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1.
  • Hakansson, Stellan, et al. (författare)
  • Real-time PCR-assay in the delivery suite for determination of group B streptococcal colonization in a setting with risk-based antibiotic prophylaxis
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine. - Taylor & Francis. - 1476-7058. ; 27:4, s. 328-332
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) reduces the incidence of neonatal early onset group B streptococcal infections. The present study investigated if an automated PCR-assay, used bedside by the labor ward personnel was manageable and could decrease the use of IAP in a setting with a risk-based IAP strategy. Methods: The study comprises two phases. Phase 1 was a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. Women with selected risk-factors were allocated either to PCR-IAP (prophylaxis given if positive or indeterminate) or IAP. A vaginal/rectal swab and superficial swabs from the neonate for conventional culture were also obtained. Phase 2 was non-randomized, assessing an improved version of the assay. Results: Phase 1 included 112 women in the PCR-IAP group and 117 in the IAP group. Excluding indeterminate results, the assay showed a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 90%. In 44 % of the PCR assays the result was indeterminate. The use of IAP was lower in the PCR group (53 versus 92%). Phase 2 included 94 women. The proportion of indeterminate results was reduced (15%). The GBS colonization rate was 31%. Conclusion: The PCR assay, in the hands of labor ward personnel, can be useful for selection of women to which IAP should be offered.
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2.
  • Kårehed, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Fibrinogen and histidine-rich glycoprotein in early-onset preeclampsia
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. - 0001-6349 .- 1600-0412. ; 89:1, s. 131-139
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>OBJECTIVE: To determine whether plasma levels of fibrinogen and the placental tissue distributions of fibrinogen and histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) differ between early- and late-onset preeclampsia. DESIGN: The study comprised 18 women with early-onset (gestational weeks 24-32) and 19 women with late-onset (gestational weeks 35-42) preeclampsia. As controls concerning the plasma levels of fibrinogen, we used samples from non-pregnant fertile women, healthy pregnant women at gestational weeks 24-32 and healthy pregnant women at gestational weeks 35-42. Placental samples from women with healthy pregnancies at gestational weeks 35-42 served as controls in the immunohistochemical staining. SETTING: Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala. METHODS: Plasma fibrinogen levels were analyzed and the placental tissue expression of fibrinogen and HRG determined by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Plasma level of fibrinogen was increased in early-onset, but not late-onset, preeclampsia. Levels of fibrinogen were significantly lower, and that of HRG significantly higher, in placentas from women with early-onset preeclampsia as compared with control placentas (p = 0.01 and 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: HRG and fibrinogen might be involved in the hypercoagulability and the angiogenic imbalance seen in early-onset preeclampsia.</p>
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3.
  • Wahlberg, Karin E, et al. (författare)
  • Polymorphisms in Manganese Transporters SLC30A10 and SLC39A8 Are Associated With Children's Neurodevelopment by Influencing Manganese Homeostasis
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Genetics. - Frontiers. - 1664-8021. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Manganese (Mn) is an essential element but at excessive levels, it is neurotoxic. Even a moderate increase in Mn has been suggested to interfere with neurodevelopment in children. Genetics influencing Mn concentrations and toxicity is unclear. Objective: We assessed, in a cross-sectional study, whether common single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the Mn transporters SLC39A8 (influx) and SLC30A10 (efflux) are associated with neurodevelopment in children. Design: We genotyped SLC39A8 (rs13107325 C/T) and SLC30A10 (rs1776029 G/A and rs12064812 T/C) in Italian children (n = 686, ages 11-14). We then used linear regression models to analyze associations between genotype, blood Mn concentrations, and neurodevelopmental outcomes including intelligence, behavior, motor function, and sway. Inferred causal relationships were evaluated using instrumental variables (IV) analysis. Results: For SLC30A10 rs1776029, the minor allele (A) was associated with increased average blood Mn of 41% (p < 0.001), whereas minor alleles for rs12064812 (C) and rs13107325 (T) were associated with reduced blood Mn of 7% (p = 0.002) and 15% (p < 0.001), respectively. For children carrying genotypes associated with high blood Mn, we observed lower performance for certain IQ subtests, increased sway, and increased scores for behavioral problems. High Mn genotypes showed odds ratios of 2-4 (p ≤ 0.01) for high scores in tests assessing ADHD-related behavior. IV analyses suggested that several of the associations were mediated by blood Mn. Conclusions: Our results suggest that common polymorphisms in SLC39A8 and SLC30A10 influence neurodevelopmental outcomes in children via differences in Mn homeostasis.
