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1.
  • Resic-Lindehammer, Sabina, et al. (författare)
  • Temporal trends of HLA genotype frequencies of type 1 diabetes patients in Sweden from 1986 to 2005 suggest altered risk
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Acta Diabetologica. - : Springer. - 0940-5429 .- 1432-5233. ; 45:4, s. 231-235
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes in 1-18-year-old patients with type 1 diabetes newly diagnosed in 1986-1987 (n = 430), 1996-2000 (n = 342) and in 2003-2005 (n = 171). We tested the hypothesis that the HLA DQ genotype distribution changes over time. Swedish type 1 diabetes patients and controls were typed for HLA using polymerase chain reaction amplification and allele specific probes for DQ A1* and B1* alleles. The most common type 1 diabetes HLA DQA1*-B1*genotype 0501-0201/0301-0302 was 36% (153/430) in 1986-1987 and 37% (127/342) in 1996-2000, but decreased to 19% (33/171) in 2003-2005 (P \ 0.0001). The 0501-0201/0501-0201 genotype increased from 1% in 1986-1987 to 7% in 1996-2000 (P = 0.0047) and to 5% in 2003-2005 (P > 0.05). This study in 1-18-year-old Swedish type 1 diabetes patients supports the notion that there is a temporal change in HLA risk.
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2.
  • Hakansson, Stellan, et al. (författare)
  • Real-time PCR-assay in the delivery suite for determination of group B streptococcal colonization in a setting with risk-based antibiotic prophylaxis
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1476-7058 .- 1476-4954. ; 27:4, s. 328-332
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) reduces the incidence of neonatal early onset group B streptococcal infections. The present study investigated if an automated PCR-assay, used bedside by the labor ward personnel was manageable and could decrease the use of IAP in a setting with a risk-based IAP strategy. Methods: The study comprises two phases. Phase 1 was a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. Women with selected risk-factors were allocated either to PCR-IAP (prophylaxis given if positive or indeterminate) or IAP. A vaginal/rectal swab and superficial swabs from the neonate for conventional culture were also obtained. Phase 2 was non-randomized, assessing an improved version of the assay. Results: Phase 1 included 112 women in the PCR-IAP group and 117 in the IAP group. Excluding indeterminate results, the assay showed a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 90%. In 44 % of the PCR assays the result was indeterminate. The use of IAP was lower in the PCR group (53 versus 92%). Phase 2 included 94 women. The proportion of indeterminate results was reduced (15%). The GBS colonization rate was 31%. Conclusion: The PCR assay, in the hands of labor ward personnel, can be useful for selection of women to which IAP should be offered.
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3.
  • Akhter, Tansim, 1967-, et al. (författare)
  • Artery Wall Layer Dimensions during Normal Pregnancy : A longitudinal study using non-invasive high-frequency ultrasound
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology. - 0363-6135 .- 1522-1539. ; 304:2, s. H229-H234
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The vascular effects of normal pregnancy were investigated by estimating the intima and media thicknesses of the common carotid artery separately using 22MHz ultrasound (Collagenoson, Meudt, Germany) in 57 healthy women with normal pregnancies and pregnancy outcomes, in all three trimesters and at one year postpartum. A thick intima, thin media and high intima/media (I/M) ratio are signs of a less healthy artery wall. The mean artery wall layer dimensions remained fairly constant during pregnancy but the intima thickness and I/M thickness ratio appeared to improve (decrease) postpartum (p<0.001 for both). The cardiovascular risk parameters age, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure in the first trimester were associated with higher I/M ratios, especially in the second trimester, whereas higher serum estradiol levels were significantly associated with a lower I/M ratio. Changes from the first to second trimesters in I/M ratio, taking into account differential changes in intima and media thickness, were significantly (p<0.05-0.001) associated with all risk parameters tested except age, which was associated with increased intima thickness (p=0.02). Associations with third trimester values and changes from first to third trimesters were similar but less apparent. Thus, fairly constant mean artery wall layer dimensions during pregnancy appeared to improve postpartum. However, higher age, BMI or blood pressure, and lower serum estradiol levels in the first trimester appeared to negatively affect the artery wall, strongly suggesting that pregnancy has negative vascular effects in some women. A less likely explanation involves possible adaptation to physiological changes during and after pregnancy.
