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1.
  • Näslund, Ulf, et al. (författare)
  • Visualization of asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease for optimum cardiovascular prevention (VIPVIZA) : a pragmatic, open-label, randomised controlled trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ; 393:10167, s. 133-142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease often fails because of poor adherence among practitioners and individuals to prevention guidelines. We aimed to investigate whether ultrasound-based pictorial information about subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, targeting both primary care physicians and individuals, improves prevention.METHODS: Visualization of asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease for optimum cardiovascular prevention (VIPVIZA) is a pragmatic, open-label, randomised controlled trial that was integrated within the Västerbotten Intervention Programme, an ongoing population-based cardiovascular disease prevention programme in northern Sweden. Individuals aged 40, 50, or 60 years with one or more conventional risk factors were eligible to participate. Participants underwent clinical examination, blood sampling, and ultrasound assessment of carotid intima media wall thickness and plaque formation. Participants were randomly assigned 1:1 with a computer-generated randomisation list to an intervention group (pictorial representation of carotid ultrasound plus a nurse phone call to confirm understanding) or a control group (not informed). The primary outcomes, Framingham risk score (FRS) and European systematic coronary risk evaluation (SCORE), were assessed after 1 year among participants who were followed up. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01849575.FINDINGS: 3532 individuals were enrolled between April 29, 2013, and June 7, 2016, of which 1783 were randomly assigned to the control group and 1749 were assigned to the intervention group. 3175 participants completed the 1-year follow-up. At the 1-year follow-up, FRS and SCORE differed significantly between groups (FRS 1·07 [95% CI 0·11 to 2·03, p=0·0017] and SCORE 0·16 [0·02 to 0·30, p=0·0010]). FRS decreased from baseline to the 1-year follow-up in the intervention group and increased in the control group (-0·58 [95% CI -0·86 to -0·30] vs 0·35 [0·08 to 0·63]). SCORE increased in both groups (0·13 [95% CI 0·09 to 0·18] vs 0·27 [0·23 to 0·30]).INTERPRETATION: This study provides evidence of the contributory role of pictorial presentation of silent atherosclerosis for prevention of cardiovascular disease. It supports further development of methods to reduce the major problem of low adherence to medication and lifestyle modification.
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2.
  • Otten, J., et al. (författare)
  • Strong and persistent effect on liver fat with a Paleolithic diet during a two-year intervention
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Obesity. - 0307-0565 .- 1476-5497. ; 40:5, s. 747-753
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to investigate changes in liver fat and insulin sensitivity during a 2-year diet intervention. An ad libitum Paleolithic diet (PD) was compared with a conventional low-fat diet (LFD). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Seventy healthy, obese, postmenopausal women were randomized to either a PD or a conventional LFD. Diet intakes were ad libitum. Liver fat was measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated with oral glucose tolerance tests and calculated as homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)/liver insulin resistance (Liver IR) index for hepatic insulin sensitivity and oral glucose insulin sensitivity (OGIS)/Matsuda for peripheral insulin sensitivity. All measurements were performed at 0, 6 and 24 months. Forty-one women completed the examinations for liver fat and were included. RESULTS: Liver fat decreased after 6 months by 64% (95% confidence interval: 54-74%) in the PD group and by 43% (27-59%) in the LFD group (P < 0.01 for difference between groups). After 24 months, liver fat decreased 50% (25-75%) in the PD group and 49% (27-71%) in the LFD group. Weight reduction between baseline and 6 months was correlated to liver fat improvement in the LFD group (r(s) = 0.66, P < 0.01) but not in the PD group (r(s) = 0.07, P = 0.75). Hepatic insulin sensitivity improved during the first 6 months in the PD group (P < 0.001 for Liver IR index and HOMA-IR), but deteriorated between 6 and 24 months without association with liver fat changes. CONCLUSIONS: A PD with ad libitum intake had a significant and persistent effect on liver fat and differed significantly from a conventional LFD at 6 months. This difference may be due to food quality, for example, a higher content of mono-and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the PD. Changes in liver fat did not associate with alterations in insulin sensitivity.
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3.