4.
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5.
  • Akhter, Tansim, 1967-, et al. (författare)
  • Artery Wall Layer Dimensions during Normal Pregnancy : A longitudinal study using non-invasive high-frequency ultrasound
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology. - 0363-6135 .- 1522-1539. ; 304:2, s. H229-H234
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The vascular effects of normal pregnancy were investigated by estimating the intima and media thicknesses of the common carotid artery separately using 22MHz ultrasound (Collagenoson, Meudt, Germany) in 57 healthy women with normal pregnancies and pregnancy outcomes, in all three trimesters and at one year postpartum. A thick intima, thin media and high intima/media (I/M) ratio are signs of a less healthy artery wall. The mean artery wall layer dimensions remained fairly constant during pregnancy but the intima thickness and I/M thickness ratio appeared to improve (decrease) postpartum (p&lt;0.001 for both). The cardiovascular risk parameters age, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure in the first trimester were associated with higher I/M ratios, especially in the second trimester, whereas higher serum estradiol levels were significantly associated with a lower I/M ratio. Changes from the first to second trimesters in I/M ratio, taking into account differential changes in intima and media thickness, were significantly (p&lt;0.05-0.001) associated with all risk parameters tested except age, which was associated with increased intima thickness (p=0.02). Associations with third trimester values and changes from first to third trimesters were similar but less apparent. Thus, fairly constant mean artery wall layer dimensions during pregnancy appeared to improve postpartum. However, higher age, BMI or blood pressure, and lower serum estradiol levels in the first trimester appeared to negatively affect the artery wall, strongly suggesting that pregnancy has negative vascular effects in some women. A less likely explanation involves possible adaptation to physiological changes during and after pregnancy.</p>
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6.
  • Akhter, Tansim, 1967-, et al. (författare)
  • Association between angiogenic factors and signs of arterial aging in women with pre-eclampsia
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. - 0960-7692 .- 1469-0705. ; 50, s. 93-99
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>OBJECTIVES:</strong> Pre-eclampsia (PE) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. In PE there is a substantial increase in levels of the anti-angiogenic factor soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt1) and decreased levels of the pro-angiogenic factor placental growth factor (PlGF). Elevated levels of sFlt1 are also found in individuals with CVD. The aims of this study were to assess sFlt1, PlGF and the sFlt1/PlGF ratio and their correlation with signs of arterial aging by measuring common carotid artery (CCA) intima and media thicknesses and their ratio (I/M ratio) in women with and without PE.</p><p><strong>METHODS:</strong> Serum sFlt1 and PlGF levels were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits, and CCA intima and media thicknesses were estimated using high-frequency (22 MHz) ultrasonography in 55 women at PE diagnosis and 64 women with normal pregnancies at a similar gestational age, with reassessment one year postpartum. A thick intima, thin media and a high I/M ratio indicate a less healthy arterial wall.</p><p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> During pregnancy, higher levels of sFlt1, lower levels of PlGF and thicker intima, thinner media and higher I/M ratios were found in women with PE vs. controls (all p &lt; 0.0001). Further, sFlt1 and the sFlt1/PlGF ratio were positively correlated with intima thickness and I/M ratio (all p &lt; 0.0001), but negatively correlated with media thickness (p = 0.002 and 0.03, respectively). About one year postpartum, levels of sFlt1 and the sFlt1/PlGF ratio had decreased in both groups, but compared with controls women in the PE group still had higher levels (p = 0.001 and 0.02, respectively). Further, sFlt1 levels and the sFlt1/PlGF ratio were still positively correlated with intima thickness and I/M ratio.</p><p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> Higher sFlt1 levels and sFlt1/PlGF ratios in women with PE were positively associated with signs of arterial aging during pregnancy. About one year postpartum sFlt1 levels and the sFlt1/PlGF ratios were still higher in the PE group, and also associated with the degree of arterial aging.</p>
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7.
