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  • Sanchez, B C, et al. (författare)
  • Prolonged tamoxifen treatment increases relapse-free survival for patients with primary breast cancer expressing high levels of VEGF.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990). - : Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam.. - 1879-0852 .- 0959-8049. ; 46:9, s. 1580-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous retrospective studies have shown that high intratumoural levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) correlate with an inferior outcome for patients treated with adjuvant tamoxifen. Our objectives were to validate the impact of VEGF on survival after adjuvant tamoxifen and to investigate the interaction between VEGF and treatment duration. For this purpose tumour homogenates from 402 patients with operable oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer (BC), treated with tamoxifen for 2 (n=149) or 5 years (n=253) as the only systemic adjuvant therapy were included. The median follow-up time for surviving patients was 9.8 years (range 0.5-14.8 years). Expression of VEGF was assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and investigated in relation to the standard BC parameters and survival. In the total population, higher VEGF was significantly correlated with shorter recurrence-free survival (RFS) (HR=1.63, 95%CI=1.11-2.39, p=0.010), breast cancer corrected survival (BCCS) (HR=1.82, 95%CI=1.13-2.93, p=0.014) and overall survival (OS) (HR=1.51, 95%CI=1.11-2.05, p=0.009). High VEGF was significantly associated with reduced RFS (HR=2.61, 95%CI=1.45-4.70, p=0.001) after two years of tamoxifen, whilst no difference was seen in patients treated for five years (HR=1.09, 95%CI=0.64-1.84, p=0.760). A statistically significant interaction was observed between high VEGF expression and improved RFS after 5-year tamoxifen (p=0.034). In concordance with previous studies, high VEGF was significantly correlated with shorter survival. We present data not reported previously revealing that patients expressing high levels of VEGF display a better outcome provided that tamoxifen is given for five years. Further studies on the impact of VEGF on a 5-year regimen are motivated.
  • Emile-Geay, J., et al. (författare)
  • Data Descriptor: A global multiproxy database for temperature reconstructions of the Common Era
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scientific Data. - 2052-4463. ; 4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Reproducible climate reconstructions of the Common Era (1 CE to present) are key to placing industrial-era warming into the context of natural climatic variability. Here we present a community-sourced database of temperature-sensitive proxy records from the PAGES2k initiative. The database gathers 692 records from 648 locations, including all continental regions and major ocean basins. The records are from trees, ice, sediment, corals, speleothems, documentary evidence, and other archives. They range in length from 50 to 2000 years, with a median of 547 years, while temporal resolution ranges from biweekly to centennial. Nearly half of the proxy time series are significantly correlated with HadCRUT4.2 surface temperature over the period 1850-2014. Global temperature composites show a remarkable degree of coherence between high-and low-resolution archives, with broadly similar patterns across archive types, terrestrial versus marine locations, and screening criteria. The database is suited to investigations of global and regional temperature variability over the Common Era, and is shared in the Linked Paleo Data (LiPD) format, including serializations in Matlab, R and Python. Since the pioneering work of D'Arrigo and Jacoby1-3, as well as Mann et al. 4,5, temperature reconstructions of the Common Era have become a key component of climate assessments6-9. Such reconstructions depend strongly on the composition of the underlying network of climate proxies10, and it is therefore critical for the climate community to have access to a community-vetted, quality-controlled database of temperature-sensitive records stored in a self-describing format. The Past Global Changes (PAGES) 2k consortium, a self-organized, international group of experts, recently assembled such a database, and used it to reconstruct surface temperature over continental-scale regions11 (hereafter, ` PAGES2k-2013'). This data descriptor presents version 2.0.0 of the PAGES2k proxy temperature database (Data Citation 1). It augments the PAGES2k-2013 collection of terrestrial records with marine records assembled by the Ocean2k working group at centennial12 and annual13 time scales. In addition to these previously published data compilations, this version includes substantially more records, extensive new metadata, and validation. Furthermore, the selection criteria for records included in this version are applied more uniformly and transparently across regions, resulting in a more cohesive data product. This data descriptor describes the contents of the database, the criteria for inclusion, and quantifies the relation of each record with instrumental temperature. In addition, the paleotemperature time series are summarized as composites to highlight the most salient decadal-to centennial-scale behaviour of the dataset and check mutual consistency between paleoclimate archives. We provide extensive Matlab code to probe the database-processing, filtering and aggregating it in various ways to investigate temperature variability over the Common Era. The unique approach to data stewardship and code-sharing employed here is designed to enable an unprecedented scale of investigation of the temperature history of the Common Era, by the scientific community and citizen-scientists alike.
