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1.
  • Ahlgren, Kerstin M, et al. (författare)
  • Lack of evidence for a role of islet autoimmunity in the aetiology of canine diabetes mellitus.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 9:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders in dogs and is commonly proposed to be of autoimmune origin. Although the clinical presentation of human type 1 diabetes (T1D) and canine diabetes are similar, the aetiologies may differ. The aim of this study was to investigate if autoimmune aetiology resembling human T1D is as prevalent in dogs as previously reported.
2.
  • Eriksson, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • Common genetic variation in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) locus is associated with autoimmune Addison's disease in Sweden.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Scientific reports. - 2045-2322. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is the predominating cause of primary adrenal failure. Despite its high heritability, the rarity of disease has long made candidate-gene studies the only feasible methodology for genetic studies. Here we conducted a comprehensive reinvestigation of suggested AAD risk loci and more than 1800 candidate genes with associated regulatory elements in 479 patients with AAD and 2394 controls. Our analysis enabled us to replicate many risk variants, but several other previously suggested risk variants failed confirmation. By exploring the full set of 1800 candidate genes, we further identified common variation in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) as a novel risk locus associated to sporadic AAD in our study. Our findings not only confirm that multiple loci are associated with disease risk, but also show to what extent the multiple risk loci jointly associate to AAD. In total, risk loci discovered to date only explain about 7% of variance in liability to AAD in our study population.
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3.
  • Eriksson, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • Cytokine Autoantibody Screening in the Swedish Addison Registry Identifies Patients With Undiagnosed APS1
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - Oxford University Press. - 1945-7197. ; 103:1, s. 179-186
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) is a monogenic disorder that features autoimmune Addison disease as a major component. Although APS1 accounts for only a small fraction of all patients with Addison disease, early identification of these individuals is vital to prevent the potentially lethal complications of APS1.Objective: To determine whether available serological and genetic markers are valuable screening tools for the identification of APS1 among patients diagnosed with Addison disease.Design: We systematically screened 677 patients with Addison disease enrolled in the Swedish Addison Registry for autoantibodies against interleukin-22 and interferon-α4. Autoantibody-positive patients were investigated for clinical manifestations of APS1, additional APS1-specific autoantibodies, and DNA sequence and copy number variations of AIRE.Results: In total, 17 patients (2.5%) displayed autoantibodies against interleukin-22 and/or interferon-α4, of which nine were known APS1 cases. Four patients previously undiagnosed with APS1 fulfilled clinical, genetic, and serological criteria. Hence, we identified four patients with undiagnosed APS1 with this screening procedure.Conclusion: We propose that patients with Addison disease should be routinely screened for cytokine autoantibodies. Clinical or serological support for APS1 should warrant DNA sequencing and copy number analysis of AIRE to enable early diagnosis and prevention of lethal complications.
4.
  • Farias, Fabiana H.G., et al. (författare)
  • A rare regulatory variant in the MEF2D gene affects gene regulation and splicing and is associated with a SLE sub-phenotype in Swedish cohorts
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Human Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1018-4813. ; 27:3, s. 432-441
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder with heterogeneous clinical presentation and complex etiology involving the interplay between genetic, epigenetic, environmental and hormonal factors. Many common SNPs identified by genome wide-association studies (GWAS) explain only a small part of the disease heritability suggesting the contribution from rare genetic variants, undetectable in GWAS, and complex epistatic interactions. Using targeted re-sequencing of coding and conserved regulatory regions within and around 215 candidate genes selected on the basis of their known role in autoimmunity and genes associated with canine immune-mediated diseases, we identified a rare regulatory variant rs200395694:G > T located in intron 4 of the MEF2D gene encoding the myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2D transcription factor and associated with SLE in Swedish cohorts (504 SLE patients and 839 healthy controls, p = 0.014, CI = 1.1–10). Fisher’s exact test revealed an association between the genetic variant and a triad of disease manifestations including Raynaud, anti-U1-ribonucleoprotein (anti-RNP), and anti-Smith (anti-Sm) antibodies (p = 0.00037) among the patients. The DNA-binding activity of the allele was further studied by EMSA, reporter assays, and minigenes. The region has properties of an active cell-specific enhancer, differentially affected by the alleles of rs200395694:G > T. In addition, the risk allele exerts an inhibitory effect on the splicing of the alternative tissue-specific isoform, and thus may modify the target gene set regulated by this isoform. These findings emphasize the potential of dissecting traits of complex diseases and correlating them with rare risk alleles with strong biological effects.
5.
  • Ahlgren, Kerstin. M, et al. (författare)
  • Diabetes mellitus in dog - : No evidence for a type-1-like phenotype
  • ????
