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  • Abate, E., et al. (författare)
  • Combined performance tests before installation of the ATLAS Semiconductor and Transition Radiation Tracking Detectors
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - IOP Publishing. - 1748-0221. ; 3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) Inner Detector provides charged particle tracking in the centre of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The Inner Detector consists of three subdetectors: the Pixel Detector, the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT), and the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT). This paper summarizes the tests that were carried out at the final stage of SCT+TRT integration prior to their installation in ATLAS. The combined operation and performance of the SCT and TRT barrel and endcap detectors was investigated through a series of noise tests, and by recording the tracks of cosmic rays. This was a crucial test of hardware and software of the combined tracker detector systems. The results of noise and cross-talk tests on the SCT and TRT in their final assembled configuration, using final readout and supply hardware and software, are reported. The reconstruction and analysis of the recorded cosmic tracks allowed testing of the offline analysis chain and verification of basic tracker performance parameters, such as efficiency and spatial resolution, in combined operation before installation.
  • Abdesselam, A., et al. (författare)
  • The ATLAS semiconductor tracker end-cap module
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A : Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. - 0168-9002 .- 1872-9576. ; 575:3, s. 353-389
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The challenges for the tracking detector systems at the LHC are unprecedented in terms of the number of channels, the required read-out speed and the expected radiation levels. The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker. (SCT) end-caps have a total of about 3 million electronics channels each reading out every 25 ns into its own on-chip 3.3 mu s buffer. The highest anticipated dose after 10 years operation is 1.4x10(14) cm(-2) in units of 1 MeV neutron equivalent (assuming the damage factors scale with the non-ionising energy loss). The forward tracker has 1976 double-sided modules, mostly of area similar to 70 cm(2), each having 2 x 768 strips read out by six ASICs per side. The requirement to achieve an average perpendicular radiation length of 1.5% X-0, while coping with up to 7 W dissipation per module (after irradiation), leads to stringent constraints on the thermal design. The additional requirement of 1500e(-) equivalent noise charge (ENC) rising to only 1800e(-) ENC after irradiation, provides stringent design constraints on both the high-density Cu/Polyimide flex read-out circuit and the ABCD3TA read-out ASICs. Finally, the accuracy of module assembly must not compromise the 16 mu m (r phi) resolution perpendicular to the strip directions or 580 mu m radial resolution coming from the 40 mrad front-back stereo angle. A total of 2210 modules were built to the tight tolerances and specifications required for the SCT. This was 234 more than the 1976 required and represents a yield of 93%. The component flow was at times tight, but the module production rate of 40-50 per week was maintained despite this. The distributed production was not found to be a major logistical problem and it allowed additional flexibility to take advantage of where the effort was available, including any spare capacity, for building the end-cap modules. The collaboration that produced the ATLAS SCT end-cap modules kept in close contact at all times so that the effects of shortages or stoppages at different sites could be rapidly resolved.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Measurements of Elliptic and Triangular Flow in High-Multiplicity He-3 + Au Collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 115:14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the first measurement of elliptic (v(2)) and triangular (v(3)) flow in high-multiplicity He-3 + Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV. Two-particle correlations, where the particles have a large separation in pseudorapidity, are compared in He-3 + Au and in p + p collisions and indicate that collective effects dominate the second and third Fourier components for the correlations observed in the He-3 + Au system. The collective behavior is quantified in terms of elliptic v(2) and triangular v(3) anisotropy coefficients measured with respect to their corresponding event planes. The v(2) values are comparable to those previously measured in d + Au collisions at the same nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy. Comparisons with various theoretical predictions are made, including to models where the hot spots created by the impact of the three He-3 nucleons on the Au nucleus expand hydrodynamically to generate the triangular flow. The agreement of these models with data may indicate the formation of low-viscosity quark-gluon plasma even in these small collision systems.
