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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Lehti Kaisa) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Lehti Kaisa)

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1.
  • Binzer-Panchal, Amrei, et al. (författare)
  • Integrated molecular analysis of undifferentiated uterine sarcomas reveals clinically relevant molecular subtypes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1078-0432. ; 25:7, s. 2155-2165
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Undifferentiated uterine sarcomas (UUS) are rare, extremely deadly, sarcomas with no effective treatment. The goal of this study was to identify novel intrinsic molecular UUS subtypes using integrated clinical, histopathologic, and molecular evaluation of a large, fully annotated, patient cohort. Experimental Design: Fifty cases of UUS with full clinicopathologic annotation were analyzed for gene expression (n ¼ 50), copy-number variation (CNV, n ¼ 40), cell morphometry (n ¼ 39), and protein expression (n ¼ 22). Gene ontology and network enrichment analysis were used to relate over- and underexpressed genes to pathways and further to clinicopathologic and phenotypic findings. Results: Gene expression identified four distinct groups of tumors, which varied in their clinicopathologic parameters. Gene ontology analysis revealed differential activation of pathways related to genital tract development, extracellular matrix (ECM), muscle function, and proliferation. A multi-variable, adjusted Cox proportional hazard model demonstrated that RNA group, mitotic index, and hormone receptor expression influence patient overall survival (OS). CNV arrays revealed characteristic chromosomal changes for each group. Morphometry demonstrated that the ECM group, the most aggressive, exhibited a decreased cell density and increased nuclear area. A cell density cutoff of 4,300 tumor cells per mm 2 could separate ECM tumors from the remaining cases with a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 94%. IHC staining of MMP-14, Collagens 1 and 6, and Fibronectin proteins revealed differential expression of these ECM-related proteins, identifying potential new biomarkers for this aggressive sarcoma subgroup. Conclusions: Molecular evaluation of UUS provides novel insights into the biology, prognosis, phenotype, and possible treatment of these tumors.
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2.
  • Alkasalias, Twana, et al. (författare)
  • RhoA knockout fibroblasts lose tumor-inhibitory capacity in vitro and promote tumor growth in vivo
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - National Academy of Sciences. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 114:8, s. E1413-E1421
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Fibroblasts are a main player in the tumor-inhibitory microenvironment. Upon tumor initiation and progression, fibroblasts can lose their tumor-inhibitory capacity and promote tumor growth. The molecular mechanisms that underlie this switch have not been defined completely. Previously, we identified four proteins over-expressed in cancer-associated fibroblasts and linked to Rho GTPase signaling. Here, we show that knocking out the Ras homolog family member A (RhoA) gene in normal fibroblasts decreased their tumor-inhibitory capacity, as judged by neighbor suppression in vitro and accompanied by promotion of tumor growth in vivo. This also induced PC3 cancer cell motility and increased colony size in 2D cultures. RhoA knockout in fibroblasts induced vimentin intermediate filament reorganization, accompanied by reduced contractile force and increased stiffness of cells. There was also loss of wide F-actin stress fibers and large focal adhesions. In addition, we observed a significant loss of a-smooth muscle actin, which indicates a difference between RhoA knockout fibroblasts and classic cancer-associated fibroblasts. In 3D collagen matrix, RhoA knockout reduced fibroblast branching and meshwork formation and resulted in more compactly clustered tumor-cell colonies in coculture with PC3 cells, which might boost tumor stem-like properties. Coculturing RhoA knockout fibroblasts and PC3 cells induced expression of proinflammatory genes in both. Inflammatory mediators may induce tumor cell stemness. Network enrichment analysis of transcriptomic changes, however, revealed that the Rho signaling pathway per se was significantly triggered only after coculturing with tumor cells. Taken together, our findings in vivo and in vitro indicate that Rho signaling governs the inhibitory effects by fibroblasts on tumor-cell growth.</p>
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3.