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4.
  • Akhter, Tansim, 1967-, et al. (författare)
  • Association between angiogenic factors and signs of arterial aging in women with pre-eclampsia
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. - 0960-7692 .- 1469-0705. ; 50, s. 93-99
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Pre-eclampsia (PE) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. In PE there is a substantial increase in levels of the anti-angiogenic factor soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt1) and decreased levels of the pro-angiogenic factor placental growth factor (PlGF). Elevated levels of sFlt1 are also found in individuals with CVD. The aims of this study were to assess sFlt1, PlGF and the sFlt1/PlGF ratio and their correlation with signs of arterial aging by measuring common carotid artery (CCA) intima and media thicknesses and their ratio (I/M ratio) in women with and without PE.METHODS: Serum sFlt1 and PlGF levels were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits, and CCA intima and media thicknesses were estimated using high-frequency (22 MHz) ultrasonography in 55 women at PE diagnosis and 64 women with normal pregnancies at a similar gestational age, with reassessment one year postpartum. A thick intima, thin media and a high I/M ratio indicate a less healthy arterial wall.RESULTS: During pregnancy, higher levels of sFlt1, lower levels of PlGF and thicker intima, thinner media and higher I/M ratios were found in women with PE vs. controls (all p < 0.0001). Further, sFlt1 and the sFlt1/PlGF ratio were positively correlated with intima thickness and I/M ratio (all p < 0.0001), but negatively correlated with media thickness (p = 0.002 and 0.03, respectively). About one year postpartum, levels of sFlt1 and the sFlt1/PlGF ratio had decreased in both groups, but compared with controls women in the PE group still had higher levels (p = 0.001 and 0.02, respectively). Further, sFlt1 levels and the sFlt1/PlGF ratio were still positively correlated with intima thickness and I/M ratio.CONCLUSIONS: Higher sFlt1 levels and sFlt1/PlGF ratios in women with PE were positively associated with signs of arterial aging during pregnancy. About one year postpartum sFlt1 levels and the sFlt1/PlGF ratios were still higher in the PE group, and also associated with the degree of arterial aging.
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5.
  • Akhter, Tansim, 1967-, et al. (författare)
  • Serum Pentraxin 3 is associated with signs of arterial alteration in women with preeclampsia.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: ; 241, s. 417-422
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE) in pregnancy is a state of exaggerated inflammation and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. Levels of pentraxin 3 (PTX3), a novel inflammation marker, are increased during PE and in individuals with CVD. The primary aim of this study was to assess whether serum PTX3 in women with PE is associated with adverse arterial effects; a thicker intima and higher intima/media (I/M) ratio in the common carotid artery (CCA).METHODS: Serum PTX3 levels were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits, and individual CCA intima and media thicknesses were estimated by 22MHz non-invasive ultrasound in 55 women at PE diagnosis and 64 women with normal pregnancies at a similar gestational age, and about one year postpartum. A thick intima, thin media and high I/M ratio indicate a less healthy artery wall.RESULTS: During pregnancy serum PTX3 correlated positively with intima thickness and I/M ratio but negatively with media thickness (all p<0.0001), indicating adverse arterial effects. About one year postpartum, PTX3 levels had decreased in both groups and there remained no significant group difference or significant correlation with CCA wall layers.CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of serum PTX3 in women with PE were significantly associated with signs of adverse arterial effects during pregnancy, but not one year postpartum, supporting the rapid dynamics of PTX3.
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6.
