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1.
  • Akre [Fall], Katja, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Risk for gastric cancer after antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing hip replacement
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - Birmingham, USA : American Asoociation for Cancer Research. - 0008-5472 .- 1538-7445. ; 60:22, s. 6376-80
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite strong evidence of an association between Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer, the benefit of eradicating H. pylori infection is unknown. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that exposure to high doses of antibiotics reduces risk for gastric cancer via possible eradication of H. pylori We conducted a nationwide case-control study nested in a cohort of 39,154 patients who underwent hip replacement surgery between 1965 and 1983. Such patients frequently receive prophylactic antibiotic treatment. During follow-up through 1989, we identified 189 incident cases of gastric cancer. For each case, three controls were selected from the cohort. Exposure data were abstracted from hospital records. Blood samples from a separate cohort undergoing hip replacement surgery were analyzed for anti-H. pylori IgG before and after surgery. Both long-term antibiotic treatment before surgery [odds ratio (OR), 0.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.1-0.7] and prophylactic antibiotic treatment (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5-1.1) conferred a reduction in gastric cancer risk. The reduction appeared stronger after 5 years (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.3-1.2) than during shorter follow-up after hip replacement (OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.4-1.7). There was an apparent decrease in risk with increasing body weight-adjusted doses of antibiotics (P = 0.13). However, the rate of H. pylori antibody disappearance was not strikingly higher in the cohort of patients undergoing hip replacement than in a control cohort. Our findings provide indirect support for the hypothesis that treatment with antibiotics at a relatively advanced age reduces the risk of gastric cancer.
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3.
  • Bengtsson, M, et al. (författare)
  • Fluorescence lidar imaging of fungal growth on high-voltage outdoor composite insulators
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Optics and Lasers in Engineering. - : Elsevier. - 0143-8166 .- 1873-0302. ; 43:6, s. 624-632
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Remote fluorescence imaging of fungal growth on polymeric high-voltage insulators was performed using a mobile lidar system with a laser wavelength of 355 nm. Insulator areas contaminated by fungal growth could be distinguished from clean surfaces and readily be imaged. The experiments were supported by detailed spectral studies performed in laboratory using a fibre-optic fluorosensor incorporating an optical multi-channel analyser system (OMA) and a nitrogen laser emitting radiation at 33 7 nm.
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4.
  • Bengtsson, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Fungus covered insulator materials studied with laser-induced fluorescence and principal component analysis
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Applied Spectroscopy. - : Society for Applied Spectroscopy. - 1943-3530 .- 0003-7028. ; 59:8, s. 1037-1041
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A method combining laser-induced fluorescence and principal component analysis to detect and discriminate between algal and fungal growth on insulator materials has been studied. Eight fungal cultures and four insulator materials have been analyzed. Multivariate classifications were utilized to characterize the insulator material, and fungal growth could readily be distinguished from a clean surface. The results of the principal component analyses make it possible to distinguish between algae infected, fungi infected, and clean silicone rubber materials. The experiments were performed in the laboratory using a fiber-optic fluorosensor that consisted of a nitrogen laser and an optical multi-channel analyzer system.
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5.
