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Sökning: WFRF:(Li Shanshan)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 11
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  • Holmes, Michael V., et al. (författare)
  • Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease : Mendelian randomisation analysis based on individual participant data
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMJ-BRIT MED J. - 1756-1833. ; 349, s. g4164
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To use the rs1229984 variant in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) as an instrument to investigate the causal role of alcohol in cardiovascular disease. Design Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis of 56 epidemiological studies. Participants 261 991 individuals of European descent, including 20 259 coronary heart disease cases and 10 164 stroke events. Data were available on ADH1B rs1229984 variant, alcohol phenotypes, and cardiovascular biomarkers. Main outcome measures Odds ratio for coronary heart disease and stroke associated with the ADH1B variant in all individuals and by categories of alcohol consumption. Results Carriers of the A-allele of ADH1B rs1229984 consumed 17.2% fewer units of alcohol per week (95% confidence interval 15.6% to 18.9%), had a lower prevalence of binge drinking (odds ratio 0.78 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.84)), and had higher abstention (odds ratio 1.27 (1.21 to 1.34)) than non-carriers. Rs1229984 A-allele carriers had lower systolic blood pressure (-0.88 (-1.19 to -0.56) mm Hg), interleukin-6 levels (-5.2% (-7.8 to -2.4%)), waist circumference (-0.3 (-0.6 to -0.1) cm), and body mass index (-0.17 (-0.24 to -0.10) kg/m(2)). Rs1229984 A-allele carriers had lower odds of coronary heart disease (odds ratio 0.90 (0.84 to 0.96)). The protective association of the ADH1B rs1229984 A-allele variant remained the same across all categories of alcohol consumption (P= 0.83 for heterogeneity). Although no association of rs1229984 was identified with the combined subtypes of stroke, carriers of the A-allele had lower odds of ischaemic stroke (odds ratio 0.83 (0.72 to 0.95)). Conclusions Individuals with a genetic variant associated with non-drinking and lower alcohol consumption had a more favourable cardiovascular profile and a reduced risk of coronary heart disease than those without the genetic variant. This suggests that reduction of alcohol consumption, even for light to moderate drinkers, is beneficial for cardiovascular health.
  • Burstein, Roy, et al. (författare)
  • Mapping 123 million neonatal, infant and child deaths between 2000 and 2017
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836. ; 574:7778, s. 353-358
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2—to end preventable child deaths by 2030—we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends. Here we quantified, for the period 2000–2017, the subnational variation in mortality rates and number of deaths of neonates, infants and children under 5 years of age within 99 low- and middle-income countries using a geostatistical survival model. We estimated that 32% of children under 5 in these countries lived in districts that had attained rates of 25 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births by 2017, and that 58% of child deaths between 2000 and 2017 in these countries could have been averted in the absence of geographical inequality. This study enables the identification of high-mortality clusters, patterns of progress and geographical inequalities to inform appropriate investments and implementations that will help to improve the health of all populations.
  • Deng, Min, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association analyses in Han Chinese identify two new susceptibility loci for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036. ; 45:6, s. 697-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To identify susceptibility genes for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 506 individuals with sporadic ALS and 1,859 controls of Han Chinese ancestry. Ninety top SNPs suggested by the current GWAS and 6 SNPs identified by previous GWAS were analyzed in an independent cohort of 706 individuals with ALS and 1,777 controls of Han Chinese ancestry. We discovered two new susceptibility loci for ALS at 1q32 (CAMK1G, rs6703183, P-combined = 2.92 x 10(-8), odds ratio (OR) = 1.31) and 22p11 (CABIN1 and SUSD2, rs8141797, P-combined = 2.35 x 10(-9), OR = 1.52). These two loci explain 12.48% of the overall variance in disease risk in the Han Chinese population. We found no association evidence for the previously reported loci in the Han Chinese population, suggesting genetic heterogeneity of disease susceptibility for ALS between ancestry groups. Our study identifies two new susceptibility loci and suggests new pathogenic mechanisms of ALS.
  • Guo, Yuming, et al. (författare)
  • Quantifying excess deaths related to heatwaves under climate change scenarios A multicountry time series modelling study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: PLoS Medicine. - 1549-1277. ; 15:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Heatwaves are a critical public health problem. There will be an increase in the frequency and severity of heatwaves under changing climate. However, evidence about the impacts of climate change on heatwave-related mortality at a global scale is limited.METHODS AND FINDINGS: We collected historical daily time series of mean temperature and mortality for all causes or nonexternal causes, in periods ranging from January 1, 1984, to December 31, 2015, in 412 communities within 20 countries/regions. We estimated heatwave-mortality associations through a two-stage time series design. Current and future daily mean temperature series were projected under four scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions from 1971-2099, with five general circulation models. We projected excess mortality in relation to heatwaves in the future under each scenario of greenhouse gas emissions, with two assumptions for adaptation (no adaptation and hypothetical adaptation) and three scenarios of population change (high variant, median variant, and low variant). Results show that, if there is no adaptation, heatwave-related excess mortality is expected to increase the most in tropical and subtropical countries/regions (close to the equator), while European countries and the United States will have smaller percent increases in heatwave-related excess mortality. The higher the population variant and the greenhouse gas emissions, the higher the increase of heatwave-related excess mortality in the future. The changes in 2031-2080 compared with 1971-2020 range from approximately 2,000% in Colombia to 150% in Moldova under the highest emission scenario and high-variant population scenario, without any adaptation. If we considered hypothetical adaptation to future climate, under high-variant population scenario and all scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions, the heatwave-related excess mortality is expected to still increase across all the countries/regions except Moldova and Japan. However, the increase would be much smaller than the no adaptation scenario. The simple assumptions with respect to adaptation as follows: no adaptation and hypothetical adaptation results in some uncertainties of projections.CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a comprehensive characterisation of future heatwave-related excess mortality across various regions and under alternative scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions, different assumptions of adaptation, and different scenarios of population change. The projections can help decision makers in planning adaptation and mitigation strategies for climate change.
