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  • Ashmore, Polly, et al. (författare)
  • Spatiotemporal and Socioeconomic Risk Factors for Dengue at the Province Level in Vietnam, 2013-2015 : Clustering Analysis and Regression Model
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: TROPICAL MEDICINE AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE. - : MDPI. - 2414-6366. ; 5:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dengue is a serious infectious disease threat in Vietnam, but its spatiotemporal and socioeconomic risk factors are not currently well understood at the province level across the country and on a multiannual scale. We explore spatial trends, clusters and outliers in dengue case counts at the province level from 2011-2015 and use this to extract spatiotemporal variables for regression analysis of the association between dengue case counts and selected spatiotemporal and socioeconomic variables from 2013-2015. Dengue in Vietnam follows anticipated spatial trends, with a potential two-year cycle of high-high clusters in some southern provinces. Small but significant associations are observed between dengue case counts and mobility, population density, a province's dengue rates the previous year, and average dengue rates two years previous in first and second order contiguous neighbours. Significant associations were not found between dengue case counts and housing pressure, access to electricity, clinician density, province-adjusted poverty rate, percentage of children below one vaccinated, or percentage of population in urban settings. These findings challenge assumptions about socioeconomic and spatiotemporal risk factors for dengue, and support national prevention targeting in Vietnam at the province level. They may also be of wider relevance for the study of other arboviruses, including Japanese encephalitis, Zika, and Chikungunya.
  • Boberg, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Nitrogen and Carbon Reallocation in Fungal Mycelia during Decomposition of Boreal Forest Litter
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Boreal forests are characterized by spatially heterogeneous soils with low N availability. The decomposition of coniferous litter in these systems is primarily performed by basidiomycete fungi, which often form large mycelia with a well-developed capacity to reallocate resources spatially-an advantageous trait in heterogeneous environments. In axenic microcosm systems we tested whether fungi increase their biomass production by reallocating N between Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) needles at different stages of decomposition. We estimated fungal biomass production by analysing the accumulation of the fungal cell wall compound chitin. Monospecific systems were compared with systems with interspecific interactions. We found that the fungi reallocated assimilated N and mycelial growth away from well-degraded litter towards fresh litter components. This redistribution was accompanied by reduced decomposition of older litter. Interconnection of substrates increased over-all fungal C use efficiency (i.e. the allocation of assimilated C to biomass rather than respiration), presumably by enabling fungal translocation of growth-limiting N to litter with higher C quality. Fungal connection between different substrates also restricted N-mineralization and production of dissolved organic N, suggesting that litter saprotrophs in boreal forest ecosystems primarily act to redistribute rather than release N. This spatial integration of different resource qualities was hindered by interspecific interactions, in which litters of contrasting quality were colonised by two different basidiomycete species. The experiments provide a detailed picture of how resource reallocation in two decomposer fungi leads to a more efficient utilisation of spatially separated resources under N-limitation. From an ecosystem point of view, such economic fungal behaviour could potentially contribute to organic matter accumulation in the litter layers of boreal forests.
  • Chapot, Lorraine, et al. (författare)
  • A Mixed-Methods Approach to Understanding Knowledge of Mosquito-Borne Infections and Barriers for Protection in Hanoi, Vietnam
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: TROPICAL MEDICINE AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE. - : MDPI. - 2414-6366. ; 5:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dengue is a growing problem in Hanoi, with cyclical epidemics of increasing frequency and magnitude. In June 2019, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using mixed methods to investigate how inhabitants of Hanoi perceive and respond to the risk of mosquito-borne diseases (MBD). A total of 117 participants recruited using a stratified random sampling method were interviewed in three districts of Hanoi. Knowledge and practices (KP) regarding MBDs were assessed using a pre-tested questionnaire. Inferential statistics were used to identify factors associated with KP scores and describe the relationship between variables. Additionally, a "risk-mapping" exercise was conducted in a subsample through semi-structured interviews and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using the System Effects platform. Factors significantly associated with knowledge scores were education and family history of MBDs. While knowledge and practice scores were found to be positively correlated in the statistical analysis, this was not corroborated by our observations on the field. The results also revealed gaps in knowledge about MBDs and vectors and highlighted a general feeling of powerlessness which prevented the adoption of protective behaviors. Therefore, educational interventions which provide concrete tools to empower communities should have a positive impact on improving vector control.
