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Sökning: WFRF:(Li Zhi Chao)

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  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
  • Kim, Jae-Young, et al. (författare)
  • Event Horizon Telescope imaging of the archetypal blazar 3C 279 at an extreme 20 microarcsecond resolution
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 640
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 3C 279 is an archetypal blazar with a prominent radio jet that show broadband flux density variability across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. We use an ultra-high angular resolution technique - global Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) at 1.3mm (230 GHz) - to resolve the innermost jet of 3C 279 in order to study its fine-scale morphology close to the jet base where highly variable-ray emission is thought to originate, according to various models. The source was observed during four days in April 2017 with the Event Horizon Telescope at 230 GHz, including the phased Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, at an angular resolution of ∼20 μas (at a redshift of z = 0:536 this corresponds to ∼0:13 pc ∼ 1700 Schwarzschild radii with a black hole mass MBH = 8 × 108 M⊙). Imaging and model-fitting techniques were applied to the data to parameterize the fine-scale source structure and its variation.We find a multicomponent inner jet morphology with the northernmost component elongated perpendicular to the direction of the jet, as imaged at longer wavelengths. The elongated nuclear structure is consistent on all four observing days and across diffierent imaging methods and model-fitting techniques, and therefore appears robust. Owing to its compactness and brightness, we associate the northern nuclear structure as the VLBI "core". This morphology can be interpreted as either a broad resolved jet base or a spatially bent jet.We also find significant day-to-day variations in the closure phases, which appear most pronounced on the triangles with the longest baselines. Our analysis shows that this variation is related to a systematic change of the source structure. Two inner jet components move non-radially at apparent speeds of ∼15 c and ∼20 c (∼1:3 and ∼1:7 μas day-1, respectively), which more strongly supports the scenario of traveling shocks or instabilities in a bent, possibly rotating jet. The observed apparent speeds are also coincident with the 3C 279 large-scale jet kinematics observed at longer (cm) wavelengths, suggesting no significant jet acceleration between the 1.3mm core and the outer jet. The intrinsic brightness temperature of the jet components are ≤1010 K, a magnitude or more lower than typical values seen at ≥7mm wavelengths. The low brightness temperature and morphological complexity suggest that the core region of 3C 279 becomes optically thin at short (mm) wavelengths.
  • Zhang, Yue-Jiao, et al. (författare)
  • Probing the Electronic Structure of Heterogeneous Metal Interfaces by Transition Metal Shelled Gold Nanoparticle-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C. - : American Chemical Society (ACS). - 1932-7447 .- 1932-7455. ; 120:37, s. 20684-20691
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In heterogeneous catalysis, characterization of heterogeneous metal interfaces of bimetallic catalysts is a crucial step to elucidate the catalytic performance and is a key to develop advanced catalysts. However, analytical techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy can only work in vacuum conditions and are difficult to use for in situ analysis. Here, we present efficient and convenient core-shell nano particle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to explore the in situ electronic structures of heterogeneous interfaces (Au@Pd and Au@Pt core-shell NPs) by varying the shell thickness. The experimental observations reported here clearly show that Pd donates electrons to Au, while Pt accepts electrons from Au at the heterogeneous interfaces. This conclusion gains further support from ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results. The Au core greatly affects the electronic structures of both the Pd and Pt shells as well as catalytic behaviors. Finally, the as prepared core-shell nanoparticles were used to demonstrate their improved catalytic properties in real electrocatalytic systems such as methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions.
  • Cheng, Shi-Ping, et al. (författare)
  • Haplotype-resolved genome assembly and allele-specific gene expression in cultivated ginger
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Horticulture Research. - : Springer Nature. - 2052-7276. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the most valued spice plants worldwide; it is prized for its culinary and folk medicinal applications and is therefore of high economic and cultural importance. Here, we present a haplotype-resolved, chromosome-scale assembly for diploid ginger anchored to 11 pseudochromosome pairs with a total length of 3.1 Gb. Remarkable structural variation was identified between haplotypes, and two inversions larger than 15 Mb on chromosome 4 may be associated with ginger infertility. We performed a comprehensive, spatiotemporal, genome-wide analysis of allelic expression patterns, revealing that most alleles are coordinately expressed. The alleles that exhibited the largest differences in expression showed closer proximity to transposable elements, greater coding sequence divergence, more relaxed selection pressure, and more transcription factor binding site differences. We also predicted the transcription factors potentially regulating 6-gingerol biosynthesis. Our allele-aware assembly provides a powerful platform for future functional genomics, molecular breeding, and genome editing in ginger.