  • Lee, Jae Young, et al. (författare)
  • Predicted temperature-increase-induced global health burden and its regional variability
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - Elsevier. - 0160-4120. ; 131
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An increase in the global health burden of temperature was projected for 459 locations in 28 countries worldwide under four representative concentration pathway scenarios until 2099. We determined that the amount of temperature increase for each 100 ppm increase in global CO2 concentrations is nearly constant, regardless of climate scenarios. The overall average temperature increase during 2010-2099 is largest in Canada (1.16 °C/100 ppm) and Finland (1.14 °C/100 ppm), while it is smallest in Ireland (0.62 °C/100 ppm) and Argentina (0.63 °C/100 ppm). In addition, for each 1 °C temperature increase, the amount of excess mortality is increased largely in tropical countries such as Vietnam (10.34%p/°C) and the Philippines (8.18%p/°C), while it is decreased in Ireland (-0.92%p/°C) and Australia (-0.32%p/°C). To understand the regional variability in temperature increase and mortality, we performed a regression-based modeling. We observed that the projected temperature increase is highly correlated with daily temperature range at the location and vulnerability to temperature increase is affected by health expenditure, and proportions of obese and elderly population.
  • Li, Qiang, et al. (författare)
  • Experimental Demonstration of Plasmon Propagation, Coupling, and Splitting in Silver Nanowire at 1550-nm Wavelength
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics. - 1077-260X. ; 17:4, s. 1107-1111
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We experimentally demonstrate silver-nanowire-based plasmonic devices including the nanowaveguide, the nanocoupler, and the nanosplitter at optical communication wavelength of 1550 nm. The plasmon propagation loss in a 300-nm diameter silver nanowire is measured to be 0.3 dB/mu m and the effective propagation length is 14.5 mu m. This loss is comparatively lower than that at 980 nm. Two types of plasmonic functional devices based on the coupling between two silver nanowires, nanocouplers, and nanosplitters, are realized. For the nanocoupler, the experimental results show that the plasmonic modes can be efficiently coupled between two closely positioned nanowires. While for the nanosplitter, the plasmonic mode is split with a power ratio of 2.6:1. These demonstrations experimentally prove the feasibility of extending the operating wavelength of silver-nanowire-based plasmonic devices to current optical communication wavelength with a lower loss, which are thus important steps for potentially utilizing low-loss nanowire-based plasmonic components for photonic integrated circuits.
  • Li, Qiang, et al. (författare)
  • Silver nanowire based plasmon propagation, coupling and splitting at 1.55 mu m wavelength
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering. - 0277-786X. ; 7986
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We experimentally demonstrate silver nanowire based plasmonic devices at optical communication wavelength 1.55 mu m. The plasmon propagation loss in a 300 nm diameter silver nanowire is measured to be 0.3 dB/mu m. Two types of plasmonic functional devices based on the coupling between two silver nanowires, nano-couplers and nano-splitters, are realized.
  • Luo, Ziteng, et al. (författare)
  • Roots-Enhanced Preferential Flows in Deciduous and Coniferous Forest Soils Revealed by Dual-Tracer Experiments
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Quality. - American Society of Agronomy. - 0047-2425. ; 48:1, s. 136-146
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Macropores formed by roots are crucial channels for preferential flows in forest soils that are largely responsible for water percolation and solute leaching. Using dual-tracer experiments (Brilliant Blue FCF and bromide [Br]), this study investigated the preferential flows of water and solutes in a deciduous forest dominated by Bl. and a coniferous forest mainly planted with (L.) Franco. Dye-stained patterns and concentrations of Brilliant Blue and Br were obtained in vertical soil profiles (0-30 cm), whereas stained and unstained roots were collected and analyzed in horizontal soil profiles to a 30-cm soil depth. Brilliant Blue and Br were mainly accumulated in the 0- to 20-cm soil depth, which had greater total root length density than the 20- to 30-cm soil depth ( < 0.05). Only part of the roots facilitated the preferential flows, with finer roots (i.e., diameter <1 mm) contributing the most. More intriguingly, the coniferous forest soil had a greater degree of preferential flows and greater tracer concentrations at deeper soil depth than the deciduous forest soil, suggesting the importance of tree species and forest composition on water and solute transport in forest ecosystems.
  • Yu, Huakang, et al. (författare)
  • Modeling bending losses of optical nanofibers or nanowires
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Applied Optics. - 1559-128X. ; 48:22, s. 4365-4369
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bending losses of nanofibers or nanowires with circular 90 degrees bends are simulated using a three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D-FDTD) method. Dependences of bending losses on wavelength and polarization of guided light are investigated, as well as the diameters, refractive indices, and bending radii of nanowires. The acceptable bending losses (similar to 1 dB/90 degrees) predicted in glass, polymer, and semiconductor nanowires with bending radii down to micrometer level may offer valuable references for assembling highly compact photonic integrated circuits or devices with optical nanowires.
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