  • Binzer-Panchal, Amrei, et al. (författare)
  • Integrated Molecular Analysis of Undifferentiated Uterine Sarcomas Reveals Clinically Relevant Molecular Subtypes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. - 1078-0432 .- 1557-3265. ; 25:7, s. 2155-2165
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Purpose: Undifferentiated uterine sarcomas (UUS) are rare, extremely deadly, sarcomas with no effective treatment. The goal of this study was to identify novel intrinsic molecular UUS subtypes using integrated clinical, histopathologic, and molecular evaluation of a large, fully annotated, patient cohort.</p><p>Experimental Design: Fifty cases of UUS with full clinicopathologic annotation were analyzed for gene expression (n = 50), copy-number variation (CNV, n = 40), cell morphometry (n = 39), and protein expression (n = 22). Gene ontology and network enrichment analysis were used to relate over-and underexpressed genes to pathways and further to clinicopathologic and phenotypic findings.</p><p>Results: Gene expression identified four distinct groups of tumors, which varied in their clinicopathologic parameters. Gene ontology analysis revealed differential activation of pathways related to genital tract development, extracellular matrix (ECM), muscle function, and proliferation. A multivariable, adjusted Cox proportional hazard model demonstrated that RNA group, mitotic index, and hormone receptor expression influence patient overall survival (OS). CNV arrays revealed characteristic chromosomal changes for each group. Morphometry demonstrated that the ECM group, the most aggressive, exhibited a decreased cell density and increased nuclear area. A cell density cutoff of 4,300 tumor cells per mm(2) could separate ECM tumors from the remaining cases with a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 94%. IHC staining of MMP-14, Collagens 1 and 6, and Fibronectin proteins revealed differential expression of these ECM-related proteins, identifying potential new biomarkers for this aggressive sarcoma subgroup. Conclusions: Molecular evaluation of UUS provides novel insights into the biology, prognosis, phenotype, and possible treatment of these tumors.</p>
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4.
  • Le Joncour, Vadim, et al. (författare)
  • Vulnerability of invasive glioblastoma cells to lysosomal membrane destabilization.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: EMBO Molecular Medicine. - 1757-4676 .- 1757-4684. ; 11:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The current clinical care of glioblastomas leaves behind invasive, radio- and chemo-resistant cells. We recently identified mammary-derived growth inhibitor (MDGI/<em>FABP3</em>) as a biomarker for invasive gliomas. Here, we demonstrate a novel function for MDGI in the maintenance of lysosomal membrane integrity, thus rendering invasive glioma cells unexpectedly vulnerable to lysosomal membrane destabilization. MDGI silencing impaired trafficking of polyunsaturated fatty acids into cells resulting in significant alterations in the lipid composition of lysosomal membranes, and subsequent death of the patient-derived glioma cells via lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). In a preclinical model, treatment of glioma-bearing mice with an antihistaminergic LMP-inducing drug efficiently eradicated invasive glioma cells and secondary tumours within the brain. This unexpected fragility of the aggressive infiltrating cells to LMP provides new opportunities for clinical interventions, such as re-positioning of an established antihistamine drug, to eradicate the inoperable, invasive, and chemo-resistant glioma cells from sustaining disease progression and recurrence.</p>
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5.
  • Moyano-Galceran, Lidia, et al. (författare)
  • Adaptive RSK-EphA2-GPRC5A signaling switch triggers chemotherapy resistance in ovarian cancer
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: EMBO Molecular Medicine. - 1757-4676 .- 1757-4684. ; 12:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Metastatic cancers commonly activate adaptive chemotherapy resistance, attributed to both microenvironment-dependent phenotypic plasticity and genetic characteristics of cancer cells. However, the contribution of chemotherapy itself to the non-genetic resistance mechanisms was long neglected. Using high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) patient material and cell lines, we describe here an unexpectedly robust cisplatin and carboplatin chemotherapy-induced ERK1/2-RSK1/2-EphA2-GPRC5A signaling switch associated with cancer cell intrinsic and acquired chemoresistance. Mechanistically, pharmacological inhibition or knockdown of RSK1/2 prevented oncogenic EphA2-S897 phosphorylation and EphA2-GPRC5A co-regulation, thereby facilitating a signaling shift to the canonical tumor-suppressive tyrosine phosphorylation and consequent downregulation of EphA2. In combination with platinum, RSK inhibitors effectively sensitized even the most platinum-resistant EphA2(high), GPRC5A(high) cells to the therapy-induced apoptosis. In HGSC patient tumors, this orphan receptor GPRC5A was expressed exclusively in cancer cells and associated with chemotherapy resistance and poor survival. Our results reveal a kinase signaling pathway uniquely activated by platinum to elicit adaptive resistance. They further identify GPRC5A as a marker for abysmal HGSC outcome and putative vulnerability of the chemo-resistant cells to RSK1/2-EphA2-pS897 pathway inhibition.</p>
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6.
