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Sökning: WFRF:(Li Hongyan)

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  • Sampson, Joshua N., et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of Heritability and Shared Heritability Based on Genome-Wide Association Studies for 13 Cancer Types
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 107:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Studies of related individuals have consistently demonstrated notable familial aggregation of cancer. We aim to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation attributable to the additive effects of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for cancer at 13 anatomical sites.Methods: Between 2007 and 2014, the US National Cancer Institute has generated data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for 49 492 cancer case patients and 34 131 control patients. We apply novel mixed model methodology (GCTA) to this GWAS data to estimate the heritability of individual cancers, as well as the proportion of heritability attributable to cigarette smoking in smoking-related cancers, and the genetic correlation between pairs of cancers.Results: GWAS heritability was statistically significant at nearly all sites, with the estimates of array-based heritability, h(l)(2), on the liability threshold (LT) scale ranging from 0.05 to 0.38. Estimating the combined heritability of multiple smoking characteristics, we calculate that at least 24% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14% to 37%) and 7% (95% CI = 4% to 11%) of the heritability for lung and bladder cancer, respectively, can be attributed to genetic determinants of smoking. Most pairs of cancers studied did not show evidence of strong genetic correlation. We found only four pairs of cancers with marginally statistically significant correlations, specifically kidney and testes (rho = 0.73, SE = 0.28), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and pediatric osteosarcoma (rho = 0.53, SE = 0.21), DLBCL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (rho = 0.51, SE = 0.18), and bladder and lung (rho = 0.35, SE = 0.14). Correlation analysis also indicates that the genetic architecture of lung cancer differs between a smoking population of European ancestry and a nonsmoking Asian population, allowing for the possibility that the genetic etiology for the same disease can vary by population and environmental exposures.Conclusion: Our results provide important insights into the genetic architecture of cancers and suggest new avenues for investigation.
  • Feng, Ruizhi, et al. (författare)
  • Mutations in TUBB8 and Human Oocyte Meiotic Arrest.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: The New England journal of medicine. - 1533-4406. ; 374:3, s. 223-232
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Human reproduction depends on the fusion of a mature oocyte with a sperm cell to form a fertilized egg. The genetic events that lead to the arrest of human oocyte maturation are unknown. Methods We sequenced the exomes of five members of a four-generation family, three of whom had infertility due to oocyte meiosis I arrest. We performed Sanger sequencing of a candidate gene, TUBB8, in DNA samples from these members, additional family members, and members of 23 other affected families. The expression of TUBB8 and all other β-tubulin isotypes was assessed in human oocytes, early embryos, sperm cells, and several somatic tissues by means of a quantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assay. We evaluated the effect of the TUBB8 mutations on the assembly of the heterodimer consisting of one α-tubulin polypeptide and one β-tubulin polypeptide (α/β-tubulin heterodimer) in vitro, on microtubule architecture in HeLa cells, on microtubule dynamics in yeast cells, and on spindle assembly in mouse and human oocytes. Results We identified seven mutations in the primate-specific gene TUBB8 that were responsible for oocyte meiosis I arrest in 7 of the 24 families. TUBB8 expression is unique to oocytes and the early embryo, in which this gene accounts for almost all the expressed β-tubulin. The mutations affect chaperone-dependent folding and assembly of the α/β-tubulin heterodimer, disrupt microtubule behavior on expression in cultured cells, alter microtubule dynamics in vivo, and cause catastrophic spindle-assembly defects and maturation arrest on expression in mouse and human oocytes. Conclusions TUBB8 mutations have dominant-negative effects that disrupt microtubule behavior and oocyte meiotic spindle assembly and maturation, causing female infertility. (Funded by the National Basic Research Program of China and others.).
