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  • Koenig, Julian, et al. (författare)
  • Cortical thickness and resting-state cardiac function across the lifespan : A cross-sectional pooled mega-analysis
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Psychophysiology. - 0048-5772 .- 1469-8986 .- 1540-5958. ; 58:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Understanding the association between autonomic nervous system [ANS] function and brain morphology across the lifespan provides important insights into neurovisceral mechanisms underlying health and disease. Resting-state ANS activity, indexed by measures of heart rate [HR] and its variability [HRV] has been associated with brain morphology, particularly cortical thickness [CT]. While findings have been mixed regarding the anatomical distribution and direction of the associations, these inconsistencies may be due to sex and age differences in HR/HRV and CT. Previous studies have been limited by small sample sizes, which impede the assessment of sex differences and aging effects on the association between ANS function and CT. To overcome these limitations, 20 groups worldwide contributed data collected under similar protocols of CT assessment and HR/HRV recording to be pooled in a mega-analysis (N = 1,218 (50.5% female), mean age 36.7 years (range: 12–87)). Findings suggest a decline in HRV as well as CT with increasing age. CT, particularly in the orbitofrontal cortex, explained additional variance in HRV, beyond the effects of aging. This pattern of results may suggest that the decline in HRV with increasing age is related to a decline in orbitofrontal CT. These effects were independent of sex and specific to HRV; with no significant association between CT and HR. Greater CT across the adult lifespan may be vital for the maintenance of healthy cardiac regulation via the ANS—or greater cardiac vagal activity as indirectly reflected in HRV may slow brain atrophy. Findings reveal an important association between CT and cardiac parasympathetic activity with implications for healthy aging and longevity that should be studied further in longitudinal research.
  • Hedman, E., et al. (författare)
  • Mediators in psychological treatment of social anxiety disorder : Individual cognitive therapy compared to cognitive behavioral group therapy
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy. - : Elsevier. - 0005-7967 .- 1873-622X. ; 51:10, s. 696-705
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • According to cognitive-behavioral models of social anxiety disorder (SAD), four of the important maintaining mechanisms are avoidance, self-focused attention, anticipatory processing and post-event cognitive processing. Individual cognitive therapy (ICT) and cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) both have substantial empirical support. However, it is unclear whether they achieve their effects by similar or different mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate whether changes in the four maintenance processes mediate clinical improvement in la and CBGT for SAD. We analyzed data from participants (N = 94) who received either ICT or CBGT in two separate RCTs. The results showed that ICT had larger effects than CBGT on social anxiety and each of the four potential mediators. More pertinently, moderated mediation analyses revealed significant between-treatment differences. Whereas improvement in ICT was mainly mediated by reductions in avoidance and self-focused attention, improvement in CBGT was mediated by changes in self-focused attention and in anticipatory and post-event processing. These results support the importance of the putative mediators, but suggest that their relative weights are moderated by treatment type.
  • Lekander, Ingrid, et al. (författare)
  • Hospital comparison of stroke care in Sweden : A register-based study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - London, UK : BMJ Publishing Group. - 2044-6055. ; 7:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and purpose The objective of this study was to estimate the level of health outcomes and resource use at a hospital level during the first year after a stroke, and to identify any potential differences between hospitals after adjusting for patient characteristics (case mix). Method Data from several registries were linked on individual level: seven regional patient administrative systems, Swedish Stroke Register, Statistics Sweden, National Board of Health and Welfare and Swedish Social Insurance Agency. The study population consisted of 14 125 patients presenting with a stroke during 2010. Case-mix adjusted analysis of hospital differences was made on five aspects of health outcomes and resource use, 1 year post-stroke. Results The results indicated that 26% of patients had died within a year of their stroke. Among those who survived, almost 5% had a recurrent stroke and 40% were left with a disability. On average, the patients had 22 inpatient days and 23 outpatient visits, and 13% had moved into special housing. There were significant variations between hospitals in levels of health outcomes achieved and resources used after adjusting for case mix. Conclusion Differences in health outcomes and resource use between hospitals were substantial and not entirely explained by differences in patient mix, indicating tendencies of unequal stroke care in Sweden. Healthcare organisation of regions and other structural features could potentially explain parts of the differences identified.
