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Sökning: WFRF:(Lee Hong Kyu)

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  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
  • Lind, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Uppsala Consensus Statement on Environmental Contaminants and the Global Obesity Epidemic
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. - : US DEPT HEALTH HUMAN SCIENCES PUBLIC HEALTH SCIENCE. - 0091-6765 .- 1552-9924. ; 124:5, s. A81-A83
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • From the lectures presented at the 2nd International Workshop on Obesity and Environmental Contaminants, which was held in Uppsala, Sweden, on 8-9 October 2015, it became evident that the findings from numerous animal and epidemiological studies are consistent with the hypothesis that environmental contaminants could contribute to the global obesity epidemic. To increase awareness of this important issue among scientists, regulatory agencies, politicians, chemical industry management, and the general public, the authors summarize compelling scientific evidence that supports the hypothesis and discuss actions that could restrict the possible harmful effects of environmental contaminants on obesity.
  • Kwon, Hyuk Sung, et al. (författare)
  • Early increment of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 in plasma might be a predictor of poor outcome after ischemic stroke
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of clinical neuroscience. - : ELSEVIER SCI LTD. - 0967-5868 .- 1532-2653. ; 73, s. 215-218
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (sTREM2) is derived from cleavage of TREM2, which is expressed on the cell surface of microlgia and other tissue-specific macrophages. In the present study, the changes in the sTREM2 levels after ischemic stroke (IS) and their association with clinical outcomes were evaluated. A total of 43 patients diagnosed with non-cardioembolic IS between June 2011 and May 2014 were consecutively included in this study. Patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis or intra-arterial thrombectomy were excluded. Plasma samples were collected three times (days 1, 7, and 90) after ictus. The sTREM2 level was measured in the samples using the highly sensitive solid-phase proximity ligation assay (SP-PLA). Among the 43 subjects, higher initial NIH stroke scale (NIHSS) score (P = 0.005), early increment of sTREM2 (P < 0.001), and late decrement of sTREM2 (P = 0.002), were more common in patients with poor outcome. Based on multivariate analysis, initial NIHSS score (P = 0.015) and early increment of sTREM2 (P = 0.032) were independently associated with poor outcome. The results from the present study indicate that increment of sTREM2 level at the early phase was a predictor of poor outcome. Serial follow-up of sTREM2 may aid prognosis after stroke.
  • Sampson, Joshua N., et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of Heritability and Shared Heritability Based on Genome-Wide Association Studies for 13 Cancer Types
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 107:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Studies of related individuals have consistently demonstrated notable familial aggregation of cancer. We aim to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation attributable to the additive effects of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for cancer at 13 anatomical sites.Methods: Between 2007 and 2014, the US National Cancer Institute has generated data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for 49 492 cancer case patients and 34 131 control patients. We apply novel mixed model methodology (GCTA) to this GWAS data to estimate the heritability of individual cancers, as well as the proportion of heritability attributable to cigarette smoking in smoking-related cancers, and the genetic correlation between pairs of cancers.Results: GWAS heritability was statistically significant at nearly all sites, with the estimates of array-based heritability, h(l)(2), on the liability threshold (LT) scale ranging from 0.05 to 0.38. Estimating the combined heritability of multiple smoking characteristics, we calculate that at least 24% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14% to 37%) and 7% (95% CI = 4% to 11%) of the heritability for lung and bladder cancer, respectively, can be attributed to genetic determinants of smoking. Most pairs of cancers studied did not show evidence of strong genetic correlation. We found only four pairs of cancers with marginally statistically significant correlations, specifically kidney and testes (rho = 0.73, SE = 0.28), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and pediatric osteosarcoma (rho = 0.53, SE = 0.21), DLBCL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (rho = 0.51, SE = 0.18), and bladder and lung (rho = 0.35, SE = 0.14). Correlation analysis also indicates that the genetic architecture of lung cancer differs between a smoking population of European ancestry and a nonsmoking Asian population, allowing for the possibility that the genetic etiology for the same disease can vary by population and environmental exposures.Conclusion: Our results provide important insights into the genetic architecture of cancers and suggest new avenues for investigation.
  • Jay, Raphael, et al. (författare)
  • Following Metal-to-Ligand Charge-Transfer Dynamics with Ligand and Spin Specificity Using Femtosecond Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering at the Nitrogen K-Edge
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters. - : AMER CHEMICAL SOC. - 1948-7185 .- 1948-7185. ; 12:28, s. 6676-6683
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We demonstrate for the case of photoexcited [Ru(2,2'-bipyridine)(3)](2+) how femtosecond resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) at the ligand K-edge allows one to uniquely probe changes in the valence electronic structure following a metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) excitation. Metal-ligand hybridization is probed by nitrogen-1s resonances providing information on both the electron-accepting ligand in the MLCT state and the hole density of the metal center. By comparing to spectrum calculations based on density functional theory, we are able to distinguish the electronic structure of the electron-accepting ligand and the other ligands and determine a temporal upper limit of (250 +/- 40) fs for electron localization following the charge-transfer excitation. The spin of the localized electron is deduced from the selection rules of the RIXS process establishing new experimental capabilities for probing transient charge and spin densities.
