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Sökning: WFRF:(Linder Keith)

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1.
  • Agler, Caryline, et al. (författare)
  • Canine Hereditary Ataxia in Old English Sheepdogs and Gordon Setters Is Associated with a Defect in the Autophagy Gene Encoding RAB24
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLOS Genetics. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 10:2, s. e1003991-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Old English Sheepdogs and Gordon Setters suffer from a juvenile onset, autosomal recessive form of canine hereditary ataxia primarily affecting the Purkinje neuron of the cerebellar cortex. The clinical and histological characteristics are analogous to hereditary ataxias in humans. Linkage and genome-wide association studies on a cohort of related Old English Sheepdogs identified a region on CFA4 strongly associated with the disease phenotype. Targeted sequence capture and next generation sequencing of the region identified an A to C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located at position 113 in exon 1 of an autophagy gene, RAB24, that segregated with the phenotype. Genotyping of six additional breeds of dogs affected with hereditary ataxia identified the same polymorphism in affected Gordon Setters that segregated perfectly with phenotype. The other breeds tested did not have the polymorphism. Genome-wide SNP genotyping of Gordon Setters identified a 1.9 MB region with an identical haplotype to affected Old English Sheepdogs. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural evaluation of the brains of affected dogs from both breeds identified dramatic Purkinje neuron loss with axonal spheroids, accumulation of autophagosomes, ubiquitin positive inclusions and a diffuse increase in cytoplasmic neuronal ubiquitin staining. These findings recapitulate the changes reported in mice with induced neuron-specific autophagy defects. Taken together, our results suggest that a defect in RAB24, a gene associated with autophagy, is highly associated with and may contribute to canine hereditary ataxia in Old English Sheepdogs and Gordon Setters. This finding suggests that detailed investigation of autophagy pathways should be undertaken in human hereditary ataxia. Author Summary Neurodegenerative diseases are one of the most important causes of decline in an aging population. An important subset of these diseases are known as the hereditary ataxias, familial neurodegenerative diseases that affect the cerebellum causing progressive gait disturbance in both humans and dogs. We identified a mutation in RAB24, a gene associated with autophagy, in Old English Sheepdogs and Gordon Setters with hereditary ataxia. Autophagy is a process by which cell proteins and organelles are removed and recycled and its critical role in maintenance of the continued health of cells is becoming clear. We evaluated the brains of affected dogs and identified accumulations of autophagosomes within the cerebellum, suggesting a defect in the autophagy pathway. Our results suggest that a defect in the autophagy pathway results in neuronal death in a naturally occurring disease in dogs. The autophagy pathway should be investigated in human hereditary ataxia and may represent a therapeutic target in neurodegenerative diseases.
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2.
  • Bentzer, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Heparin-binding protein is important for vascular leak in sepsis
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental. - : Springer Open. - 2197-425X. ; 4:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma levels of heparin-binding protein (HBP) are associated with risk of organ dysfunction and mortality in sepsis, but little is known about causality and mechanisms of action of HBP. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that HBP is a key mediator of the increased endothelial permeability observed in sepsis and to test potential treatments that inhibit HBP-induced increases in permeability.METHODS: Association between HBP at admission with clinical signs of increased permeability was investigated in 341 patients with septic shock. Mechanisms of action and potential treatment strategies were investigated in cultured human endothelial cells and in mice.RESULTS: Following adjustment for comorbidities and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, plasma HBP concentrations were weakly associated with fluid overload during the first 4 days of septic shock and the degree of hypoxemia (PaO2/FiO2) as measures of increased systemic and lung permeability, respectively. In mice, intravenous injection of recombinant human HBP induced a lung injury similar to that observed after lipopolysaccharide injection. HBP increased permeability of vascular endothelial cell monolayers in vitro, and enzymatic removal of luminal cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) using heparinase III and chondroitinase ABC abolished this effect. Similarly, unfractionated heparins and low molecular weight heparins counteracted permeability increased by HBP in vitro. Intracellular, selective inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) and Rho-kinase pathways reversed HBP-mediated permeability effects.CONCLUSIONS: HBP is a potential mediator of sepsis-induced acute lung injury through enhanced endothelial permeability. HBP increases permeability through an interaction with luminal GAGs and activation of the PKC and Rho-kinase pathways. Heparins are potential inhibitors of HBP-induced increases in permeability.
