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1.
  • Klaminder, J., et al. (författare)
  • Carbon mineralization and pyrite oxidation in groundwater : Importance for silicate weathering in boreal forest soils and stream base-flow chemistry
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Applied Geochemistry. - : Elsevier. - 0883-2927 .- 1872-9134. ; 26:3, s. 319-324
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • What role does mineralized organic C and sulfide oxidation play in weathering of silicate minerals in deep groundwater aquifers? In this study, how H(2)CO(3), produced as a result of mineralization of organic matter during groundwater transport, affects silicate weathering in the saturated zone of the mineral soil along a 70 m-long boreal hillslope is demonstrated. Stream water measurements of base cations and delta(18)O are included to determine the importance of the deep groundwater system for downstream surface water. The results suggest that H2CO3 generated from organic compounds being mineralized during the lateral transport stimulates weathering at depths between 0.5 and 3 m in the soil. This finding is indicated by progressively increasing concentrations of base cations-, silica- and inorganic C (IC) in the groundwater along the hillslope that co-occur with decreasing organic C (OC) concentrations. Protons derived from sulfide oxidation appear to be an additional driver of the weathering process as indicated by a buildup of SO(4)(2-) in the groundwater during lateral transport and a delta(34)S parts per thousand value of +0.26-3.76 parts per thousand in the deep groundwater indicating S inputs from pyrite. The two identified active acids in the deep groundwater are likely to control the base-flow chemistry of streams draining larger catchments (>1 km(2)) as evident by delta(18)O signatures and base cation concentrations that overlap with that of the groundwater.
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3.
  • Ala-aho, P., et al. (författare)
  • Permafrost and lakes control river isotope composition across a boreal Arctic transect in the Western Siberian lowlands
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters. - : IOP Publishing: Open Access Journals / IOP Publishing. - 1748-9326 .- 1748-9326. ; 13:3, s. =20-=20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Western Siberian Lowlands (WSL) store large quantities of organic carbon that will be exposed and mobilized by the thawing of permafrost. The fate of mobilized carbon, however, is not well understood, partly because of inadequate knowledge of hydrological controls in the region which has a vast low-relief surface area, extensive lake and wetland coverage and gradually increasing permafrost influence. We used stable water isotopes to improve our understanding of dominant landscape controls on the hydrology of the WSL. We sampled rivers along a 1700 km South-North transect from permafrost-free to continuous permafrost repeatedly over three years, and derived isotope proxies for catchment hydrological responsiveness and connectivity. We found correlations between the isotope proxies and catchment characteristics, suggesting that lakes and wetlands are intimately connected to rivers, and that permafrost increases the responsiveness of the catchment to rainfall and snowmelt events, reducing catchment mean transit times. Our work provides rare isotope-based field evidence that permafrost and lakes/wetlands influence hydrological pathways across a wide range of spatial scales (10-105 km2) and permafrost coverage (0%-70%). This has important implications, because both permafrost extent and lake/wetland coverage are affected by permafrost thaw in the changing climate. Changes in these hydrological landscape controls are likely to alter carbon export and emission via inland waters, which may be of global significance.
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4.
  • Audet, J., et al. (författare)
  • Forest streams are important sources for nitrous oxide emissions
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 26:2, s. 629-641
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Streams and river networks are increasingly recognized as significant sources for the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). N2O is a transformation product of nitrogenous compounds in soil, sediment and water. Agricultural areas are considered a particular hotspot for emissions because of the large input of nitrogen (N) fertilizers applied on arable land. However, there is little information on N2O emissions from forest streams although they constitute a major part of the total stream network globally. Here, we compiled N2O concentration data from low-order streams (~1,000 observations from 172 stream sites) covering a large geographical gradient in Sweden from the temperate to the boreal zone and representing catchments with various degrees of agriculture and forest coverage. Our results showed that agricultural and forest streams had comparable N2O concentrations of 1.6 ± 2.1 and 1.3 ± 1.8 µg N/L, respectively (mean ± SD) despite higher total N (TN) concentrations in agricultural streams (1,520 ± 1,640 vs. 780 ± 600 µg N/L). Although clear patterns linking N2O concentrations and environmental variables were difficult to discern, the percent saturation of N2O in the streams was positively correlated with stream concentration of TN and negatively correlated with pH. We speculate that the apparent contradiction between lower TN concentration but similar N2O concentrations in forest streams than in agricultural streams is due to the low pH (<6) in forest soils and streams which affects denitrification and yields higher N2O emissions. An estimate of the N2O emission from low-order streams at the national scale revealed that ~1.8 × 109 g N2O-N are emitted annually in Sweden, with forest streams contributing about 80% of the total stream emission. Hence, our results provide evidence that forest streams can act as substantial N2O sources in the landscape with 800 × 109 g CO2-eq emitted annually in Sweden, equivalent to 25% of the total N2O emissions from the Swedish agricultural sector. © 2019 The Authors. Global Change Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd
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5.
