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1.
  • Middeldorp, Christel M, et al. (författare)
  • The Early Growth Genetics (EGG) and EArly Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology (EAGLE) consortia: design, results and future prospects
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European journal of epidemiology. - 1573-7284. ; 34:3, s. 279-300
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The impact of many unfavorable childhood traits or diseases, such as low birth weight and mental disorders, is not limited to childhood and adolescence, as they are also associated with poor outcomes in adulthood, such as cardiovascular disease. Insight into the genetic etiology of childhood and adolescent traits and disorders may therefore provide new perspectives, not only on how to improve wellbeing during childhood, but also how to prevent later adverse outcomes. To achieve the sample sizes required for genetic research, the Early Growth Genetics (EGG) and EArly Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology (EAGLE) consortia were established. The majority of the participating cohorts are longitudinal population-based samples, but other cohorts with data on early childhood phenotypes are also involved. Cohorts often have a broad focus and collect(ed) data on various somatic and psychiatric traits as well as environmental factors. Genetic variants have been successfully identified for multiple traits, for example, birth weight, atopic dermatitis, childhood BMI, allergic sensitization, and pubertal growth. Furthermore, the results have shown that genetic factors also partly underlie the association with adult traits. As sample sizes are still increasing, it is expected that future analyses will identify additional variants. This, in combination with the development of innovative statistical methods, will provide detailed insight on the mechanisms underlying the transition from childhood to adult disorders. Both consortia welcome new collaborations. Policies and contact details are available from the corresponding authors of this manuscript and/or the consortium websites.
2.
  • Diaz, Sandra, et al. (författare)
  • The IPBES Conceptual Framework - connecting nature and people
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability. - 1877-3435. ; 14, s. 1-16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The first public product of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) is its Conceptual Framework. This conceptual and analytical tool, presented here in detail, will underpin all IPBES functions and provide structure and comparability to the syntheses that IPBES will produce at different spatial scales, on different themes, and in different regions. Salient innovative aspects of the IPBES Conceptual Framework are its transparent and participatory construction process and its explicit consideration of diverse scientific disciplines, stakeholders, and knowledge systems, including indigenous and local knowledge. Because the focus on co-construction of integrative knowledge is shared by an increasing number of initiatives worldwide, this framework should be useful beyond IPBES, for the wider research and knowledge-policy communities working on the links between nature and people, such as natural, social and engineering scientists, policy-makers at different levels, and decision-makers in different sectors of society.
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3.
  • D'Onofrio, Brian M., et al. (författare)
  • Familial confounding of the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring substance use and problems
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Archives of General Psychiatry. - Chicago, USA : American Medical Association. - 0003-990X. ; 69:11, s. 1140-1150
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Previous epidemiological, animal, and human cognitive neuroscience research suggests that maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) causes increased risk of substance use/problems in offspring.Objective: To determine the extent to which the association between SDP and offspring substance use/problems depends on confounded familial background factors by using a quasi-experimental design.Design: We used 2 separate samples from the United States and Sweden. The analyses prospectively predicted multiple indices of substance use and problems while controlling for statistical covariates and comparing differentially exposed siblings to minimize confounding.Setting: Offspring of a representative sample of women in the United States (sample 1) and the total Swedish population born during the period from January 1, 1983, to December 31, 1995 (sample 2).Patients or Other Participants: Adolescent offspring of the women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (n = 6904) and all offspring born in Sweden during the 13-year period (n = 1,187,360).Main Outcome Measures: Self-reported adolescent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use and early onset (before 14 years of age) of each substance (sample 1) and substance-related convictions and hospitalizations for an alcohol- or other drug-related problem (sample 2).Results: The same pattern emerged for each index of substance use/problems across the 2 samples. At the population level, maternal SDP predicted every measure of offspring substance use/problems in both samples, ranging from adolescent alcohol use (hazard ratio [HR](moderate), 1.32 [95% CI, 1.22-1.43]; HR(high), 1.33 [1.17-1.53]) to a narcotics-related conviction (HR(moderate), 2.23 [2.14-2.31]; HR(high), 2.97 [2.86-3.09]). When comparing differentially exposed siblings to minimize genetic and environmental confounds, however, the association between SDP and each measure of substance use/problems was minimal and not statistically significant.Cocnlusions: The association between maternal SDP and offspring substance use/problems is likely due to familial background factors, not a causal influence, because siblings have similar rates of substance use and problems regardless of their specific exposure to SDP.