  • Pak, Youngmi Kim, et al. (författare)
  • High Serum-Induced AhRL Is Associated with Prevalent Metabolic Syndrome and Future Impairment of Glucose Tolerance in the Elderly
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Endocrinology and Metabolism. - : Korean Endocrine Society. - 2093-596X .- 2093-5978. ; 36:2, s. 436-446
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: High circulating levels of dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals, acting via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), have previously been linked to diabetes. We now investigated whether the serum AhR ligands (AhRL) were higher in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and in subjects who had developed a worsened glucose tolerance over time.Methods: Serum AhRL at baseline was measured by a cell-based AhRL activity assay in 70-year-old subjects (n= 911) in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. The main outcome measures were prevalent MetS and worsening of glucose tolerance over 5 years of follow-up.Results: AhRL was significantly elevated in subjects with prevalent MetS as compared to those without MetS, following adjustment for sex, smoking, exercise habits, alcohol intake and educational level (P= 0.009). AhRL at baseline was higher in subjects who developed impaired fasting glucose or diabetes at age 75 years than in those who remained normoglycemic (P= 0.0081). The odds ratio (OR) of AhRL for worsening glucose tolerance over 5 years was 1.43 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13 to 1.81; P=0.003, continuous variables) and 2.81 (95% CI, 1.31 to 6.02; P= 0.008, in the highest quartile) adjusted for sex, life style factors, body mass index, and glucose.Conclusion: These findings support a large body of epidemiologic evidence that exposure to AhR transactivating substances, such as dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals, might be involved in the pathogenesis of MetS and diabetes development. Measurement of serum AhRL in humans can be a useful tool in predicting the onset of metabolic disorders.
  • Park, Wook Ha, et al. (författare)
  • Relationships between serum-induced AhR bioactivity or mitochondrial inhibition and circulating polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Metabolic syndrome and mitochondrial dysfunction have been linked to elevated serum levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). However, it is not clear which specific POPs contribute to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent bioactivity or inhibit mitochondrial function in human subjects. Here, we measured the cumulative bioactivity of AhR ligand mixture (AhR bioactivity) and the effects on mitochondrial function (ATP concentration) in recombinant Hepa1c1c7 cells incubated with raw serum samples obtained from 911 elderly subjects in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort. Plasma concentrations of 30 POPs and plastic chemicals have previously been determined in the same PIVUS subjects. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that total toxic equivalence (TEQ) values and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were significantly correlated with AhR bioactivity (positively) and ATP concentration (negatively). Serum AhR bioactivities were positively associated with some PCBs, regardless of their dioxin-like properties, but only dioxin-like PCBs stimulated AhR bioactivity. By contrast, PCBs mediated a reduction in ATP content independently of their dioxin-like properties. This study suggests that AhR bioactivity and ATP concentrations in serum-treated cells may be valuable surrogate biomarkers of POP exposure and could be useful for the estimation of the effects of POPs on human health.
  • Sharma, Arti, et al. (författare)
  • Comprehensive analysis of plant rapid alkalization factor (RALF) genes
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Plant physiology and biochemistry (Paris). - : Elsevier. - 0981-9428 .- 1873-2690. ; 106, s. 82-90
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Receptor mediated signal carriers play a critical role in the regulation of plant defense and development. Rapid alkalization factor (RALF) proteins potentially comprise important signaling components which may have a key role in plant biology. The RALF gene family contains large number of genes in several plant species, however, only a few RALF genes have been characterized to date. In this study, an extensive database search identified 39, 43, 34 and 18 RALF genes in Arabidopsis, rice, maize and soybean, respectively. These RALF genes were found to be highly conserved across the 4 plant species. A comprehensive analysis including the chromosomal location, gene structure, subcellular location, conserved motifs, protein structure, protein-ligand interaction and promoter analysis was performed. RALF genes from four plant species were divided into 7 groups based on phylogenetic analysis. In silico expression analysis of these genes, using microarray and EST data, revealed that these genes exhibit a variety of expression patterns. Furthermore, RALF genes showed distinct expression patterns of transcript accumulation in vivo following nitrosative and oxidative stresses in Arabidopsis. Predicted interaction between RALF and heme ligand also showed that RALF proteins may contribute towards transporting or scavenging oxygen moieties. This suggests a possible role for RALF genes during changes in cellular redox status. Collectively, our data provides a valuable resource to prime future research in the role of RALF genes in plant growth and development.
  • Yasuda, Kazuki, et al. (författare)
  • Variants in KCNQ1 are associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 40:9, s. 1092-1097
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We carried out a multistage genome-wide association study of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Japanese individuals, with a total of 1,612 cases and 1,424 controls and 100,000 SNPs. The most significant association was obtained with SNPs in KCNQ1, and dense mapping within the gene revealed that rs2237892 in intron 15 showed the lowest P value (6.7 x 10(-13), odds ratio (OR) = 1.49). The association of KCNQ1 with type 2 diabetes was replicated in populations of Korean, Chinese and European ancestry as well as in two independent Japanese populations, and meta-analysis with a total of 19,930 individuals (9,569 cases and 10,361 controls) yielded a P value of 1.7 x 10(-42) (OR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.34-1.47) for rs2237892. Among control subjects, the risk allele of this polymorphism was associated with impairment of insulin secretion according to the homeostasis model assessment of beta-cell function or the corrected insulin response. Our data thus implicate KCNQ1 as a diabetes susceptibility gene in groups of different ancestries.
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