  • Di Angelantonio, E., et al. (författare)
  • World Health Organization cardiovascular disease risk charts: revised models to estimate risk in 21 global regions
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Lancet Global Health. - 2214-109X. ; 7:10, s. E1332-E1345
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: To help adapt cardiovascular disease risk prediction approaches to low-income and middle-income countries, WHO has convened an effort to develop, evaluate, and illustrate revised risk models. Here, we report the derivation, validation, and illustration of the revised WHO cardiovascular disease risk prediction charts that have been adapted to the circumstances of 21 global regions.Methods: In this model revision initiative, we derived 10-year risk prediction models for fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease (ie, myocardial infarction and stroke) using individual participant data from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration. Models included information on age, smoking status, systolic blood pressure, history of diabetes, and total cholesterol. For derivation, we included participants aged 40–80 years without a known baseline history of cardiovascular disease, who were followed up until the first myocardial infarction, fatal coronary heart disease, or stroke event. We recalibrated models using age-specific and sex-specific incidences and risk factor values available from 21 global regions. For external validation, we analysed individual participant data from studies distinct from those used in model derivation. We illustrated models by analysing data on a further 123 743 individuals from surveys in 79 countries collected with the WHO STEPwise Approach to Surveillance.Findings: Our risk model derivation involved 376 177 individuals from 85 cohorts, and 19 333 incident cardiovascular events recorded during 10 years of follow-up. The derived risk prediction models discriminated well in external validation cohorts (19 cohorts, 1 096 061 individuals, 25 950 cardiovascular disease events), with Harrell's C indices ranging from 0·685 (95% CI 0·629–0·741) to 0·833 (0·783–0·882). For a given risk factor profile, we found substantial variation across global regions in the estimated 10-year predicted risk. For example, estimated cardiovascular disease risk for a 60-year-old male smoker without diabetes and with systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg and total cholesterol of 5 mmol/L ranged from 11% in Andean Latin America to 30% in central Asia. When applied to data from 79 countries (mostly low-income and middle-income countries), the proportion of individuals aged 40–64 years estimated to be at greater than 20% risk ranged from less than 1% in Uganda to more than 16% in Egypt.Interpretation: We have derived, calibrated, and validated new WHO risk prediction models to estimate cardiovascular disease risk in 21 Global Burden of Disease regions. The widespread use of these models could enhance the accuracy, practicability, and sustainability of efforts to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease worldwide.Funding: World Health Organization, British Heart Foundation (BHF), BHF Cambridge Centre for Research Excellence, UK Medical Research Council, and National Institute for Health Research.
  • Abdesselam, A., et al. (författare)
  • Engineering for the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) end-cap
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - 1748-0221 .- 1748-0221. ; 3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon-strip tracking detector which forms part of the ATLAS inner detector. The SCT is designed to track charged particles produced in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN at an energy of 14 TeV. The tracker is made up of a central barrel and two identical end-caps. The barrel contains 2112 silicon modules, while each end-cap contains 988 modules. The overall tracking performance depends not only on the intrinsic measurement precision of the modules but also on the characteristics of the whole assembly, in particular, the stability and the total material budget. This paper describes the engineering design and construction of the SCT end-caps, which are required to support mechanically the silicon modules, supply services to them and provide a suitable environment within the inner detector. Critical engineering choices are highlighted and innovative solutions are presented - these will be of interest to other builders of large-scale tracking detectors. The SCT end-caps will be fully connected at the start of 2008. Further commissioning will continue, to be ready for proton-proton collision data in 2008.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Limits on anomalous trilinear gauge boson couplings from WW, WZ and Wγ production in pp- collisions at √s=1.96TeV
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters B. - 0370-2693 .- 1873-2445. ; 718:2, s. 451-459
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present searches for the anomalous γWW and ZWW trilinear gauge boson couplings from WW and WZ production using lepton plus dijet final states and a combination with results from Wγ, WW, and WZ production with leptonic final states. The analyzed data correspond to up to 8.6fb -1 of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 detector in pp- collisions at s=1.96TeV. We set the most stringent limits at a hadron collider to date assuming two different relations between the anomalous coupling parameters δκ γ, λ, and δg1Z for a cutoff energy scale Λ=2TeV. The combined 68% C.L. limits are -0.057<δκ γ<0.154, -0.015<λ<0.028, and -0.008<δg1Z<0.054 for the LEP parameterization, and -0.007<δκ<0.081 and -0.017<λ<0.028 for the equal couplings parameterization. We also present the most stringent limits of the W boson magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the combined rapidity and p(T) dependence of dijet azimuthal decorrelations in p(p)over-bar collisions at root s=1.96 TeV
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters B. - 0370-2693 .- 1873-2445. ; 721:4-5, s. 212-219
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the first combined measurement of the rapidity and transverse momentum dependence of dijet azimuthal decorrelations, using the recently proposed quantity R-Delta phi. The variable R-Delta phi measures the fraction of the inclusive dijet events in which the azimuthal separation of the two jets with the highest transverse momenta is less than a specified value of the parameter Delta phi(max). The quantity R-Delta phi is measured in p (p) over bar collisions at root s = 1.96 TeV, as a function of the dijet rapidity interval, the total scalar transverse momentum, and Delta phi(max). The measurement uses an event sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 0.7 fb(-1) collected with the DO detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The results are compared to predictions of a perturbative QCD calculation at next-to-leading order in the strong coupling with corrections for non-perturbative effects. The theory predictions describe the data well, except in the kinematic region of large dijet rapidity intervals and small Delta phi(max).