4.
  • Tuvblad, Catherine, 1968-, et al. (författare)
  • Heritability for adolescent antisocial behaviordiffers with socioeconomic status : gene–environment interaction
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines. - 0021-9630. ; 47:7, s. 734-743
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Socioeconomic status is often assumed to be of importance for the development of antisocial behavior, yet it explains only a fraction of the variance. One explanation for this paradox could be that socioeconomic status moderates the influence of genetic and environmental effects on antisocial behavior.Method: TCHAD is a Swedis h longitudinal population-based twin study that contains 1,480 twin pairs born 1985-1986. The present study included 1,133 twin pairs, aged 16-17 years. Antisocial behavior was measured through self-report. Family socioeconomic status was assessed by parentalreported education and occupational status. Neighborhood socioeconomic conditions were assessed using five aggregated level variables: ethnic diversity, basic educational level, unemployment level, buying power, and crime-rate. We used structural equation modeling to test whether socioeconomic status interacted with latent genetic and environmental effects for antisocial behavior.Results: Gen etic influences on antisocial behavior were more important in adolescents in socioeconomically more advantaged environments, whereas the shared environment was higher in adolescents in socioeconomically less advantaged environments. Heritability for antisocial behavior was higher in girls than in boys, irrespective of socioeconomic background.Conclusions: Our results suggest that differe nt intervention policies should be considered in different socioeconomic areas. In socioeconomically advantaged areas, it might be more fruitful to focus on individually based preventions and treatments. In socioeconomically disadvantaged areas, intervention and prevention policies might be more effective on a community level, to account for shared environmental risk factors.
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5.
  • Alabaf, Setareh, et al. (författare)
  • Correction to: Physical health in children with neurodevelopmental disorders.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of autism and developmental disorders. - 1573-3432. ; 49:1, s. 96-97
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in Fig. 2 part labels, the label "d" was incorrectly labelled as "c" and the subsequent labels should be corrected as d, e, and f. The corrected Fig. 2 is given below.
6.
  • Alabaf, Setareh, et al. (författare)
  • Physical health in children with neurodevelopmental disorders.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of autism and developmental disorders. - 1573-3432. ; 49:1, s. 83-95
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • With increasing numbers of children being diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) attention has been drawn to these children's physical health. We aimed to identify the prevalence of defined physical problems (epilepsy, migraine, asthma, cancer, diabetes, psoriasis, lactose intolerance, celiac disease, diarrhea, constipation, daytime enuresis, encopresis) in a nationwide population of 9- and 12-year-old twins subdivided into those with and without indications of NDDs. Parents of 28,058 twins participated in a well-validated telephone interview regarding their children's mental health and answered questions about their physical problems. The results indicate a high rate of physical problems in children with NDDs, particularly in those with indications of the presence of combinations of several NDDs.
7.
  • Almqvist, Catarina, et al. (författare)
  • Cohort profile : : Swedish Twin Study on Prediction and Prevention of Asthma (STOPPA)
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Twin Research and Human Genetics. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 1832-4274. ; 80.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Asthma is a common childhood disease and several risk factors have been identified, however the impact of genes and environment is not fully understood. The aim of the Swedish Twin study On Prediction and Prevention of Asthma (STOPPA) is to identify environmental (birth characteristics and early life) and genetic (including epigenetic) factors as determinants for asthmatic disease. Based on the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (parental interview at 9 or 12 years, N~23,900) and an asthma and/or wheezing algorithm, we identified a sample of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) same-sexed twin pairs. The twin pairs were identified as asthma concordant (ACC), asthma discordant (ADC) and healthy concordant (HCC). A sample of 9- to 14-year-old twins and their parents were invited to participate in a clinical examination. Background characteristics were collected in questionnaires and obtained from the National Health Registers. A clinical examination was performed to test lung function and capacity (spirometry with reversibility test and exhaled nitric oxide) and collect blood (serology and DNA), urine (metabolites), feces (microbiota) and saliva (cortisol). In total, 376 twin pairs (752 individual twins) completed the study, response rate 52%. All participating twins answered the questionnaire and >90% participated in lung function testing, blood and saliva sampling. This article describes the design, recruitment, data collection, measures, background characteristics as well as ongoing and planned analyses in STOPPA. Potential gains of the study include the identification of biomarkers, the emergence of candidates for drug development and new leads for prevention of asthma and allergic disease.