  • Deka, Ram Pratim, et al. (författare)
  • Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Brucella Infection in Dairy Animals in Urban and Rural Areas of Bihar and Assam, India
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Microorganisms. - 2076-2607. ; 9:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study assessed seropositivity of Brucella infection in dairy animals and risk factors associated with it. The cross-sectional study used multi-stage, random sampling in the states of Bihar and Assam in India. In total, 740 dairy animals belonging to 534 households of 52 villages were covered under this study. Serological testing was conducted by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). Animal-level Brucella seropositivity was found to be 15.9% in Assam and 0.3% in Bihar. Seropositivity in urban areas (18.7%) of Assam was found to be higher than in rural areas (12.4%). Bihar was excluded from the risk factor analysis, as only one Brucella seropositive sample was detected in the state. A total of 30 variables were studied for assessing risk factors, of which 15 were selected for multivariable regression analyses following a systematic process. Finally, only three risk factors were identified as statistically significant. It was found that animals belonging to districts having smaller-sized herds were less likely (p < 0.001) to be Brucella seropositive than animals belonging to districts having larger-sized herds. Furthermore, the chance of being Brucella seropositive increased (p = 0.007) with the increase in age of dairy animals, but decreased (p = 0.072) with the adoption of artificial insemination (AI) for breeding. We speculated that the identified risk factors in Assam likely explained the reason behind lower Brucella seropositivity in Bihar, and therefore any future brucellosis control program should focus on addressing these risk factors.
  • Henriksson, Ellinor, et al. (författare)
  • Japanese Encephalitis in Small-Scale Pig Farming in Rural Cambodia : Pig Seroprevalence and Farmer Awareness
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Pathogens. - : MDPI. - 2076-0817. ; 10:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Japanese encephalitis (JE) is endemic in Cambodia, but circulation of JE virus (JEV) among domestic pigs has previously only been studied in the southern part of the country. The main purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of JEV antibodies in smallholder pigs held in rural areas of Kampong Thom, Preah Vihear, Ratanakiri, and Stung Treng provinces, northeastern Cambodia. Another purpose was to identify possible associations between serologic status and other factors, such as reproductive disorders, and to investigate the farmers' knowledge of mosquito-borne diseases and use of preventive measures. In October 2019, 139 households were visited throughout the study area, and 242 pigs were sampled for blood. The sera were analysed with ELISA for JEV antibodies. Household representatives were interviewed, and data were recorded for each sampled pig. The apparent seroprevalence was 89.1% in pigs between 3 and 6 months of age, and 100% in pigs over 6 months of age. In total, 93.0% of the pigs tested positive. Province appeared to be the only factor significantly associated with serologic status (p < 0.001). Almost all (97.8%) respondents knew that mosquitos could transmit diseases, and 70.5% had heard of JE. However, only one respondent knew that JEV is transmitted to people through mosquito bites. Very few respondents knew that pigs can become infected with JEV, and no one knew that mosquitos transmit the virus. All families used some sort of mosquito protection for themselves, but only 15.1% protected their pigs from mosquito bites. The children were vaccinated against JE in 93 households, while adults only were vaccinated in eight households. The results suggest that JEV transmission is intense in northeastern Cambodia, and that people's knowledge about the transmission route of JEV and the role of pigs in the transmission cycle is low. Fortunately, people are well aware of mosquito-borne diseases in general and use mosquito protection, and many children are vaccinated against JE. Nonetheless, it is important that national vaccination is continued, and that people-especially in rural areas where pigs are commonly kept-are educated on the ecology and transmission of JEV.
  • Kemboi, David Chebutia, et al. (författare)
  • A Review of the Impact of Mycotoxins on Dairy Cattle Health : Challenges for Food Safety and Dairy Production in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Toxins. - : MDPI. - 2072-6651 .- 2072-6651. ; 12:4
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that contaminate food and feed and have a significant negative impact on human and animal health and productivity. The tropical condition in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) together with poor storage of feed promotes fungal growth and subsequent mycotoxin production. Aflatoxins (AF) produced by Aspergillus species, fumonisins (FUM), zearalenone (ZEN), T-2 toxin (T-2), and deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by Fusarium species, and ochratoxin A (OTA) produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus species are well-known mycotoxins of agricultural importance. Consumption of feed contaminated with these toxins may cause mycotoxicoses in animals, characterized by a range of clinical signs depending on the toxin, and losses in the animal industry. In SSA, contamination of dairy feed with mycotoxins has been frequently reported, which poses a serious constraint to animal health and productivity, and is also a hazard to human health since some mycotoxins and their metabolites are excreted in milk, especially aflatoxin M1. This review describes the major mycotoxins, their occurrence, and impact in dairy cattle diets in SSA highlighting the problems related to animal health, productivity, and food safety and the up-to-date post-harvest mitigation strategies for the prevention and reduction of contamination of dairy feed.