  • Luo, Jun, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of carbon pre-silicidation implant into Si substrate on NiSi
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Microelectronic Engineering. - 0167-9317 .- 1873-5568. ; 120, s. 178-181
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this work, the effects of carbon pre-silicidation implant into Si(1 0 0) substrate on NiSi were investigated. NiSi films with carbon pre-silicidation implant to different doses were characterized by means of sheet resistance measurements, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), planar view transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and second ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The presence of C is found to indeed significantly improve the thermal stability of NiSi as well as tends to change the preferred orientations of polycrystalline NiSi. The homogeneously distributed C at NiSi grain boundaries and C peak at NiSi/Si interface is ascribed to the improved thermal stability of NiSi. More importantly, the dose of carbon pre-silicidation implant also plays a key role in the formation of NiSi, which is suggested not to exceed a critical value about 5 x 10(15) cm(-2) in practical application in accordance with the results achieved in this work. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Luo, Jun, et al. (författare)
  • Thermal Stability and Dopant Segregation for Schottky Diodes With Ultrathin Epitaxial NiSi(2-y)
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: IEEE Electron Device Letters. - : Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). - 0741-3106 .- 1558-0563. ; 32:8, s. 1029-1031
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Schottky barrier height (SBH) of an ultrathin epitaxial NiSi(2-y) film grown on Si(100) is modified significantly by means of dopant segregation (DS). The DS process begins with the NiSi(2-y) formation and is followed by dopant implantation and drive-in annealing. The rapid lattice restoration and superior morphological stability upon heat treatment up to 800 degrees C allow the epitaxial NiSi(2-y) film to take full advantage of the DS process. For drive-in annealing below 750 degrees C, the effective SBH is altered to similar to 0.9-1 eV for both electrons and holes by B-DS and As-DS, respectively, without deteriorating the integrity of the NiSi(2-y) film.
  • Luo, Jun, et al. (författare)
  • Variation of Schottky barrier height induced by dopant segregation monitored by contact resistivity measurements
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Microelectronic Engineering. - 0167-9317 .- 1873-5568. ; 120, s. 174-177
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Change of contact resistivity (rho(c)) is monitored for evaluation of Schottky barrier height (SBH) variation induced by dopant segregation (DS). This method is particularly advantageous for metal-semiconductor contacts of small SBH, as it neither requires low-temperature measurement needed in current-voltage characterization of Schottky diodes nor is affected by reverse leakage current often troubling capacitance-voltage characterization. With PtSi contact to both n- and p-type diffusion regions, and the use of opposite or alike dopants implant into pre-formed PtSi films followed by drive-in anneal at different temperatures to induce DS at PtSi/Si interface, the formation of interfacial dipole is confirmed as the responsible cause for modification of effective SBHs thus the increase or decrease of rho(c). A tentative explanation for the change of contact resistivity based on interfacial dipole theory is provided in this work. Influences and interplay of interfacial dipole and space charge on effective SBH are also discussed. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Tian, Chao, et al. (författare)
  • Overexpression of connective tissue growth factor WISP-1 in Chinese primary rectal cancer patients
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: World Journal of Gastroenterology. - 1007-9327 .- 2219-2840. ; 13:28, s. 3878-3882
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To clarify the expression change of Wnt-induced secreted protein-1 (WISP-1) in human rectal cancer and to determine whether it is correlated with invasion and metastasis of human rectal cancer. Methods: Eighty-six paired samples of rectal cancer and surgically resected distant normal rectal tissue were collected and allocated into cancer group and control group respectively. WISP-1 mRNA was detected by relative quantitative real-time RT-PCR and WISP-1 protein was examined by immunohistochemical staining. Results: WISP-1 gene overexpression was found in 65% (56/86) primary rectal cancers, 2-30 times that of the level in normal matched rectal tissues (P = 0.001). The mRNA expression level was correlated with Duke's staging, histological differentiation grade and lymph node status. The WISP-1 protein expression was in accordance with mRNA expression level. The positive degree of immunohistochemical staining in the cancer group (1.40 ± 0.35) was different from that in control group (1.04 ± 0.08, P < 0.001). Moreover, in cancer group the positive staining degree in high-level mRNA cancers (1.46 ± 0.37, n = 56) was higher than that in low-level mRNA (1.28 ± 0.28, n = 30, P = 0.018). Conclusion: Aberrant levels of WISP-1 expression may play a role in rectal tumorigenesis. WISP-1 may be used as a specific clinical diagnosis and prognosis marker in rectal cancer. © 2007 WJG. All rights reserved.
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