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p><strong>Aims/hypothesis</strong></p> <p>Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in dogs, and is commonly proposed to be of autoimmune origin. Although the clinical symptoms of human type 1 diabetes (T1D) and canine DM are similar, the aetiologies may differ. The aim of this study was to investigate if autoimmune aetiology resembling human T1D is as prevalent in dogs as previously reported.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong></p> <p> Sera from 121 diabetic dogs representing 38 different breeds were tested for islet cell antibodies (ICA) and GAD65 autoantibodies (GADA) and compared with sera from 133 healthy dogs from 40 breeds. ICA was detected by indirect immunofluorescence using both canine and human frozen sections. GADA was detected by <em>in vitro</em> transcription and translation (ITT) of human and canine GAD65, followed by immunoprecipitation.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>None of the canine sera analyzed tested positive for ICA on sections of frozen canine or human ICA pancreas. However, serum from one diabetic dog was weakly positive in the canine GADA assay and serum from one healthy dog was weakly positive in the human GADA assay.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions/interpretations</strong></p> <p>Based on sera from 121 diabetic dogs from 38 different breeds were tested for humoral autoreactivity using four different assays, contrary to previous observations, we find no support for an autoimmune aetiology  in canine diabetes.</p>
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6.
  • Ahlgren, Kerstin M. (författare)
  • Immunological Studies using Human and Canine Model Disorders
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>The studies presented in this thesis focus on human and canine models for autoimmune disease, with the main aim to gain new knowledge about disease mechanisms and to further evaluate the dog as a model for autoimmune disease.</p> <p>Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome type 1 (APS-1) is a hereditary human multiorgan disease caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. Hallmarks of APS-1 are chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis caused by <em>Candida albicans</em>, together with the autoimmune endocrine disorders hypoparathyroidism and adrenocortical failure. Many human diseases have an equivalent disease in dogs. Because humans share environment, and in part life style with the dogs they provide an interesting model for further genetic studies.</p> <p>Immune responses to <em>Candida albicans</em> in APS-1 patients displayed an increased secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-17A and similar results were also found in AIRE deficient mice. Anticytokine autoantibodies to IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22 were detected in APS-1 patients, and a radioligand binding assay for measuring these autoantibodies was developed and evaluated.</p> <p>In the canine studies we investigated whether canine diabetes mellitus could serve as a model for human autoimmune diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, we investigated type I IFN responses in Nova Scotia duck tolling retriever dogs with a systemic autoimmune disease resembling human SLE.</p> <p>Four assays were used in search for signs of humoral autoimmunity in diabetic dogs. However, no evidence for a type 1 diabetes-like phenotype in dogs was found. Sera from Nova Scotia duck tolling retrievers suffering from steroid-responsive meningitis arteritis elicited an increased expression of IFN-inducible genes in the canine MDCK cell line. This suggests that these dogs have an IFN signature, as seen in human SLE.</p>
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7.
  • Ahlgren, Kerstin M, et al. (författare)
  • Lack of evidence for a role of islet autoimmunity in the aetiology of canine diabetes mellitus
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 9:8, s. e105473
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:</strong></p><p>Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders in dogs and is commonly proposed to be of autoimmune origin. Although the clinical presentation of human type 1 diabetes (T1D) and canine diabetes are similar, the aetiologies may differ. The aim of this study was to investigate if autoimmune aetiology resembling human T1D is as prevalent in dogs as previously reported.</p><p><strong>METHODS:</strong></p><p>Sera from 121 diabetic dogs representing 40 different breeds were tested for islet cell antibodies (ICA) and GAD65 autoantibodies (GADA) and compared with sera from 133 healthy dogs. ICA was detected by indirect immunofluorescence using both canine and human frozen sections. GADA was detected by in vitro transcription and translation (ITT) of human and canine GAD65, followed by immune precipitation. Sections of pancreata from five diabetic dogs and two control dogs were examined histopathologically including immunostaining for insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and pancreas polypeptide.</p><p><strong>RESULTS:</strong></p><p>None of the canine sera analysed tested positive for ICA on sections of frozen canine or human ICA pancreas. However, serum from one diabetic dog was weakly positive in the canine GADA assay and serum from one healthy dog was weakly positive in the human GADA assay. Histopathology showed marked degenerative changes in endocrine islets, including vacuolisation and variable loss of immune-staining for insulin. No sign of inflammation was noted.</p><p><strong>CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATIONS:</strong></p><p>Contrary to previous observations, based on results from tests for humoral autoreactivity towards islet proteins using four different assays, and histopathological examinations, we do not find any support for an islet autoimmune aetiology in canine diabetes mellitus.</p>
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8.
  • Ahlgren, Kerstin, M., et al. (författare)
  • Type I Interferon signature in Nova Scotia duck tolling retriever dogs with steroid responsive meningitis-arteritis
  • ????