  • Borg, Tomas, 1963-, et al. (författare)
  • Health-related quality of life and life satisfaction in patients following surgically treated pelvic ring fractures. A prospective observational study with two years follow-up
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Injury. - : Elsevier. - 0020-1383 .- 1879-0267. ; 41:4, s. 400-404
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Pelvic ring fractures caused by high-energy trauma are severe injuries with well described radiological and clinical outcomes, whereas description from the patient's perspective is less well documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate patient-reported outcome following surgical treatment of pelvic fractures using quality of life instruments.METHODS: All 54 patients (28 male/26 female, ages 16-68) with pelvic fractures referred to our institution for surgical treatment 2003-2005 were prospectively included. The most common trauma was motor vehicle accident (44%). Additional injuries were seen in 74% and in 31% the ISS was >or=16. There were 31 B and 23 C type fractures. Patients were followed for two years using two validated questionnaires, SF-36 and LiSat-11, the latter an instrument consisting of 11 questions for evaluation of satisfaction with different aspects of life.RESULTS: 45 patients could be followed according to the study protocol for two years while 2 were untraceable and 1 died from unrelated causes. Of 6 nonresponders, 5 were unable due to psychiatric disorder. At two years pelvic fracture patients scored lower than the reference population in both physical and mental domains (SF-36). Highest mean score, 68, was in the domain Social Function (norm 89) while lowest mean score, 38, was in the domain Role Physical (norm 86). The mean score closest to the normative was for general health with 61 for patients and 78 for the normative group. In LiSat-11 pelvic fracture patients scored lower than the reference population in all areas. Satisfaction with life as a whole was 31% compared with 60% in the normative group.CONCLUSIONS: Two years after surgical treatment of pelvic ring fractures, patients reported substantially lower quality of life for both physical and mental domains, when compared with a reference population, even when radiological and clinical outcomes were considered favourable.
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6.
  • Borg, Tomas, et al. (författare)
  • Quality of life in patients operated for pelvic fractures caused by suicide attempt by jumping
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Surgery. - : Sage Publications. - 1457-4969 .- 1799-7267. ; 99:3, s. 180-186
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Aims: Jumping from great height is an aggressive method of suicide attempt where the frequent combination of psychiatric disorder and somatic injuries makes treatment difficult. Our aim was to evaluate survival rate and get patient-reported outcome in patients operated for a pelvic or acetabular fracture sustained when jumping from a height as a suicide attempt. Patients and Methods: During the period 2003-2004, 12 patients (11 women) of whom eight were below 30 years of age, were prospectively included. At two years HRQoL (Health-Related Quality of Life) questionnaires (SF-36 and LiSat-11) were used to describe outcome, and at four years a structured psychiatric interview SCID-I (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders) was done. Results: At four years all patients were alive. One patient had made a new suicide attempt. Eight patients gave adequate reply on SF-36 and LiSat-11 at two years. In all domains patients scored lower than a norm group with the relatively lowest values in physical domains. Younger patients assessed life as better when compared with middle aged patients. Conclusions: This study showed a very low recurrence rate into suicidal behaviour in a group of jumpers and all patients were alive at four years after a suicidal attempt by jumping. The high proportion of psychiatric disorder in these patients highlights the need for a combined treatment effort between orthopaedic and psychiatric expertise.
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7.
  • Brydegaard, Mikkel, et al. (författare)
  • Short-Wave infrared atmospheric scheimpflug lidar
  • Ingår i: EPJ Web of Conferences. - : EDP Sciences. - 2101-6275. ; 176
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Atmospheric dual-band Scheimpflug lidar is demonstrated at 980 and 1550 nm. Signals are compared during three weather conditions, and the spatio-temporal resolution of the atmospheric structure is considered. The potential for aerosol classification is evaluated, and future directions are discussed.
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8.
  • Dahlqvist, Jenny Alenius, et al. (författare)
  • Heart Rate Variability in Children With Fontan Circulation: Lateral Tunnel and Extracardiac Conduit.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Pediatric cardiology. - New York : Springer-Verlag New York. - 1432-1971 .- 0172-0643. ; 33:2, s. 307-315
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The technique in Fontan surgery has developed from the lateral tunnel (LT) toward the extracardiac conduit (EC) used to reduce long-term complications such as atrial arrhythmia and sinus node dysfunction. Heart rate variability (HRV) examines cardiac nervous activity controlling the sinus node. This study aimed to investigate HRV in a cohort of children with univentricular hearts, focusing on the relation between HRV and surgical procedure. For 112 children with Fontan circulation, HRV was analyzed using power spectral analysis. Spectral power was determined in three regions: very-low-frequency (VLF), low-frequency (LF), and high-frequency (HF) regions. Patients were compared with 66 healthy controls subject. Patients with LT were compared with patients who had EC. The children with Fontan circulation showed a significantly reduced HRV including total power (P < 0.0001), VLF (P < 0.0001), LF (P < 0.0001), and HF (P = 0.001) compared with the control subjects. The LT and EC patients did not differ significantly. Reduced HRV was found in both the LT and EC patients. In terms of HRV reduction, EC was not superior to LT.