  • Berggren, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Lake secondary production fueled by rapid transfer of low molecular weight organic carbon from terrestrial sources to aquatic consumers
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Ecology Letters. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1461-023X .- 1461-0248. ; 13:7, s. 870-880
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • P>Carbon of terrestrial origin often makes up a significant share of consumer biomass in unproductive lake ecosystems. However, the mechanisms for terrestrial support of lake secondary production are largely unclear. By using a modelling approach, we show that terrestrial export of dissolved labile low molecular weight carbon (LMWC) compounds supported 80% (34-95%), 54% (19-90%) and 23% (7-45%) of the secondary production by bacteria, protozoa and metazoa, respectively, in a 7-km2 boreal lake (conservative to liberal estimates in brackets). Bacterial growth on LMWC was of similar magnitude as that of primary production (PP), and grazing on bacteria effectively channelled the LMWC carbon to higher trophic levels. We suggest that rapid turnover of forest LMWC pools enables continuous export of fresh photosynthates and other labile metabolites to aquatic systems, and that substantial transfer of LMWC from terrestrial sources to lake consumers can occur within a few days. Sequestration of LMWC of terrestrial origin, thus, helps explain high shares of terrestrial carbon in lake organisms and implies that lake food webs can be closely dependent on recent terrestrial PP.
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6.
  • Björnerås, C., et al. (författare)
  • Widespread Increases in Iron Concentration in European and North American Freshwaters
  • Ingår i: Global Biogeochemical Cycles. - : American Geophysical Union (AGU). - 0886-6236 .- 1944-9224. ; 31:10, s. 1488-1500
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent reports of increasing iron (Fe) concentrations in freshwaters are of concern, given the fundamental role of Fe in biogeochemical processes. Still, little is known about the frequency and geographical distribution of Fe trends or about the underlying drivers. We analyzed temporal trends of Fe concentrations across 340 water bodies distributed over 10 countries in northern Europe and North America in order to gain a clearer understanding of where, to what extent, and why Fe concentrations are on the rise. We found that Fe concentrations have significantly increased in 28% of sites, and decreased in 4%, with most positive trends located in northern Europe. Regions with rising Fe concentrations tend to coincide with those with organic carbon (OC) increases. Fe and OC increases may not be directly mechanistically linked, but may nevertheless be responding to common regional-scale drivers such as declining sulfur deposition or hydrological changes. A role of hydrological factors was supported by covarying trends in Fe and dissolved silica, as these elements tend to stem from similar soil depths. A positive relationship between Fe increases and conifer cover suggests that changing land use and expanded forestry could have contributed to enhanced Fe export, although increases were also observed in nonforested areas. We conclude that the phenomenon of increasing Fe concentrations is widespread, especially in northern Europe, with potentially significant implications for wider ecosystem biogeochemistry, and for the current browning of freshwaters.
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7.
  • Buffam, Ishi, et al. (författare)
  • Landscape-scale variability of acidity and dissolved organic carbon during spring flood in a boreal stream network
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research. - 0148-0227 .- 2156-2202. ; 112
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Acidity is well known to influence stream biota, but the less well-studied spatial and temporal distributions of acidity are likely to play a larger ecological role than average values. We present data on spatial variability of chemical parameters contributing to acidity during winter baseflow and spring flood periods in Krycklan, a fourth-order boreal stream network in northern Sweden. Fifteen stream sites were monitored in subcatchments spanning 3 orders of magnitude in size and representing a wide range of percent wetland. At baseflow, pH ranged from 3.9 to 6.5 at the different sites. Baseflow dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration varied by an order of magnitude and was positively correlated with subcatchment percent wetland, resulting in high spatial variability in dissociated organic acids (OA(-)). During spring flood, DOC and OA(-) increased in forested sites and decreased in wetland sites, resulting in reduced spatial variability in their concentrations. In contrast, base cations and strong acid anions diluted throughout the stream network, resulting in decreased acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) at all sites. The spatial variability of base cations increased slightly with high flow. As a result of the changes in OA(-) and ANC, pH dropped at all but the most acidic site, giving a slightly narrowed pH range during spring flood (4.2-6.1). The transition from winter to spring flood stream chemistry could largely be explained by: (1) a shift from mineral to upper riparian organic soil flow paths in forested catchments and (2) dilution of peat water with snowmelt in wetland catchments.