  • Andersson, C, et al. (författare)
  • The three ZNT8 autoantibody variants together improve the diagnostic sensitivity of childhood and adolescent type 1 diabetes
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Autoimmunity. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0891-6934 .- 1607-842X. ; 44:5, s. 394-405
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: We tested whether autoantibodies to all three ZnT8RWQ variants, GAD65, insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA-2), insulin and autoantibodies to islet cell cytoplasm (ICA) in combination with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) would improve the diagnostic sensitivity of childhood type 1 diabetes by detecting the children who otherwise would have been autoantibody-negative.Methods: A total of 686 patients diagnosed in 1996–2005 in Skåne were analyzed for all the seven autoantibodies [arginin 325 zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8RA), tryptophan 325 zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8WA), glutamine 325 Zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8QA), autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), Autoantibodies to islet-antigen-2 (IA-2A), insulin autoantibodies (IAA) and ICA] in addition to HLA-DQ genotypes.Results: Zinc transporter 8 autoantibody to either one or all three amino acid variants at position 325 (ZnT8RWQA) was found in 65% (449/686) of the patients. The frequency was independent of age at diagnosis. The ZnT8RWQA reduced the frequency of autoantibody-negative patients from 7.5 to 5.4%—a reduction by 28%. Only 2 of 108 (2%) patients who are below 5 years of age had no autoantibody at diagnosis. Diagnosis without any islet autoantibody increased with increasing age at onset. DQA1-B1*X-0604 was associated with both ZnT8RA (p = 0.002) and ZnT8WA (p = 0.01) but not with ZnT8QA (p = 0.07). Kappa agreement analysis showed moderate (>0.40) to fair (>0.20) agreement between pairs of autoantibodies for all combinations of GADA, IA-2A, ZnT8RWQA and ICA but only slight ( < 0.19) agreement for any combination with IAA.Conclusions: This study revealed that (1) the ZnT8RWQA was common, independent of age; (2) multiple autoantibodies were common among the young; (3) DQA1-B1*X-0604 increased the risk for ZnT8RA and ZnT8WA; (4) agreement between autoantibody pairs was common for all combinations except IAA. These results suggest that ZnT8RWQA is a necessary complement to the classification and prediction of childhood type 1 diabetes as well as to randomize the subjects in the prevention and intervention of clinical trials.
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7.
  • Cedervall, Jessica, et al. (författare)
  • Pharmacological targeting of peptidylarginine deiminase 4 prevents cancer-associated kidney injury in mice.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Oncoimmunology. - : Taylor & Francis. - 2162-4011 .- 2162-402X. ; 6:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Renal insufficiency is a frequent cancer-associated problem affecting more than half of all cancer patients at the time of diagnosis. To minimize nephrotoxic effects the dosage of anticancer drugs are reduced in these patients, leading to sub-optimal treatment efficacy. Despite the severity of this cancer-associated pathology, the molecular mechanisms, as well as therapeutic options, are still largely lacking. We here show that formation of intravascular tumor-induced neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is a cause of kidney injury in tumor-bearing mice. Analysis of clinical biomarkers for kidney function revealed impaired creatinine clearance and elevated total protein levels in urine from tumor-bearing mice. Electron microscopy analysis of the kidneys from mice with cancer showed reversible pathological signs such as mesangial hypercellularity, while permanent damage such as fibrosis or necrosis was not observed. Removal of NETs by treatment with DNase I, or pharmacological inhibition of the enzyme peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4), was sufficient to restore renal function in mice with cancer. Tumor-induced systemic inflammation and impaired perfusion of peripheral vessels could be reverted by the PAD4 inhibitor. In conclusion, the current study identifies NETosis as a previously unknown cause of cancer-associated renal dysfunction and describes a novel promising approach to prevent renal failure in individuals with cancer.
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8.