  • Lekander, M., et al. (författare)
  • Subjective health perception in healthy young men changes in response to experimentally restricted sleep and subsequent recovery sleep
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Brain Behavior and Immunity. - 0889-1591 .- 1090-2139. ; 34, s. 43-46
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sleep and subjective health are both prospectively related to objective indices of health and health care use. Here, we tested whether five days with restricted sleep and subsequent recovery days affect subjective health and is related to increased levels of circulating IL-6 and TNF-alpha and fatigue. Nine healthy men (23-28 years) went through a 6-week sleep protocol with subjects as their own controls in a repeated measures design with a total of 11 nights in a sleep laboratory. The experimental part of the protocol included three baseline days (sleep 23-07 h), five days with sleep restriction (03-07 h) and three recovery days (23-07 h) in the sleep laboratory. Subjective health and fatigue was recorded daily. Eight blood samples were drawn each day (every third hour) on 8 days of the protocol and analyzed with respect to IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Subjective health deteriorated gradually during restricted sleep (p = .002) and returned to baseline levels after three days of recovery. IL-6 and TNF-alpha did not change significantly. Fatigue increased gradually during sleep restriction (p = .001), which significantly contributed to the association between restricted sleep and subjective health. The study is the first to show that subjective health is directly responsive to changes in sleep length and related to increased fatigue. Thus, subjective health is differently appraised after manipulation of one of its presumed determinants. Larger experimental studies would be beneficial to further distinguish causation from association regarding the underpinnings of subjective health. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Asberg, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Novel biochemical markers of psychosocial stress in women.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: PloS one. - 1932-6203. ; 4:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Prolonged psychosocial stress is a condition assessed through self-reports. Here we aimed to identify biochemical markers for screening and early intervention in women. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL) 1-alpha, IL1-beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-gamma (INF-gamma), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total tri-iodothyronine (TT3), total thyroxine (TT4), prolactin, and testosterone were measured in: 195 women on long-term sick-leave for a stress-related affective disorder, 45 women at risk for professional burnout, and 84 healthy women. RESULTS: We found significantly increased levels of MCP-1, VEGF and EGF in women exposed to prolonged psychosocial stress. Statistical analysis indicates that they independently associate with a significant risk for being classified as ill. CONCLUSIONS: MCP-1, EGF, and VEGF are potential markers for screening and early intervention in women under prolonged psychosocial stress.
  • Kemani, Mike K., et al. (författare)
  • Efficacy and Cost-effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Applied Relaxation for Longstanding Pain : a Randomized Controlled Trial
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: The Clinical Journal of Pain. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0749-8047 .- 1536-5409. ; 31:11, s. 1004-1016
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Objectives: To date, few studies have compared Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for longstanding pain with established treatments. Only 1 study has evaluated the cost-effectiveness of ACT. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of ACT and applied relaxation (AR) for adults with unspecific, longstanding pain.Materials and Methods: On the basis of the inclusion criteria 60 consecutive patients received 12 weekly group sessions of ACT or AR. Data were collected pretreatment, midtreatment, and posttreatment, as well as at 3- and 6-month follow-up. Growth curve modeling was used to analyze treatment effects on pain disability, pain intensity, health-related quality of life (physical domain), anxiety, depression, and acceptance.Results: Significant improvements were seen across conditions (pretreatment to follow-up assessment) on all outcome measures. Pain disability decreased significantly in ACT relative to AR from preassessment to postassessment. A corresponding decrease in pain disability was seen in AR between postassessment and 6-month follow-up. Pain acceptance increased only in ACT, and this effect was maintained at 6-month follow-up. Approximately 20% of the participants achieved clinically significant change after treatment. Health economic analyses showed that ACT was more cost-effective than AR at post and 3-month follow-up assessment, but not at 6-month follow-up.Discussion: More studies investigating moderators and mediators of change are needed. The present study is one of few that have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of ACT and AR and compared ACT with an established behavioral intervention, and the results provide additional support for behavioral interventions for longstanding pain.
  • Kemani, M. K., et al. (författare)
  • Processes of change in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Applied Relaxation for long-standing pain
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Pain. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1090-3801 .- 1532-2149. ; 20:4, s. 521-531
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The utility of cognitive behavioural (CB) interventions for chronic pain has been supported in numerous studies. This includes Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), which has gained increased empirical support. Previous research suggests that improvements in pain catastrophizing and psychological inflexibility are related to improvements in treatment outcome in this type of treatment. Although a few studies have evaluated processes of change in CB-interventions, there is a particular need for mediation analyses that use multiple assessments to model change in mediators and outcome over time, and that incorporate the specified timeline between mediator and outcome in the data analytic model.METHODS: This study used session-to-session assessments to evaluate if psychological inflexibility, catastrophizing, and pain intensity mediated the effects of treatment on pain interference. Analyses were based on data from a previously conducted randomized controlled trial (n = 60) evaluating the efficacy of ACT and Applied Relaxation (AR). A moderated mediation model based on linear mixed models was used to analyse the data.RESULTS: Neither catastrophizing nor pain intensity mediated changes in pain interference for any of the treatments. In contrast, psychological inflexibility mediated effects on outcome in ACT but not in AR.CONCLUSIONS: Results add to previous findings illustrating the role of psychological inflexibility as a mediator in ACT.