8.
  • Almqvist, Catarina, et al. (författare)
  • The impact of birth mode of delivery on childhood asthma and allergic diseases – a sibling study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Clinical & Experimental Allergy. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 1365-2222.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background Caesarean section (CS) has been reported to increase the risk of asthma in offspring. This may be due to that infants delivered by CS are unexposed to vaginal flora, according to the ‘hygiene hypothesis’. Objective Our aim was to investigate if CS increases risk of childhood asthma, and if the risk increase remains after adjustment for familial confounding using sibling design. Methods A register-based cohort study with 87 500 Swedish sibling pairs was undertaken. Asthma outcome variables were collected from national health registers as diagnosis or asthma medication (ICD-10 J45-J46; ATC code R03) during the 10th or 13th year of life (year of follow-up). Mode of delivery and confounders were retrieved from the Medical Birth Register. The data were analysed both as a cohort and with sibling control analysis which adjusts for unmeasured familial confounding. Results In the cohort analyses, there was an increased risk of asthma medication and asthma diagnosis during year of follow-up in children born with CS (adjusted ORs, 95% CI 1.13, 1.04–1.24 and 1.10, 1.03–1.18 respectively). When separating between emergency and elective CS the effect on asthma medication remained for emergency CS, but not for elective CS, while both groups had significant effects on asthma diagnosis compared with vaginal delivery. In sibling control analyses, the effect of elective CS on asthma disappeared, while similar but non-significant ORs of medication were obtained for emergency CS. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance An increased risk of asthma medication in the group born by emergency CS, but not elective, suggests that there is no causal effect due to vaginal microflora. A more probable explanation should be sought in the indications for emergency CS.
9.
  • Anckarsäter, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Child Neurodevelopmental and Behavioural Problems are Intercorrelated and Dimensionally Distributed in the General Population
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Open Psychiatry Journal. - 1874-3544. ; 2, s. 5-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Autism – Tics, AD/HD, and other Comorbidities inventory (A-TAC) is a comprehensive interview for evaluating problems related to autism spectrum disorders (ASD), tic disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD), and common comorbid conditions in children and adolescents. A-TAC telephone interviews were administered to parents of 2,957 children aged nine- or twelve-years, representing one in each twin pair included in the populationbased Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS). A total of 16.4% were screen-positive for one or several of the targeted disorder, 1.3% for ASD and 5.6% for AD/HD. All types of problems were more common among boys, with the exception of those related to “eating habits”. They were all dimensionally/continuously distributed, highly inter-correlated, and overlapped across types. They aggregated in three basic factors corresponding to externalizing/disruptiveness, socio-communicative problems, and compulsiveness. Population-based data on problems in children thus challenge current categorical diagnostic definitions, calling for dimensional and complementary models of problem descriptions.
10.
  • Anckarsäter, Henrik, 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • Child neurodevelopmental and behavioural problems are intercorrelated and dimensionally distributed in the general population
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: The Open Psychiatry Journal. - 1874-3544. ; 2, s. 5-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Autism – Tics, AD/HD, and other Comorbidities inventory (A-TAC) is a comprehensive interview for evaluating problems related to autism spectrum disorders (ASD), tic disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD), and common comorbid conditions in children and adolescents. A-TAC telephone interviews were administered to parents of 2,957 children aged nine- or twelve-years, representing one in each twin pair included in the population- based Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS). A total of 16.4% were screen-positive for one or several of the targeted disorder, 1.3% for ASD and 5.6% for AD/HD. All types of problems were more common among boys, with the exception of those related to “eating habits”. They were all dimensionally/continuously distributed, highly inter-correlated, and overlapped across types. They aggregated in three ba- sic factors corresponding to externalizing/disruptiveness, socio-communicative problems, and compulsiveness. Population-based data on problems in children thus challenge current categorical diagnostic definitions, calling for dimen- sional and complementary models of problem descriptions.
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