  • Allaoui, Roni, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer-associated fibroblast-secreted CXCL16 attracts monocytes to promote stroma activation in triple-negative breast cancers
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Triple-negative (TN) breast cancers (ER â ' PR â ' HER2 â ') are highly metastatic and associated with poor prognosis. Within this subtype, invasive, stroma-rich tumours with infiltration of inflammatory cells are even more aggressive. The effect of myeloid cells on reactive stroma formation in TN breast cancer is largely unknown. Here, we show that primary human monocytes have a survival advantage, proliferate in vivo and develop into immunosuppressive myeloid cells expressing the myeloid-derived suppressor cell marker S100A9 only in a TN breast cancer environment. This results in activation of cancer-associated fibroblasts and expression of CXCL16, which we show to be a monocyte chemoattractant. We propose that this migratory feedback loop amplifies the formation of a reactive stroma, contributing to the aggressive phenotype of TN breast tumours. These insights could help select more suitable therapies targeting the stromal component of these tumours, and could aid prediction of drug resistance.
8.
  • Andersson, Cecilia, et al. (författare)
  • Glucose tolerance and beta-cell function in islet autoantibody-positive children recruited to a secondary prevention study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Pediatric Diabetes. - 1399-543X .- 1399-5448. ; 14:5, s. 341-349
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>AIMS:</strong> Children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) risk and islet autoantibodies are recruited to a secondary prevention study. The aims were to determine metabolic control in relation to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genetic risk and islet autoantibodies in prepubertal children.</p><p><strong>METHODS:</strong> In 47 healthy children with GADA and at least one additional islet autoantibody, intravenous glucose tolerance test (IvGTT) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were performed 8-65 d apart. Hemoglobin A1c, plasma glucose as well as serum insulin and C-peptide were determined at fasting and during IvGTT and OGTT.</p><p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> All children aged median 5.1 (4.0-9.2) yr had autoantibodies to two to six of the beta-cell antigens GAD65, insulin, IA-2, and the three amino acid position 325 variants of the ZnT8 transporter. In total, 20/47 children showed impaired glucose metabolism. Decreased (≤ 30 μU/mL insulin) first-phase insulin response (FPIR) was found in 14/20 children while 11/20 had impaired glucose tolerance in the OGTT. Five children had both impaired glucose tolerance and FPIR ≤ 30 μU/mL insulin. Number and levels of autoantibodies were not associated with glucose metabolism, except for an increased frequency (p = 0.03) and level (p = 0.01) of ZnT8QA in children with impaired glucose metabolism. Among the children with impaired glucose metabolism, 13/20 had HLA-DQ2/8, compared to 9/27 of the children with normal glucose metabolism (p = 0.03).</p><p><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> Secondary prevention studies in children with islet autoantibodies are complicated by variability in baseline glucose metabolism. Evaluation of metabolic control with both IvGTT and OGTT is critical and should be taken into account before randomization. All currently available autoantibody tests should be analyzed, including ZnT8QA.</p>
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9.