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9.
  • Ekström, Wilhelmina, et al. (författare)
  • Functional outcome in treatment of unstable trochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures with the proximal femoral nail and the Medoff sliding plate
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma. - 0890-5339 .- 1531-2291. ; 21:1, s. 18-25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To compare outcome between the proximal femoral nail (PFN) and the Medoff sliding plate (MSP) in patients with unstable trochanteric or subtrochanteric fractures. Methods: This was a consecutive prospective randomized clinical study. In all, 203 patients admitted to two university hospitals with an unstable trochanteric or a subtrochanteric fracture type were included. Surgery was performed with a short intramedullary nail or a dual-sliding plate device. Follow up visits occurred at 6 weeks, 4 months, and 12 months. Functional outcome was measured by walking ability, rising from a chair, curb test, and additional assessments of abductor strength, pain, living conditions, and complications. Results: The ability to walk 15 m at 6 weeks was significantly better in the PFN group compared to the MSP group with an odds ratio 2.2 (P = 0.04, 95% confidence limits 1.03-4.67). No statistical difference in walking ability could be found between trochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures. The major complication rate (8% in the PFN group and 4% in the MSP group) did not differ statistically (P = 0.50) but reoperations were more frequent in the PFN group (9%) compared to the MSP group (1%; P < 0.02). Conclusions: There were no major differences in functional outcome or major complications between the treatment groups. Reasons other than the operated fracture seem to be equally important in determining the long-term functional ability of the patients in our study. An advantage with the MSP was the lower reoperation rate.
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10.
  • Herlin, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Quantitative characterization of changes in bone geometry, mineral density and biomechanical properties in two rat strains with different Ah-receptor structures after long-term exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Toxicology. - 0300-483X .- 1879-3185. ; 273:1-3, s. 1-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Both industrial chemicals and environmental pollutants can interfere with bone modeling and remodeling. Recently, detailed toxicological bone studies have been performed following exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), which exerts most of its toxic effects through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were to quantitatively evaluate changes in bone geometry, mineral density and biomechanical properties following long-term exposure to TCDD, and to further investigate the role of AhR in TCDD-induced bone alterations. To this end, tissue material used in the study was derived from TCDD-exposed Long-Evans (L-E) and Han/Wistar (H/W) rats, which differ markedly in sensitivity to TCDD-induced toxicity due to a strain difference in AhR structure. METHODS: Ten weeks old female L-E and H/W rats were administered TCDD s.c. once per week for 20 weeks, at doses corresponding to calculated daily doses of 0, 1, 10, 100 and 1000ngTCDD/kgbw (H/W only). Femur, tibia and vertebra from the L-E and H/W rats were analyzed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and biomechanical testing at multiple sites. Dose-response modeling was performed to establish benchmark doses for the analyzed bone parameters, and to quantify strain sensitivity differences for those parameters, which were affected by TCDD exposure in both rat strains. RESULTS: Bone geometry and bone biomechanical parameters were affected by TCDD exposure, while bone mineral density parameters were less affected. The trabecular area at proximal tibia and the endocortical circumference at tibial diaphysis were the parameters that showed the highest maximal responses. Significant strain differences in response to TCDD treatment were observed, with the L-E rat being the most sensitive strain. For the parameters that were affected in both strains, the differences in sensitivity were quantified, showing the most pronounced (about 49-fold) strain difference for cross-sectional area of proximal tibia. CONCLUSION: The study provides novel information about TCDD-induced bone alterations at doses, which are of relevance from a health risk assessment point of view. In addition, the obtained results provide further support for a distinct role of the AhR in TCDD-induced bone alterations, and suggest that the benchmark dose modeling approach is appropriate for quantitative evaluation of bone toxicity parameters.
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