  • Kanatsuna, N, et al. (författare)
  • Doubly reactive INS-IGF2 autoantibodies in children with newly diagnosed autoimmune (type 1) diabetes
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0300-9475 .- 1365-3083. ; 82:4, s. 361-369
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The splice variant INS-IGF2 entails the preproinsulin signal peptide, the insulin B-chain, eight amino acids of the C-peptide and 138 unique amino acids from an ORF in the IGF2 gene. The aim of this study was to determine whether levels of specific INS-IGF2 autoantibodies (INS-IGF2A) were related to age at diagnosis, islet autoantibodies, HLA-DQ or both, in patients and controls with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. Patients (n = 676), 0-18 years of age, diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in 1996-2005 and controls (n = 363) were analysed for specific INS-IGF2A after displacement with both cold insulin and INS-IGF2 to correct for non-specific binding and identify double reactive sera. GADA, IA-2A, IAA, ICA, ZnT8RA, ZnT8WA, ZnT8QA and HLA-DQ genotypes were also determined. The median level of specific INS-IGF2A was higher in patients than in controls (P < 0.001). Irrespective of age at diagnosis, 19% (126/676) of the patients had INS-IGF2A when the cut-off was the 95th percentile of the controls (P < 0.001). The risk of INS-IGF2A was increased among HLA-DQ2/8 (OR = 1.509; 95th CI 1.011, 2.252; P = 0.045) but not in 2/2, 2/X, 8/8, 8/X or X/X (X is neither 2 nor 8) patients. The association with HLA-DQ2/8 suggests that this autoantigen may be presented on HLA-DQ trans-heterodimers, rather than cis-heterodimers. Autoantibodies reactive with both insulin and INS-IGF2A at diagnosis support the notion that INS-IGF2 autoimmunity contributes to type 1 diabetes.
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9.
  • Kårehed, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Fibrinogen and histidine-rich glycoprotein in early-onset preeclampsia
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. - 0001-6349 .- 1600-0412. ; 89:1, s. 131-139
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To determine whether plasma levels of fibrinogen and the placental tissue distributions of fibrinogen and histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) differ between early- and late-onset preeclampsia. DESIGN: The study comprised 18 women with early-onset (gestational weeks 24-32) and 19 women with late-onset (gestational weeks 35-42) preeclampsia. As controls concerning the plasma levels of fibrinogen, we used samples from non-pregnant fertile women, healthy pregnant women at gestational weeks 24-32 and healthy pregnant women at gestational weeks 35-42. Placental samples from women with healthy pregnancies at gestational weeks 35-42 served as controls in the immunohistochemical staining. SETTING: Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala. METHODS: Plasma fibrinogen levels were analyzed and the placental tissue expression of fibrinogen and HRG determined by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Plasma level of fibrinogen was increased in early-onset, but not late-onset, preeclampsia. Levels of fibrinogen were significantly lower, and that of HRG significantly higher, in placentas from women with early-onset preeclampsia as compared with control placentas (p = 0.01 and 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: HRG and fibrinogen might be involved in the hypercoagulability and the angiogenic imbalance seen in early-onset preeclampsia.
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10.
  • Larsson, H. Elding, et al. (författare)
  • Children developing type 1 diabetes before 6 years of age have increased linear growth independent of HLA genotypes
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 51:9, s. 1623-1630
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis High birthweight and increased childhood growth are risk factors for type 1 diabetes. Relative birthweight is associated with HLA genotypes that confer a high risk of diabetes. Our aims were to test whether young children prior to clinical onset of type 1 diabetes have increased: (1) birthweight or birth length standard deviation scores (SDS), (2) height development SDS, or (3) BMI SDS during first 18 months of life and whether these parameters are related to HLA genotypes or mid-parental height (MPH). Methods Birthweight, birth length, weight and height were obtained from 58 type 1 diabetes children and 155 controls matched for HLA or not in the Diabetes Prediction in Skane study. Results Birth length SDS corrected for MPH was increased in children developing diabetes compared with all (p < , 0.048) and with non-HLA- (p < , 0.050) but not with HLA-matched controls. Children developing diabetes had increased height gain at 0 to 18 months of age (p < ; 0.005). Diabetic children were significantly taller from 6 to 18 months of age when correcting for MPH compared with non-HLA-matched as well as HLA-matched controls, but BMI was not increased. Conclusions/interpretation Birth length SDS was associated with diabetes risk HLA. When corrected for MPH, children developing diabetes were taller at birth than non-HLA- but not taller than HLA-matched controls. Diabetic children had increased MPH-corrected height up to 18 months of age compared with both HLA- and non-HLA-matched controls. High-risk HLA affects prenatal growth, but other factors may explain the increased postnatal linear growth in children developing diabetes.
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