  • Andersson, Cecilia K, et al. (författare)
  • Glucose tolerance and beta-cell function in islet autoantibody-positive children recruited to a secondary prevention study.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Pediatric Diabetes. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 1399-543X. ; 14:5, s. 341-349
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: Children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) risk and islet autoantibodies are recruited to a secondary prevention study. The aims were to determine metabolic control in relation to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genetic risk and islet autoantibodies in prepubertal children. METHODS: In 47 healthy children with GADA and at least one additional islet autoantibody, intravenous glucose tolerance test (IvGTT) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were performed 8-65 d apart. Hemoglobin A1c, plasma glucose as well as serum insulin and C-peptide were determined at fasting and during IvGTT and OGTT. RESULTS: All children aged median 5.1 (4.0-9.2) yr had autoantibodies to two to six of the beta-cell antigens GAD65, insulin, IA-2, and the three amino acid position 325 variants of the ZnT8 transporter. In total, 20/47 children showed impaired glucose metabolism. Decreased (≤30 μU/mL insulin) first-phase insulin response (FPIR) was found in 14/20 children while 11/20 had impaired glucose tolerance in the OGTT. Five children had both impaired glucose tolerance and FPIR ≤30 μU/mL insulin. Number and levels of autoantibodies were not associated with glucose metabolism, except for an increased frequency (p = 0.03) and level (p = 0.01) of ZnT8QA in children with impaired glucose metabolism. Among the children with impaired glucose metabolism, 13/20 had HLA-DQ2/8, compared to 9/27 of the children with normal glucose metabolism (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Secondary prevention studies in children with islet autoantibodies are complicated by variability in baseline glucose metabolism. Evaluation of metabolic control with both IvGTT and OGTT is critical and should be taken into account before randomization. All currently available autoantibody tests should be analyzed, including ZnT8QA.
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10.
  • Andersson, Cecilia K, et al. (författare)
  • The three ZNT8 autoantibody variants together improve the diagnostic sensitivity of childhood and adolescent type 1 diabetes.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Autoimmunity. - Taylor & Francis. - 0891-6934. ; 44, s. 394-405
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: We tested whether autoantibodies to all three ZnT8RWQ variants, GAD65, insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA-2), insulin and autoantibodies to islet cell cytoplasm (ICA) in combination with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) would improve the diagnostic sensitivity of childhood type 1 diabetes by detecting the children who otherwise would have been autoantibody-negative. Methods: A total of 686 patients diagnosed in 1996-2005 in Skåne were analyzed for all the seven autoantibodies [arginin 325 zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8RA), tryptophan 325 zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8WA), glutamine 325 Zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8QA), autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), Autoantibodies to islet-antigen-2 (IA-2A), insulin autoantibodies (IAA) and ICA] in addition to HLA-DQ genotypes. Results: Zinc transporter 8 autoantibody to either one or all three amino acid variants at position 325 (ZnT8RWQA) was found in 65% (449/686) of the patients. The frequency was independent of age at diagnosis. The ZnT8RWQA reduced the frequency of autoantibody-negative patients from 7.5 to 5.4%-a reduction by 28%. Only 2 of 108 (2%) patients who are below 5 years of age had no autoantibody at diagnosis. Diagnosis without any islet autoantibody increased with increasing age at onset. DQA1-B1(*)X-0604 was associated with both ZnT8RA (p = 0.002) and ZnT8WA (p = 0.01) but not with ZnT8QA (p = 0.07). Kappa agreement analysis showed moderate (>0.40) to fair (>0.20) agreement between pairs of autoantibodies for all combinations of GADA, IA-2A, ZnT8RWQA and ICA but only slight ( < 0.19) agreement for any combination with IAA. Conclusions: This study revealed that (1) the ZnT8RWQA was common, independent of age; (2) multiple autoantibodies were common among the young; (3) DQA1-B1(*)X-0604 increased the risk for ZnT8RA and ZnT8WA; (4) agreement between autoantibody pairs was common for all combinations except IAA. These results suggest that ZnT8RWQA is a necessary complement to the classification and prediction of childhood type 1 diabetes as well as to randomize the subjects in the prevention and intervention of clinical trials.
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