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the p(p)over-bar -> W plus b plus X production cross section at root s=1.96 TeV D0 Collaboration
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters B. - 0370-2693 .- 1873-2445. ; 718:4-5, s. 1314-1320
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a measurement of the cross section for W boson production in association with at least one b-quark jet in proton-antiproton collisions. The measurement is made using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 6.1fb-1 recorded with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron pp̄ Collider at s=1.96TeV. We measure an inclusive cross section of σ(W(→μν)+b+X)=1.04±0.05(stat.)±0.12(syst.) pb and σ(W(→eν)+b+X)=1.00±0.04(stat.)±0.12(syst.) pb in the phase space defined by pTν>25GeV, pTb-jet>20 GeV, |ηb-jet|<1.1, and a muon (electron) with pTℓ>20 GeV and |ημ|<1.7 (|ηe|<1.1 or 1.5<|ηe|<2.5). The combined result per lepton family is σ(W(→ℓν)+b+X)=1.05±0.12(stat.+syst.) pb for |ηℓ|<1.7. The results are in agreement with predictions from next-to-leading order QCD calculations using mcfm, σ(W+b){dot operator}B(W→ℓν)=1.34-0.34+0.41(syst.) pb, and also with predictions from the sherpa and madgraph Monte Carlo event generators.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the ratio of differential cross sections sigma(p(p)over-bar -> Z + b jet)/sigma(p(p)over-bar -> Z + jet) in p(p)over-bar collisions at root s = 1.96 TeV
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - 1550-7998 .- 1550-2368. ; 87:9, s. 092010
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We measure the ratio of cross sections, sigma(p (p) over bar -> Z + b jet)/sigma(p (p) over bar -> Z + jet), for associated production of a Z boson with at least one jet. The ratio is also measured as a function of the Z boson transverse momentum, jet transverse momentum, jet pseudorapidity, and the azimuthal angle between the Z boson with respect to the highest p(T) b tagged jet. These measurements use data collected by the D0 experiment in Run II of Fermilab's Tevatron p (p) over bar Collider at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 9.7 fb(-1). The results are compared to predictions from next-to-leading order calculations and various Monte Carlo event generators.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Search for charged massive long-lived particles at root s=1.96 TeV
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - 1550-7998 .- 1550-2368. ; 87:5, s. 052011
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a search for charged massive long-lived particles (CMLLPs) that are pair produced in p (p) over bar collisions at root s = 1.96 TeV collected by the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. Our result is a combination of two searches where either one or both CMLLPs are reconstructed in the detector. We select events with muonlike particles that have both speed and ionization energy loss (dE/dx) different from muons produced in p (p) over bar collisions. In the absence of evidence for CMLLPs corresponding to 6.3 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity, we set limits on the CMLLP masses in several supersymmetric models, excluding masses below 278 GeV for long-lived gaugino-like charginos, and masses below 244 GeV for long-lived Higgsino-like charginos at the 95% C.L. We also set limits on the cross section for pair production of long-lived scalar tau leptons that range from 0.04 to 0.008 pb for scalar tau lepton masses of 100-300 GeV.
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