  • Lasselin, Julie, et al. (författare)
  • Sleep during naturally occurring respiratory infections : A pilot study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Brain, behavior, and immunity. - 0889-1591 .- 1090-2139. ; 79, s. 236-243
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is strong experimental support that infections increase the drive for sleep in animals, and it is widely believed that more sleep is part of an adaptive immune response. While respiratory infections (RI) are very prevalent in humans, there is a striking lack of systematic knowledge on how it affects sleep. We recruited 100 people, among whom 28 became sick with an RI during the study period (fulfilling criteria for influenza-like illness, ILI, or acute respiratory infection, ARI). We measured sick participants' sleep at home, both objectively (actigraphy) and subjectively (diary ratings), for one week as well as four weeks later when healthy. During the week with RI, people spent objectively longer time in bed and had a longer total sleep time compared to the healthy week. During the infection, participants also had more awakenings, but no significant differences in sleep latency or sleep efficiency. While sick, people also reported increased difficulties falling asleep, worse sleep quality, more restless sleep and more shallow sleep, while they did not report sleep to be less sufficient. Most problems occurred at the beginning of the sickness week, when symptoms were strong, and showed signs of recovery thereafter (as indicated by interactions between condition and day/night of data collection for all the 10 sleep outcomes). The degree of symptoms of RI was related to a worse sleep quality and more restless sleep, but not to any of the objective sleep outcomes or the other subjective sleep variables. Having a higher body temperature was not significantly related to any of the sleep variables. This study suggests that having a respiratory infection is associated with spending more time in bed and sleeping longer, but also with more disturbed sleep, both objectively and subjectively. This novel study should be seen as being of pilot character. There is a need for larger studies which classify pathogen type and include baseline predictors, or that manipulate sleep, in order to understand whether the sleep alterations seen during infections are adaptive and whether sleep interventions could be used to improve recovery from respiratory infections.
  • Albrecht, Daniel S., et al. (författare)
  • Brain glial activation in fibromyalgia - A multi-site positron emission tomography investigation
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Brain, behavior, and immunity. - 0889-1591 .- 1090-2139. ; 75, s. 72-83
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fibromyalgia (FM) is a poorly understood chronic condition characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, and cognitive difficulties. While mounting evidence suggests a role for neuroinflammation, no study has directly provided evidence of brain glial activation in FM. In this study, we conducted a Positron Emission Tomography (PET) study using [C-11]PBR28, which binds to the translocator protein (TSPO), a protein upregulated in activated microglia and astrocytes. To enhance statistical power and generalizability, we combined datasets collected independently at two separate institutions (Massachusetts General Hospital [MGH] and Karolinska Institutet [KI]). In an attempt to disentangle the contributions of different glial cell types to FM, a smaller sample was scanned at KI with [C-11]-L-deprenyl-D2 PET, thought to primarily reflect astrocytic (but not microglial) signal. Thirty-one FM patients and 27 healthy controls (HC) were examined using [C-11]PBR28 PET. 11 FM patients and 11 HC were scanned using [C-11]-L-deprenyl-D2 PET. Standardized uptake values normalized by occipital cortex signal (SUVR) and distribution volume (V-T) were computed from the [C-11]PBR28 data. [C-11]-L-deprenyl-D2 was quantified using lambda k(3). PET imaging metrics were compared across groups, and when differing across groups, against clinical variables. Compared to HC, FM patients demonstrated widespread cortical elevations, and no decreases, in [C-11]PBR28 ITT and SUVR, most pronounced in the medial and lateral walls of the frontal and parietal lobes. No regions showed significant group differences in [C-11]-L-deprenyl-Ds signal, including those demonstrating elevated [C-11] PBR28 signal in patients (p's >= 0.53, uncorrected). The elevations in [C-11]PBR28 V-T and SUVR were correlated both spatially (i.e., were observed in overlapping regions) and, in several areas, also in terms of magnitude. In exploratory, uncorrected analyses, higher subjective ratings of fatigue in FM patients were associated with higher [C-11] PBR28 SUVR in the anterior and posterior middle cingulate cortices (p's < 0.03). SUVR was not significantly associated with any other clinical variable. Our work provides the first in vivo evidence supporting a role for glial activation in FM pathophysiology. Given that the elevations in [C-11]PBR28 signal were not also accompanied by increased [C-11]-deprenyl-D2 signal, our data suggests that microglia, but not astrocytes, may be driving the TSPO elevation in these regions. Although [C-11]-L-deprenyl-D2 signal was not found to be increased in FM patients, larger studies are needed to further assess the role of possible astrocytic contributions in FM. Overall, our data support glial modulation as a potential therapeutic strategy for FM.
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