  • Li, Furong, et al. (författare)
  • Towards quantification of Holocene anthropogenic land-cover change in temperate China : A review in the light of pollen-based REVEALS reconstructions of regional plant cover
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Earth-Science Reviews. - : Elsevier. - 0012-8252 .- 1872-6828. ; 203, s. 1-25
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In an attempt to quantify Holocene anthropogenic land-cover change in temperate China, we 1) applied the REVEALS model to estimate plant-cover change using 94 pollen records and relative pollen productivity for 27 plant taxa, 2) reviewed earlier interpretation of pollen studies in terms of climate- and human-induced vegetation change, and 3) reviewed information on past land use from archaeological studies. REVEALS achieved a more realistic reconstruction of plant-cover change than pollen percentages in terms of openland versus woodland. The study suggests successive human-induced changes in vegetation cover. The first signs of human-induced land-cover change (crop cultivation, otherwise specified) are found c. 7 ka BP in the temperate deciduous forest, and S and NE Tibetan Plateau (mainly grazing, possibly crop cultivation), 6.5-6 ka BP in the temperate steppe and temperate desert (grazing, uncertain), and 5.5-5 ka BP in the coniferous-deciduous mixed forest, NE subtropical region, and NW Tibetan Plateau (grazing). Further intensification of anthropogenic land-cover change is indicated 5-4.5 ka BP in the E temperate steppe, and S and NE Tibetan Plateau (grazing, cultivation uncertain), 3.5-3 ka BP in S and NE Tibetan Plateau, W temperate steppe, temperate desert (grazing), and NW Tibetan Plateau (probably grazing), and 2.5-2 ka BP in the temperate deciduous forest, N subtropical region, and temperate desert (grazing). These changes generally agree with increased human activity as documented by archaeological studies. REVEALS reconstructions have a stronger potential than biomization to evaluate scenarios of anthropogenic land-cover change such as HYDE, given they are combined with information from archaeological studies.
  • Barban, Nicola, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 48:12, s. 1462-1472
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB) has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the underlying mechanisms of AFB and NEB are poorly understood. We report a large genome-wide association study of both sexes including 251,151 individuals for AFB and 343,072 individuals for NEB. We identified 12 independent loci that are significantly associated with AFB and/or NEB in a SNP-based genome-wide association study and 4 additional loci associated in a gene-based effort. These loci harbor genes that are likely to have a role, either directly or by affecting non-local gene expression, in human reproduction and infertility, thereby increasing understanding of these complex traits.
  • Wu, Xiuchen, et al. (författare)
  • Exposures to temperature beyond threshold disproportionately reduce vegetation growth in the northern hemisphere
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: National Science Review. - 2095-5138 .- 2053-714X. ; 6:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In recent decades, terrestrial vegetation in the northern hemisphere (NH) has been exposed to warming and more extremely high temperatures. However, the consequences of these changes for terrestrial vegetation growth remain poorly quantified and understood. By examining a satellite-based vegetation index, tree-ring measurements and land-surface model simulations, we discovered a consistent convex pattern in the responses of vegetation growth to temperature exposure (TE) for forest, shrub and grass in both the temperate (30°−50° N) and boreal (50°−70° N) NH during the period of 1982−2012. The response of vegetation growth to TE for the three vegetation types in both the temperate and boreal NH increased convergently with increasing temperature, until vegetation type-dependent temperature thresholds were reached. A TE beyond these temperature thresholds resulted in disproportionately weak positive or even strong negative responses. Vegetation growth in the boreal NH was more vulnerable to extremely high-temperature events than vegetation growth in the temporal NH. The non-linear responses discovered here provide new insights into the dynamics of northern terrestrial ecosystems in a warmer world.
  • Yang, Huiqing, et al. (författare)
  • Protic Quaternary Ammonium Ionic Liquids for Catalytic Conversion of CO2 into Cyclic Carbonates : A Combined Ab Initio and MD Study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. - : AMER CHEMICAL SOC. - 0888-5885 .- 1520-5045. ; 57:21, s. 7121-7129
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The mechanism of CO2 fixation catalyzed by protic hydroxyl-functionalized quaternary ammonium ionic liquids (ILs) is investigated by two different models, the Single-IL model and the Double-IL model. The relative sequence of catalytic activity calculated by the Single-IL model is contradictory with the experimental result. The situation is totally varied when the Double-IL model is utilized. In this system, ILs are not limited to the catalyst but solvent. The ILs are incorporated into the catalytic system to consider the solvent effect rather than by the existing solvent model. When the solvent effect is included, it is better to distinguish the catalytic activity of three ILs. According to the noncovalent interaction and the atoms in molecules analysis, the highest catalytic activity of tris(2-hydroxyethyl)ammonium bromide ([HTEA]Br) is attributed to its strongest nucleophilic attack and moderate hydrogen bond interaction between IL and reactant. It is necessary to consider the interaction between ILs to get a reliable result. Moreover, the solvent effect aroused by ILs should be carefully considered.