  • Turunen, S. Pauliina, et al. (författare)
  • FGFR4 phosphorylates MST1 to confer breast cancer cells resistance to MST1/2-dependent apoptosis.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Cell Death and Differentiation. - 1350-9047 .- 1476-5403.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Cancer cells balance with the equilibrium of cell death and growth to expand and metastasize. The activity of mammalian sterile20-like kinases (MST1/2) has been linked to apoptosis and tumor suppression via YAP/Hippo pathway-independent and -dependent mechanisms. Using a kinase substrate screen, we identified here MST1 and MST2 among the top substrates for fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4). In COS-1 cells, MST1 was phosphorylated at Y433 residue in an FGFR4 kinase activity-dependent manner, as assessed by mass spectrometry. Blockade of this phosphorylation by Y433F mutation induced MST1 activation, as indicated by increased threonine phosphorylation of MST1/2, and the downstream substrate MOB1, in FGFR4-overexpressing T47D and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Importantly, the specific knockdown or short-term inhibition of FGFR4 in endogenous models of human HER2<sup>+</sup> breast cancer cells likewise led to increased MST1/2 activation, in conjunction with enhanced MST1 nuclear localization and generation of N-terminal cleaved and autophosphorylated MST1. Unexpectedly, MST2 was also essential for this MST1/N activation and coincident apoptosis induction, although these two kinases, as well as YAP, were differentially regulated in the breast cancer models analyzed. Moreover, pharmacological FGFR4 inhibition specifically sensitized the HER2<sup>+</sup> MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells, not only to HER2/EGFR and AKT/mTOR inhibitors, but also to clinically relevant apoptosis modulators. In TCGA cohort, FGFR4 overexpression correlated with abysmal HER2<sup>+</sup> breast carcinoma patient outcome. Therefore, our results uncover a clinically relevant, targetable mechanism of FGFR4 oncogenic activity via suppression of the stress-associated MST1/2-induced apoptosis machinery in tumor cells with prominent HER/ERBB and FGFR4 signaling-driven proliferation.</p>
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7.
  • Turunen, S. Pauliina, et al. (författare)
  • Membrane-type matrix metalloproteases as diverse effectors of cancer progression.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Molecular Cell Research. - Elsevier. - 0167-4889 .- 1879-2596. ; 1864:11, s. 1974-1988
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Membrane-type matrix metalloproteases (MT-MMP) are pivotal regulators of cell invasion, growth and survival. Tethered to the cell membranes by a transmembrane domain or GPI-anchor, the six MT-MMPs can exert these functions via cell surface-associated extracellular matrix degradation or proteolytic protein processing, including shedding or release of signaling receptors, adhesion molecules, growth factors and other pericellular proteins. By interactions with signaling scaffold or cytoskeleton, the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail of the transmembrane MT-MMPs further extends their functionality to signaling or structural relay. MT-MMPs are differentially expressed in cancer. The most extensively studied MMP14/MT1-MMP is induced in various cancers along malignant transformation via pathways activated by mutations in tumor suppressors or proto-oncogenes and changes in tumor microenvironment including cellular heterogeneity, extracellular matrix composition, tissue oxygenation, and inflammation. Classically such induction involves transcriptional programs related to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Besides inhibition by endogenous tissue inhibitors, MT-MMP activities are spatially and timely regulated at multiple levels by microtubular vesicular trafficking, dimerization/oligomerization, other interactions and localization in the actin-based invadosomes, in both tumor and the stroma. The functions of MT-MMPs are multifaceted within reciprocal cellular responses in the evolving tumor microenvironment, which poses the importance of these proteases beyond the central function as matrix scissors, and necessitates us to rethink MT-MMPs as dynamic signaling proteases of cancer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Matrix Metalloproteinases edited by Rafael Fridman.</p>
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