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3.
  • Fisher, Jane, et al. (författare)
  • Heparin-Binding Protein (HBP) : A Causative Marker and Potential Target for Heparin Treatment of Human Sepsis-Induced Acute Kidney Injury
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Shock. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1540-0514. ; 48:3, s. 313-320
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • RATIONALE: Sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common condition with high morbidity and mortality. Neutrophil-derived heparin-binding protein (HBP) induces vascular leakage and is a promising biomarker of sepsis-induced organ dysfunction. It remains unknown if HBP is prognostic of AKI in septic shock and if HBP could play a role in the pathophysiology of sepsis-induced AKI.OBJECTIVES: To determine the association of plasma HBP levels with development of AKI, investigate the role of HBP in the pathophysiology of sepsis-induced AKI, and test the effect of blocking HBP using heparin derivatives.METHODS: In 296 septic shock patients from the randomized multicenter Vasopressin and Septic Shock Trial (VASST) plasma HBP levels were associated with development of AKI and need for renal replacement therapy (RRT). Human renal tubular cells were exposed to recombinant HBP to evaluate inflammation and heparin derivatives were used to abrogate these effects. Finally, mice were exposed to HBP with and without heparin derivatives and the kidneys examined for signs of inflammation.FINDINGS: Plasma HBP levels were significantly higher in patients with AKI and those requiring RRT. HBP levels identified patients with moderate AKI with an area under curve (AUC) of 0.85. HBP increased IL-6 production in renal tubular epithelial cells. Different heparin derivatives abrogated the HBP-induced increased inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo.CONCLUSION: Elevated plasma HBP is associated with development of sepsis-induced AKI and HBP is involved in its pathophysiology. Our studies suggest that heparin(s) could be tested for efficacy and safety of prevention of sepsis-induced AKI.
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4.
  • Fisher, Jane, et al. (författare)
  • Is heparin-binding protein inhibition a mechanism of albumin's efficacy in human septic shock?
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Critical Care Medicine. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0090-3493. ; 46:5, s. 364-374
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Our objectives were to determine first whether albumin prevents heparin-binding protein-induced increased endothelial cell permeability and renal cell inflammation and second, whether a plasma heparin-binding protein-to-albumin ratio predicts risk of acute kidney injury, fluid balance, and plasma cytokine levels in septic shock. Design: In vitro human endothelial and renal cell model and observation cohort of septic shock. Settings: Research laboratory and multicenter clinical trial (Vasopressin and Septic Shock Trial). Patients: Adult septic shock (norepinephrine dose > 5 μg/min for > 6 hr). Interventions: In vitro: heparin-binding protein (or thrombin) was added with or without albumin to 1) human endothelial cell monolayers to assess permeability and 2) to human renal tubular epithelial cells to assess inflammation. Measurements and Main Results: Transendothelial electrical resistance - a marker of permeability - of human endothelial cells was measured using a voltohmmeter. We measured plasma heparin-binding protein-to-albumin ratio and a panel of cytokines in septic shock patients (n = 330) to define an heparin-binding protein-to-albumin ratio that predicts risk of acute kidney injury. Albumin inhibited heparin-binding protein (and thrombin-induced) increased endothelial cell permeability at a threshold concentration of 20-30 g/L but increased renal tubular cell interleukin-6 release. Patients who developed or had worsened acute kidney injury had significantly higher heparin-binding protein-to-albumin ratio (1.6 vs 0.89; p < 0.001) and heparin-binding protein (38.2 vs 20.8 ng/mL; p < 0.001) than patients without acute kidney injury. The highest heparin-binding protein-to-albumin ratio (> 3.05), heparin-binding protein quartiles (> 69.8), and heparin-binding protein > 30 ng/mL were significantly associated with development or worsening of acute kidney injury (p < 0.001) in unadjusted and adjusted analyses and were robust to sensitivity analyses for death as a competing outcome. Heparin-binding protein and heparin-binding protein-to-albumin ratio were directly associated with positive fluid balance (p < 0.001) and with key inflammatory cytokines. Increasing quartiles of heparin-binding protein-to-albumin ratio and heparin-binding protein (but not albumin) were highly significantly associated with days alive and free of acute kidney injury and renal replacement therapy (p < 0.001), vasopressors (p < 0.001), ventilation (p < 0.001), and with 28-day mortality. Conclusions: Albumin inhibits heparin-binding protein-induced increased human endothelial cell permeability and heparin-binding protein greater than 30 ng/mL and heparin-binding protein-to-albumin ratio greater than 3.01 - but not serum albumin - identified patients at increased risk for acute kidney injury in septic shock.