  • Rodhe, P., et al. (författare)
  • Modelling of peripheral fluid accumulation after a crystalloid bolus in female volunteers - a mathematical study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine. - : Taylor and Francis. - 1748-670X .- 1748-6718. ; 11:4, s. 341-351
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. To simultaneously model plasma dilution and urinary output in female volunteers. Methods. Ten healthy female non-pregnant volunteers, aged 21-39 years (mean 29), with a bodyweight of 58-67kg (mean 62.5kg) participated. No oral fluid or food was allowed between midnight and completion of the experiment. The protocol included an infusion of acetated Ringer's solution, 25ml/kg over 30min. Blood samples (4ml) were taken every 5min during the first 120min, and thereafter the sampling rate was every 10min until the end of the experiment at 240min. A standard bladder catheter connected to a drip counter to monitor urine excretion continuously was used. The data were analysed by empirical calculations as well as by a mathematical model. Results. Maximum urinary output rate was found to be 19 (13-31) ml/min. The subjects were likely to accumulate three times as much of the infused fluid peripherally as centrally; 1/=2.7 (2.0-5.7). Elimination efficacy, Eeff, was 24 (5-35), and the basal elimination kb was 1.11 (0.28-2.90). The total time delay Ttot of urinary output was estimated as 17 (11-31) min. Conclusion. The experimental results showed a large variability in spite of a homogenous volunteer group. It was possible to compute the infusion amount, plasma dilution and simultaneous urinary output for each consecutive time point and thereby the empirical peripheral fluid accumulation. The variability between individuals may be explained by differences in tissue and hormonal responses to fluid boluses, which needs to be further explored.
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4.
  • Thøgersen, Anna M, et al. (författare)
  • Interactions between fibrinolysis, lipoproteins and leptin related to a first myocardial infarction.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1741-8267 .- 1741-8275. ; 11:1, s. 33-40
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The summarized importance of haemostatic and metabolic variables (insulin, lipids including lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] and leptin) in predicting first myocardial infarction, as well as possible interactions among these variables, have not been reported. DESIGN: A prospective case-control study nested within the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Cohort. METHODS: Sixty-two men diagnosed with a first myocardial infarction were sex- and age-matched with 124 controls. Conditional logistic regression was conducted including established risk factors, plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) mass concentration, von Willebrand factor, insulin, proinsulin, specific insulin, apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), Lp(a), and leptin. Interaction analysis was also performed for tPA, apo A-I, Lp(a), leptin and proinsulin. RESULTS: Smoking, low plasma levels of apo A-I and high plasma levels of cholesterol, Lp(a), tPA, PAI-1, proinsulin and leptin were associated with myocardial infarction in univariate conditional logistic regression analysis. High tPA [odds ratio (OR), 21.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.04-222] and Lp(a) (OR, 7.21; 95% CI, 1.31-39.8) and low apo A-I (OR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.02-0.93) remained significant risk determinants in multivariate analysis with smoking habits, body mass index, hypertension, cholesterol, and diabetes included as covariates. There were non-significant synergic interactions between high Lp(a) and leptin and tPA, respectively, and between high Lp(a) and low apo A-I. CONCLUSION: Plasma levels of tPA, Lp(a), and apo A-I are independently associated with subsequent development of a first myocardial infarction in men.
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5.
  • Andersson, J., et al. (författare)
  • Left ventricular remodelling changes without concomitant loss of myocardial fat after long-term dietary intervention
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cardiology. - : Elsevier. - 0167-5273 .- 1874-1754. ; 216, s. 92-96
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Accumulation of myocardial triglycerides (MTG) is associated with impaired left ventricular (LV) remodelling and function in obese and diabetic subjects. The role of MTG accumulation in development of heart failure in this group of patients is unknown. Short-term studies suggest that diets that lead to weight loss could mobilize MTG, with a favourable effect on cardiac remodelling. In a 24-month, randomized, investigator-blinded study, we assessed the effect of two different diets and subsequent weight loss on cardiac function and MTG in postmenopausal women. Methods: Sixty-eight healthy postmenopausal women with body mass index [BMI] >= 27 kg/m(2) were randomized to an ad libitum Palaeolithic diet (PD) or a Nordic Nutrition Recommendation (NNR) diet for 24 months. Morphology, cardiac function, and MTG levels were measured using magnetic resonance (MR) scanning, including proton spectroscopy at baseline and 6 and 24 months. Results: Despite mean weight losses of 4.9 (1.0) kg (NNR) and 7.8 (1.1) kg (PD), the MTG content did not change over time (p = 0.98 in the NNR and p = 0.11 in the PD group at 24 months). Reduced left ventricular mass was observed in both diet groups over 24 months. Blood pressure was reduced at 6 months, but returned to baseline levels at 24 months. End diastolic volume, stroke volume, and cardiac output decreased over time. No differences between diet groups were observed. Conclusions: Diet intervention and moderate weight loss over 24 months improved LV remodelling but did not alter MTG levels in overweight/obese postmenopausal women. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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6.
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7.
  • Blomquist, C., et al. (författare)
  • Attenuated Low-Grade Inflammation Following Long-Term Dietary Intervention in Postmenopausal Women with Obesity
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Obesity. - 1930-7381 .- 1930-739X. ; 25:5, s. 892-900
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ObjectiveAbdominal fat accumulation after menopause is associated with low-grade inflammation and increased risk of metabolic disorders. Effective long-term lifestyle treatment is therefore needed. MethodsSeventy healthy postmenopausal women (age 605.6 years) with BMI 32.55.5 were randomized to a Paleolithic-type diet (PD) or a prudent control diet (CD) for 24 months. Blood samples and fat biopsies were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 24 months to analyze inflammation-related parameters. ResultsAndroid fat decreased significantly more in the PD group (P=0.009) during the first 6 months with weight maintenance at 24 months in both groups. Long-term significant effects (P<0.001) on adipose gene expression were found for toll-like receptor 4 (decreased at 24 months) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (increased at 24 months) in both groups. Serum interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor levels were decreased at 24 months in both groups (P<0.001) with a significant diet-by-time interaction for serum IL-6 (P=0.022). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein was decreased in the PD group at 24 months (P=0.001). ConclusionsA reduction of abdominal obesity in postmenopausal women is linked to specific changes in inflammation-related adipose gene expression.