  • Lindahl, Johanna Frida, et al. (författare)
  • Aflatoxin M-1 levels in different marketed milk products in Nairobi, Kenya
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Mycotoxin Research. - : Springer Verlag (Germany). - 0178-7888 .- 1867-1632. ; 34:4, s. 289-295
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Milk is an important source of energy and nutrients, especially for children, and in Kenya, milk consumption is higher than other countries in the region. One major concern with milk is the risks of chemical contaminants, and reports of high levels of aflatoxin M-1 (AFM(1)) in milk in Kenya has been causing public health concerns. This study collected marketed milk products every month during 1 year, just as a consumer would purchase them from retailers and traders in a low-income area, and a major supermarket in a middle/high-income area. In total, 291 sampled milk products (raw, pasteurised, UHT milk, yoghurt and lala) were collected and analysed for AFM(1) using a commercial ELISA kit. More than 50% of the samples exceeded 50 ng/kg (the level allowed in the EU), but only three samples exceeded 500 ng/kg (the level allowed in the USA). Geometric mean AFM(1) level was 61.9 ng/kg in the 135 samples from the low-income area while it was 36.1 ng/kg in the 156 from the higher income area (p < 0.001). The levels varied significantly depending on the time of year, with lowest levels of milk in January. There were also differences between manufacturers and products, with UHT milk having lower levels. There was no difference depending on the price for all dairy products, but when only including milk, higher price was associated with lower levels of AFM(1). In conclusion, this study shows that milk purchased by a consumer is likely to contain AFM(1) above 50 ng/kg, and that further research is needed to find ways to mitigate AFM(1) contamination through working with farmers and milk processors both in the formal and informal sectors.
  • Lindahl, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Live and Wet Markets: Food Access versus the Risk of Disease Emergence
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Trends in Microbiology. - : Elsevier. - 0966-842X .- 1878-4380. ; 29, s. 573-581
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Emerging zoonotic diseases exert a significant burden on human health and have considerable socioeconomic impact worldwide. In Asia, live animals as well as animal products are commonly sold in informal markets. The interaction of humans, live domestic animals for sale, food products, and wild and scavenging animals, creates a risk for emerging infectious diseases. Such markets have been in the spotlight as sources of zoonotic viruses, for example, avian influenza viruses and coronaviruses, Here, we bring data together on the global impact of live and wet markets on the emergence of zoonotic diseases. We discuss how benefits can be maximized and risks minimized and conclude that current regulations should be implemented or revised, to mitigate the risk of new diseases emerging in the future.
  • Rortana, Chea, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus in Chicken Meat and Pork from Cambodian Markets
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Pathogens. - : MDPI. - 2076-0817. ; 10:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus are two of the most common foodborne bacteria in animal-source foods (ASF) that cause illness worldwide. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Salmonella spp. and S. aureus in chicken meat and pork in markets in Cambodia. Sampling was done in 52 traditional markets and 6 supermarkets in 25 provinces of Cambodia between October 2018 and August 2019. In total, 532 samples were obtained: chicken meat and pork (n = 408, 204 of each), chicken and pork cutting board swabs (n = 124, 62 of each). All samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella spp. and S. aureus; colony-forming units per gram (CFU/g) of coagulase-positive Staphylococci (CPS) were counted, and a subset of samples was also analyzed for the most probable number (MPN, n = 136) of Salmonella. The overall prevalence of Salmonella spp. and S. aureus were 42.1% (224/532) and 29.1% (155/532), respectively, with 14.7% (78/532) of samples containing both bacteria. The prevalence of Salmonella spp. in chicken meat was 42.6%, on chicken cutting board it was 41.9%, on pork it was 45.1%, and the pork cutting board 30.6%. Chicken meat had a significantly (p-value < 0.05) higher prevalence of S. aureus, 38.2%, compared to the chicken cutting board, 17.7%, pork 28.9%, and pork cutting board 11.3%. Mean MPN-Salmonella was 10.6 MPN/g in chicken and 11.1 MPN/g in pork samples. Average Log CFU/g of CPS in chicken and pork samples were 2.6 and 2.5, respectively. The results indicate that chicken meat and pork in Cambodia were highly contaminated with Salmonella spp. and S. aureus, posing risks to consumers’ health. Urgent interventions are necessary to improve hygiene for safer meat in Cambodian markets.
  • Sirma, A. J., et al. (författare)
  • The impacts of aflatoxin standards on health and nutrition in sub-Saharan Africa : The Case Of Kenya
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Global Food Security-Agriculture Policy Economics And Environment. - : Elsevier. - 2211-9124. ; 18, s. 57-61
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human food and animal feed can contain many different hazards, which may be biological, chemical, or physical. In most countries, there are regulations that limit the levels of these hazards permitted in food and feed so as to protect consumers. Optimally, the levels specified in the standards should make the food safe enough for everyone to consume, and often this is done by carrying out a risk assessment, based on scientific evidence of the levels that can be considered safe and the amount of contaminated products consumed. However, for some substances, especially carcinogens, it is difficult to calculate how much is safe to consume and some groups of people, such as small children or pregnant women, may be more sensitive than the population at large. While imposition of standards is motivated by health benefits, standards also have costs. These include the costs of compliance and verification, which translate- into increased costs of purchase and reduction of the products available.In this paper we summarize current standards in sub-Saharan Africa related to aflatoxins, a priority hazard, and discuss their coherence and evidence-base. Next, using our recent research findings, we estimate the health risks of consuming foods contaminated with aflatoxins in Kenya. We also estimate the negative health and economic effects that would arise from strict application of different standards for aflatoxins. We discuss the results in light of health and nutrition goals.
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