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5.
  • Genga, Kelly Roveran, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of PCSK9 loss-of-function genotype on 1-year mortality and recurrent infection in sepsis survivors
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: EBioMedicine. - : Elsevier. - 2352-3964. ; 38, s. 257-264
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Reduced activity of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) has been associated with decreased short-term death in patients with septic shock. Whether PCSK9 genotype influences long-term outcomes in sepsis survivors is unknown. Methods: We evaluated the impact of PCSK9 loss-of-function (LOF) genotype on both 1-year mortality and infection-related readmission (IRR) after an index sepsis admission. The Derivation cohort included 342 patients who survived 28 days after a sepsis admission in a tertiary hospital (Vancouver/Canada, 2004–2014), while an independent Validation cohort included 1079 septic shock patients admitted at the same hospital (2000–2006). All patients were genotyped for three common missense PCSK9 LOF variants rs11591147, rs11583680, rs562556 and were classified in 3 groups: Wildtype, single PCSK9 LOF, and multiple PCSK9 LOF, according to the number of LOF alleles per patient. We also performed a meta-analysis using both cohorts to investigate the effects of PCSK9 genotype on 90-day survival. Findings: In the Derivation cohort, patients carrying multiple PCSK9 LOF alleles showed lower risk for the composite outcome 1-year death or IRR (HR: 0.40, P = 0.006), accelerated reduction on neutrophil counts (P = 0.010), and decreased levels of PCSK9 (P = 0.037) compared with WT/single LOF groups. Our meta-analysis revealed that the presence of multiple LOF alleles was associated with lower 90-day mortality risk (OR = 0.69, P = 0.020). Interpretation: The presence of multiple PCSK9 LOF alleles decreased the risk of 1-year death or IRR in sepsis survivors. Biological measures suggest this may be related to an enhanced resolution of the initial infection. Funding: Canadian Institutes of Health Research (PJT-156056).
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7.
  • Linder, Adam, et al. (författare)
  • Short-term organ dysfunction is associated with long-term (10-Yr) mortality of septic shock
  • Ingår i: Critical Care Medicine. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0090-3493. ; 44:8, s. 728-736
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: As mortality of septic shock decreases, new therapies focus on improving short-term organ dysfunction. However, it is not known whether short-term organ dysfunction is associated with long-term mortality of septic shock. Design: Retrospective single-center. Setting: Mixed medical-surgical ICU. Patients: One thousand three hundred and thirty-one patients with septic shock were included from 2000-2004. To remove the bias of 28-day nonsurvivors' obvious association with long-term mortality, we determined the associations of days alive and free of ventilation, vasopressors and renal replacement therapy in 28-day and 1-year survivors with 1-, 5- and 10-year mortality in unadjusted analyses and analyses adjusted for age, gender, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and presence of chronic comorbidities. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: Days alive and free of ventilation, vasopressors, and renal replacement therapy were highly significantly associated with 1-, 5-, and 10-year mortality (p <0.0001). In 28-day survivors, using Bonferroni-corrected multiple logistic regression, days alive and free of ventilation (p <0.0001, p = 0.0002, and p = 0.001), vasopressors (p <0.0001, p <0.0001, and p = 0.0004), and renal replacement therapy (p = 0.0008, p = 0.0008, and p = 0.0002) were associated with increased 1-, 5-, and 10-year mortality, respectively. In 1-year survivors, none of the acute organ support and dysfunction measures were associated with 5- and 10-year mortality. Conclusions: Days alive and free of ventilation, vasopressors, and renal replacement therapy in septic shock in 28-day survivors was associated with 1-, 5-, and 10-year mortality. These associations are nullified in 1-year survivors in whom none of the acute organ support measures were associated with 5- and 10-year mortality. This suggests that therapies that decrease short-term organ dysfunction could also improve long-term outcomes of 28-day survivors of septic shock.