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Objective: Dogs of the breed Nova Scotia duck tolling retriever (NSDTR) are prone to develop a disease complex in some aspects resembling human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from human SLE patients have an increased mRNA expression type I interferon (IFN) regulated genes. However, it is unknown whether diseased dogs also display the typical type I IFN signature.</p> <p>Methods: To test canine sera for their capacity to induce type I IFN response Mardin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were cultured with sera from healthy dogs (n=25),  immune-mediated rheumatic disease (IMRD) dogs with anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA<sup>+</sup>) (n=30) or dogs with steroid responsive meningitis-arteritis (SRMA) (n=25). mRNA expression of the genes <em>MX1</em>, <em>IFIT1</em> and <em>CXCL10</em> was measured by quantitative Real Time PCR.</p> <p>Results: A highly significant (p=0.0009) increase in mRNA expression of the type I IFN responsive gene <em>MX1</em> was detected in cells stimulated by sera from dogs with SRMA, but not from IMRD ANA<sup>+</sup> dogs. Expression of <em>IFIT1</em> was twice as high in cells stimulated by sera from dogs with SRMA compared to both healthy dogs and ANA<sup>+</sup> dogs. The mean expression of <em>CXCL10</em> was nearly ten times higher in cells stimulated by sera from SRMA dogs than by ANA<sup>+</sup> dogs and four times higher compared to cells stimulated by control dogs.</p> <p>Conclusion: Presence of type I IFN in sera from diseased NSDTR dogs was found in this study. This implies that this canine model can be used for identification of pathways of importance for autoimmune disorders in humans and for testing of novel therapeutic approaches. Our results can also be a step on the way towards personalized drugs in these dogs.</p>
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9.
  • Fall, T, et al. (författare)
  • Diabetes Mellitus in Elkhounds Is Associated with Diestrus and Pregnancy
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. - 0891-6640 .- 1939-1676. ; 24:6, s. 1322-1328
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Female Elkhounds are shown to be at increased risk for diabetes mellitus, and occurrence of diabetes during pregnancy has been described in several cases. Hypothesis: Onset of diabetes mellitus in Elkhounds is associated with diestrus. Animals: Sixty-three Elkhounds with diabetes mellitus and 26 healthy controls. Methods: Medical records from 63 Elkhounds with diabetes were reviewed and owners were contacted for follow-up information. Blood samples from the day of diagnosis were available for 26 dogs. Glucose, fructosamine, C-peptide, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1, progesterone, and glutamate decarboxylase isoform 65-autoantibodies were analyzed and compared with 26 healthy dogs. Logistic models were used to evaluate the association of clinical variables with the probability of diabetes and with permanent diabetes mellitus after ovariohysterectomy (OHE). Results: All dogs in the study were intact females and 7 dogs (11%) were pregnant at diagnosis. The 1st clinical signs of diabetes mellitus occurred at a median of 30 days (interquartile range [IQR], 3-45) after estrus, and diagnosis was made at a median of 46 days (IQR, 27-62) after estrus. Diabetes was associated with higher concentrations of GH and lower concentrations of progesterone compared with controls matched for time after estrus. Forty-six percent of dogs that underwent OHE recovered from diabetes with a lower probability of remission in dogs with higher glucose concentrations (odds ratio [OR], 1.2; P = .03) at diagnosis and longer time (weeks) from diagnosis to surgery (OR, 1.5; P = .05). Conclusions: Diabetes mellitus in Elkhounds develops mainly during diestrus and pregnancy. Immediate OHE improves the prognosis for remission of diabetes.</p>
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10.
  • Olsson, Mia, et al. (författare)
  • The dog as a genetic model for immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency : Identification of several breeds with low serum IgA concentrations
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. - 0165-2427 .- 1873-2534. ; 60:3-4, s. 255-259
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Immunoglobulin A (IgA) serves as the basis of the secretory immune system by protecting the lining of mucosal sites from pathogens. In both humans and dogs, IgA deficiency (IgAD) is associated with recurrent infections of mucosal sites and immune-mediated diseases. Low concentrations of serum IgA have previously been reported to occur in a number of dog breeds but no generally accepted cut-off value has been established for canine IgAD. The current study represents the largest screening to date of IgA in dogs in terms of both number of dogs (n = 1267) and number of breeds studied (n = 22). Serum IgA concentrations were quantified by using capture ELISA and were found to vary widely between breeds. We also found IgA to be positively correlated with age (p &lt; 0.0001). Apart from the two breeds previously reported as predisposed to low IgA (Shar-Pei and German shepherd), we identified six additional breeds in which &gt; 10% of all tested dogs had very low (&lt;0.07 g/l) IgA concentrations (Hovawart, Norwegian elkhound, Nova Scotia duck tolling retriever, Bullterrier, Golden retriever and Labrador retriever). In addition, we discovered low IgA concentrations to be significantly associated with canine atopic dermatitis (CAD, p &lt; 0.0001) and pancreatic acinar atrophy (PAA, p = 0.04) in German shepherds.</p>
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