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8.
  • Boraxbekk, C. J., et al. (författare)
  • Diet-Induced Weight Loss Alters Functional Brain Responses during an Episodic Memory Task
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Obesity Facts. - 1662-4025 .- 1662-4033. ; 8:4, s. 261-272
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: It has been suggested that overweight is negatively associated with cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a reduction in body weight by dietary interventions could improve episodic memory performance and alter associated functional brain responses in overweight and obese women. Methods: 20 overweight postmenopausal women were randomized to either a modified paleolithic diet or a standard diet adhering to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations for 6 months. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain function during an episodic memory task as well as anthropometric and biochemical data before and after the interventions. Results: Episodic memory performance improved significantly (p = 0.010) after the dietary interventions. Concomitantly, brain activity increased in the anterior part of the right hippocampus during memory encoding, without differences between diets. This was associated with decreased levels of plasma free fatty acids (FFA). Brain activity increased in pre-frontal cortex and superior/middle temporal gyri. The magnitude of increase correlated with waist circumference reduction. During episodic retrieval, brain activity decreased in inferior and middle frontal gyri, and increased in middle/superior temporal gyri. Conclusions: Diet induced weight loss, associated with decreased levels of plasma FFA, improves episodic memory linked to increased hippocampal activity. (C) 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg
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9.
  • Chorell, E., et al. (författare)
  • Plasma metabolomic response to postmenopausal weight loss induced by different diets
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Metabolomics. - : Springer. - 1573-3882 .- 1573-3890. ; 12:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Menopause is associated with increased abdominal fat and increased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Objectives The present study evaluated the plasma metabolic response in relation to insulin sensitivity after weight loss via diet intervention. Methods This work includes two studies; i) Ten women on a 5 weeks Paleolithic-type diet (PD, 30 energy percent (E%) protein, 40 E% fat, 30 E% carbohydrates), ii) 55 women on 6 months of either PD or Nordic Nutrition Recommendations diet (NNR, 15 E% protein, 30 E% fat, and 55 E% carbohydrates). Plasma metabolic profiles were acquired at baseline and post diet using gas chromatography time-of-flight/mass spectrometry and investigated in relation to insulin sensitivity using multivariate bioinformatics. Results Both the PD and NNR diet resulted in significant weight loss, reduced waist circumference, improved serum lipid profiles, and improved insulin sensitivity. We detected a baseline metabolic profile that correlated significantly with insulin sensitivity, and of which components increased significantly in the PD group compared to NNR. Specifically, a significant increase in myo-inositol (MI), a second messenger of insulin action, and beta-hydroxybutyric acid (beta-HB)increased while dihomogamma-linoleic acid (DGLA) decreased in PD compared to NNR, which correlated with improved insulin sensitivity. We also detected a significant decrease in tyrosine and tryptophan, potential markers of insulin resistance when elevated in the circulation, with the PD but not the NNR. Conclusions Using metabolomics, we detected changes in the plasma metabolite profiles associated with weight loss in postmenopausal women by different diets. The metabolic profiles following 6 months of PD were linked to beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity compared to NNR.
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10.
  • Hagberg, L A, et al. (författare)
  • Importance of enjoyment when promoting physical exercise
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. - : Wiley. - 0905-7188 .- 1600-0838. ; 19:5, s. 740-747
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of enjoyment of exercise in a health care-based intervention aimed at promoting physical exercise in primary health care patients. In a controlled study design, the intervention group was offered a wide range of group exercises over 3 months, followed by support in designing their own exercise program. The control group received usual care. Enjoyment of exercise and exercise level were measured. Associations between enjoyment and exercise level were analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. Changes in enjoyment between and within study groups were analyzed by the independent and paired t-test. Associations were found between enjoyment and exercise level (r=0.36, P<0.01), as well as between changes in enjoyment and changes in exercise level (r=0.34, P<0.01). At the 12-month follow-up, enjoyment of exercise was 25% higher in the intervention group than in the control group (P<0.01). In this group of primary health care patients, enjoyment of exercise was associated with exercise level. Enjoyment of exercise seems to be a mediator of exercise level. Furthermore, health care-based interventions seem to be able to affect enjoyment of exercise. Enjoyment of exercise may be important for the long-term effectiveness, of health care-based interventions.
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