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8.
  • Campeau, A., et al. (författare)
  • Stable Carbon Isotopes Reveal Soil-Stream DIC Linkages in Contrasting Headwater Catchments
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences. - : American Geophysical Union (AGU). - 2169-8953 .- 2169-8961. ; 123:1, s. 149-167
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Large CO2 evasion to the atmosphere occurs as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is transported from soils to streams. While this physical process has been the focus of multiple studies, less is known about the underlying biogeochemical transformations that accompany this transfer of C from soils to streams. Here we used patterns in stream water and groundwater C-13-DIC values within three headwater catchments with contrasting land cover to identify the sources and processes regulating DIC during its transport. We found that although considerable CO2 evasion occurs as DIC is transported from soils to streams, there were also other processes affecting the DIC pool. Methane production and mixing of C sources, associated with different types and spatial distribution of peat-rich areas within each catchment, had a significant influence on the C-13-DIC values in both soils and streams. These processes represent an additional control on C-13-DIC values and the catchment-scale cycling of DIC across different northern landscape types. The results from this study demonstrate that the transport of DIC from soils to streams results in more than just rapid CO2 evasion to the atmosphere but also represents a channel of C transformation, which questions some of our current conceptualizations of C cycling at the landscape scale. Plain Language Summary Large carbon dioxide emission to the atmosphere occurs as rainwater percolates through soils and into streams. This physical process is important for the global carbon cycle and has been the focus of multiple studies. However, less is known about the underlying processes that accompanies this transfer of carbon dioxide from soils to streams. Here we analyze the stable isotope composition of soil and stream carbon dioxide and demonstrate that methane production and mixing of carbon sources also occur in soils and streams. These processes were linked to different types and configurations of peat-rich areas, for example, bogs, fens, and riparian zones, found within each of the three studied catchments. Our results therefore demonstrate that the export of carbon dioxide from soils to streams not only results in emissions to the atmosphere but also represents a channel of transformation. This questions some of our current conceptualization of the catchment-scale cycling of carbon dioxide.
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9.
  • Futter, M. N., et al. (författare)
  • Uncertainty in silicate mineral weathering rate estimates : source partitioning and policy implications
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters. - : IOP Publishing: Open Access Journals / IOP Publishing. - 1748-9326 .- 1748-9326. ; 7:2, s. 024025-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Precise and accurate estimates of silicate mineral weathering rates are crucial when setting policy targets for long-term forest sustainability, critical load calculations and assessing consequences of proposed geo-engineering solutions to climate change. In this paper, we scrutinize 394 individual silicate mineral weathering estimates from 82 sites on three continents. We show that within-site differences of several hundred per cent arise when different methods are used to estimate weathering rates, mainly as a result of uncertainties related to input data rather than conceptually different views of the weathering process. While different methods tend to rank sites congruently from high to low weathering rates, large within-site differences in estimated weathering rate suggest that policies relying on quantitative estimates based upon a single method may have undesirable outcomes. We recommend the use of at least three independent estimates when making management decisions related to silicate mineral weathering rates.
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10.
  • Gottselig, N., et al. (författare)
  • Elemental Composition of Natural Nanoparticles and Fine Colloids in European Forest Stream Waters and Their Role as Phosphorus Carriers
  • Ingår i: Global Biogeochemical Cycles. - : American Geophysical Union (AGU). - 0886-6236 .- 1944-9224. ; 31:10, s. 1592-1607
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Biogeochemical cycling of elements largely occurs in dissolved state, but many elements may also be bound to natural nanoparticles (NNP, 1-100 nm) and fine colloids (100-450 nm). We examined the hypothesis that the size and composition of stream water NNP and colloids vary systematically across Europe. To test this hypothesis, 96 stream water samples were simultaneously collected in 26 forested headwater catchments along two transects across Europe. Three size fractions (~1-20 nm, >20-60 nm, and >60 nm) of NNP and fine colloids were identified with Field Flow Fractionation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and an organic carbon detector. The results showed that NNP and fine colloids constituted between 2 ± 5% (Si) and 53 ± 21% (Fe; mean ± SD) of total element concentrations, indicating a substantial contribution of particles to element transport in these European streams, especially for P and Fe. The particulate contents of Fe, Al, and organic C were correlated to their total element concentrations, but those of particulate Si, Mn, P, and Ca were not. The fine colloidal fractions >60 nm were dominated by clay minerals across all sites. The resulting element patterns of NNP <60 nm changed from North to South Europe from Fe- to Ca-dominated particles, along with associated changes in acidity, forest type, and dominant lithology.
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