  • Abelev, Betty, et al. (författare)
  • Long-range angular correlations on the near and away side in p-Pb collisions at root S-NN=5.02 TeV
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - : Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 719:1-3, s. 29-41
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Angular correlations between charged trigger and associated particles are measured by the ALICE detector in p-Pb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV for transverse momentum ranges within 0.5 < P-T,P-assoc < P-T,P-trig < 4 GeV/c. The correlations are measured over two units of pseudorapidity and full azimuthal angle in different intervals of event multiplicity, and expressed as associated yield per trigger particle. Two long-range ridge-like structures, one on the near side and one on the away side, are observed when the per-trigger yield obtained in low-multiplicity events is subtracted from the one in high-multiplicity events. The excess on the near-side is qualitatively similar to that recently reported by the CMS Collaboration, while the excess on the away-side is reported for the first time. The two-ridge structure projected onto azimuthal angle is quantified with the second and third Fourier coefficients as well as by near-side and away-side yields and widths. The yields on the near side and on the away side are equal within the uncertainties for all studied event multiplicity and p(T) bins, and the widths show no significant evolution with event multiplicity or p(T). These findings suggest that the near-side ridge is accompanied by an essentially identical away-side ridge. (c) 2013 CERN. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Abelev, Betty, et al. (författare)
  • Underlying Event measurements in pp collisions at root s=0.9 and 7 TeV with the ALICE experiment at the LHC
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - : Springer. - 1029-8479. ; :7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present measurements of Underlying Event observables in pp collisions at root s = 0 : 9 and 7 TeV. The analysis is performed as a function of the highest charged-particle transverse momentum p(T),L-T in the event. Different regions are defined with respect to the azimuthal direction of the leading (highest transverse momentum) track: Toward, Transverse and Away. The Toward and Away regions collect the fragmentation products of the hardest partonic interaction. The Transverse region is expected to be most sensitive to the Underlying Event activity. The study is performed with charged particles above three different p(T) thresholds: 0.15, 0.5 and 1.0 GeV/c. In the Transverse region we observe an increase in the multiplicity of a factor 2-3 between the lower and higher collision energies, depending on the track p(T) threshold considered. Data are compared to PYTHIA 6.4, PYTHIA 8.1 and PHOJET. On average, all models considered underestimate the multiplicity and summed p(T) in the Transverse region by about 10-30%.
  • Dimayuga, Paul C, et al. (författare)
  • T Cell Modulation of Intimal Thickening After Vascular Injury. The Bimodal Role of IFN-{gamma} in Immune Deficiency.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1524-4636. ; 25:Oct 13, s. 2528-2534
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background - Immune deficiency results in exuberant intimal thickening after arterial injury. The mechanisms involved are not well defined. We investigated the role of T cells and IFN-gamma in the response to injury in normal and immune-deficient Rag-1KO mice. Methods and Results - Carotid arterial injury was induced in wild-type (WT), Rag-1KO mice, and Rag-1KO mice reconstituted with T cell-enriched splenocytes. The exuberant intimal thickening in Rag-1KO mice compared with WT mice 21 days after injury was reduced by T cell transfer (P < 0.01). Exogenous IFN-gamma starting on the day of injury inhibited intimal thickening in Rag-1KO mice. However, antibody neutralization of endogenous IFN-gamma in Rag-1KO mice starting 7 days after injury decreased intimal thickening, indicating that late presence of IFN-gamma promoted intimal thickening in Rag-1KO mice. Results further suggest that the effect of late IFN-gamma in Rag-1KO mice is mediated in part by increased IRF-1 and iNOS expression, coupled with low SOCS1 expression. Conclusion - T cells inhibit intimal thickening in the early stages of the response to injury through basal IFN-gamma secretion. In the Rag-1KO mice, late IFN-gamma expression promotes intimal thickening. These findings add novel insight to conditions of immune deficiency that affect intimal thickening.
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