lineages. A third objective was to enrich the sequences with geographical and ecological metadata. The results - a total of 31,954 changes - are incorporated in and made available through the UNITE database for molecular identification of fungi (including standalone FASTA files of sequence data for local BLAST searches, use in the next-generation sequencing analysis platforms QIIME and mothur, and related applications. The present initiative is just a beginning to cover the wide spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi, and we invite all researchers with pertinent expertise to join the annotation effort.</p>
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10.
  • Thunman, Henrik, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • Advanced biofuel production via gasification – lessons learned from 200 man-years of research activity with Chalmers’ research gasifier and the GoBiGas demonstration plant.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Energy Science and Engineering. - 2050-0505. ; 6:1, s. 6-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents the main experiences gained and conclusions drawn from the demonstration of a first-of-its-kind wood-based biomethane production plant (20-MW capacity, 150 dry tonnes of biomass/day) and 10 years of operation of the 2–4-MW (10–20 dry tonnes of biomass/day) research gasifier at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. Based on the experience gained, an elaborated outline for commercialization of the technology for a wide spectrum of applications and end products is defined. The main findings are related to the use of biomass ash constituents as a catalyst for the process and the application of coated heat exchangers, such that regular fluidized bed boilers can be retrofitted to become biomass gasifiers. Among the recirculation of the ash streams within the process, presence of the alkali salt in the system is identified as highly important for control of the tar species. Combined with new insights on fuel feeding and reactor design, these two major findings form the basis for a comprehensive process layout that can support a gradual transformation of existing boilers in district heating networks and in pulp, paper and saw mills, and it facilitates the exploitation of existing oil refineries and petrochemical plants for large-scale production of renewable fuels, chemicals, and materials from biomass and wastes. The potential for electrification of those process layouts are also discussed. The commercialization route represents an example of how biomass conversion develops and integrates with existing industrial and energy infrastructures to form highly effective systems that deliver a wide range of end products. Illustrating the potential, the existing fluidized bed boilers in Sweden alone represent a jet fuel production capacity that corresponds to 10% of current global consumption.
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