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8.
  • Linder, Adam, et al. (författare)
  • Small Acute Increases in Serum Creatinine Are Associated with Decreased Long-Term Survival in the Critically Ill
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. - : American Thoracic Society. - 1535-4970. ; 189:9, s. 1075-1081
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rationale: Long-term outcomes after acute kidney injury (AKI) are poorly described. Objectives: We hypothesized that one single episode of minimal (stage 1) AKI is associated with reduced long-term survival compared with no AKI after recovery from critical illness. Methods: A prospective cohort of 2,010 intensive care unit (ICU) patients admitted to the ICU between years 2000 and 2009 at a provincial tertiary care hospital. Development of AKI was determined according to the KDIGO classification and mortality up to 10 years after ICU admission was recorded. Measurements and Main Results: Of the 1,844 eligible patients, 18.4% had AKI stage 1, 12.1% had stage 2, 26.5% had stage 3, and 43.0% had no AKI. The 28-day, 1-year, 5-year, and 10-year survival rates were 67.1%, 51.8%, 44.1%, and 36.3% in patients with mild AKI, which was significantly worse compared with the critically ill patients with no AKI at any time (P < 0.01). The unadjusted 10-year mortality hazard ratio was 1.53 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.0) for 28-day survivors with stage 1 AKE compared with critically ill patients with no AKI. Adjusted 10-year mortality risk was 1.26 (1.0-1.6). After propensity matching stage 1 AKI with no AKE patients, mild AKE was still significantly associated with decreased 10-year survival (P =0.036). Conclusions: Patients with one episode of mild AKI have significantly lower long-term survival rates than critically ill patients with no AKI. Close medical follow-up of these patients may be warranted and mechanistic research is required to understand how AKI influences long-term events.
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9.
  • Linder, Adam, et al. (författare)
  • The specific organism : Not bacterial gram type: Drives the inflammatory response in septic shock
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Innate Immunity. - : Karger. - 1662-811X. ; 12:2, s. 182-190
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Hypothesis: The inflammatory response was targeted by unsuccessful therapies but ignored pathogen. We hypothesized that the inflammatory response differs according to organism in human septic shock. Materials and Methods: We measured 39 cytokines at baseline and 24 h in patients (n = 363) in the Vasopressin and Septic Shock Trial (VASST). We compared cytokine profiles (cytokine functional class) at baseline and at 24 h by organism and used hierarchical clustering to classify cytokines according to 28-day outcomes. Results: In 363 patients, 88 and 176 patients had at least 1 species isolated from blood and other sites, respectively. Cytokine levels differed significantly according to organism: Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae had the highest (baseline and at 24 h), while Enterococcus faecalis (blood) had the lowest mean cytokine levels. N. meningitidis and Klebsiella pneumoniae had significantly higher cytokine levels at baseline versus 24 h (p = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively); E. faecalis had significantly higher cytokine levels at 24 h versus baseline. Hierarchical clustering heat maps showed that pathogens elicited similar cytokine responses not related to the functional cytokine class. Conclusion: The organism type induces different cytokine profiles in septic shock. Specific gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens stimulated similar plasma cytokine-level patterns.
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