  • Hatschek, T, et al. (författare)
  • Individually tailored treatment with epirubicin and paclitaxel with or without capecitabine as first-line chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer: a randomized multicenter trial
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. - New York, USA : Springer Verlag (Germany). - 0167-6806 .- 1573-7217. ; 131:3, s. 939-947
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Anthracyclines and taxanes are active cytotoxic drugs in the treatment of early metastatic breast cancer. It is yet unclear whether addition of capecitabine to the combination of these drugs improves the treatment outcome. Patients with advanced breast cancer were randomized to first-line chemotherapy with a combination of epirubicin (Farmorubicin(A (R))) and paclitaxel (Taxol(A (R))) alone (ET) or in combination with capecitabine (Xeloda(A (R)), TEX). Starting doses for ET were epirubicin 75 mg/m(2) plus paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2), and for TEX epirubicin 75 mg/m(2), paclitaxel 155 mg/m(2), and capecitabine 825 mg/m(2) BID for 14 days. Subsequently, doses were tailored related to side effects. Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS); secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS), time to treatment failure (TTF), objective response (OR), safety and quality of life (QoL). 287 patients were randomized, 143 to ET and 144 to TEX. Median PFS was 10.8 months for patients treated with ET, and 12.4 months for those treated with TEX (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.65-1.07, P = 0.16); median OS was 26.0 months for women in the ET versus 29.7 months in the TEX arm (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.63-1.11, P = 0.22). OR was achieved in 44.8% (ET) and 54.2% (TEX), respectively (chi(2) 3.66, P = 0.16). TTF was significantly longer for patients treated with TEX, 6.0 months, versus 5.2 months following ET (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.58-0.93, P = 0.009). Severe hematological side effects related to epirubicin and paclitaxel were evenly distributed between the treatment arms, mucositis, diarrhea, and Hand-Foot syndrome were significantly more frequent in the TEX arm. Toxicity-adjusted treatment with ET and TEX showed similar efficacy in terms of PFS, OS, and OR. In this trial with limited power, the addition of capecitabine to epirubicin and paclitaxel as first-line treatment did not translate into clinically relevant improvement of the outcome.
  • Cook, ER, et al. (författare)
  • Old World megadroughts and pluvials during the Common Era
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Science Advances. - 2375-2548. ; 1:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Climate model projections suggest widespread drying in the Mediterranean Basin and wetting in Fennoscandia in the coming decades largely as a consequence of greenhouse gas forcing of climate. To place these and other “Old World” climate projections into historical perspective based on more complete estimates of natural hydroclimatic variability, we have developed the “Old World Drought Atlas” (OWDA), a set of year-to-year maps of tree-ring reconstructed summer wetness and dryness over Europe and the Mediterranean Basin during the Common Era. TheOWDAmatches historical accounts of severe drought and wetness with a spatial completeness not previously available. In addition, megadroughts reconstructed over north-central Europe in the 11th and mid-15th centuries reinforce other evidence from North America and Asia that droughts were more severe, extensive, and prolonged over Northern Hemisphere land areas before the 20th century, with an inadequate understanding of their causes. The OWDA provides new data to determine the causes of Old World drought and wetness and attribute past climate variability to forced and/or internal variability.
  • Linderholm, B. K., et al. (författare)
  • Angiogenic factors in relation to clinical effect in a phase II trial of weekly paclitaxel
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Breast. - : Churchill Livingstone. - 1532-3080. ; 22:6, s. 1142-1147
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Several anticancer agents including paclitaxel have an inhibitory effect on angiogenesis. Aims: To compare the overall response rate and time to progression with changes in circulating angiogenic factors during palliative treatment with weekly paclitaxel. Material and methods: Patients with metastatic BC, ECOG 0-2, received weekly paclitaxel, concomitant with trastuzumab if HER2+ BC (n = 7). Circulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were determined at base-line and before start of new course. Results: Fifty-five of 63 included patients were evaluable. The overall response rate including stable disease >= 24 weeks (CR + PD + SD) was obtained in 25 of the evaluable patients (45%). The median time to progression (TTP) was 5.3 months and overall survival (OS) 16.7 months. Patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) showed a trend towards higher base-line VEGF compared with hormone receptor positive or HER2+ tumours and had shorter TTP. Significant differences in VEGF and bFGF levels at 12 weeks were found between patients with longer versus shorter TTP (VEGF: p = 0.046, bFGF: p = 0.005) and between patients gaining versus lacking clinical benefit (VEGF: p = 0.05, bFGF: p = 0.02). Conclusions: The clinical utility of circulating VEGF may be a useful tool for monitoring treatment efficacy. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Nahi, Hareth, et al. (författare)
  • An investigation into whether deletions in 9p reflect prognosis in adult precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia : a multi-center study of 381 patients
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Haematologica. - Pavia : Ferrata Storti Foundation. - 1592-8721 .- 0390-6078. ; 93:11, s. 8-1734
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In acute lymphoblastic leukemia, besides age and white cell count at diagnosis, the cytogenetic abnormalities t(9;22)/BCR-ABL and t(4;11)/MLL-AF4 are important prognostic markers and are often included in the treatment stratification of patients with adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Deletions in 9p are seen in about 9% of cases of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia, but their prognostic impact has been controversial. Cytogenetic data from 381 patients diagnosed with B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia were reviewed. Chromosomal analysis was successful in 240 cases. Of these cases, 18 (8%) had abnormalities in 9p and they were compared with patients with normal karyotypes and patients with t(9;22)/BCR-ABL. Patients with abnormalities of chromosome 9 showed significantly shorter overall survival compared with patients with normal karyotypes. In fact, overall survival was similar to that in the poor prognosis t(9;22)/BCR-ABL-positive group. Our data suggest that chromosomal abnormalities involving 9p may have a significant negative impact on survival in adult B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • Smerdon, J. E., et al. (författare)
  • Comparing proxy and model estimates of hydroclimate variability and change over the Common Era
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Climate of the Past. - 1814-9324. ; 13:12, s. 1851-1900
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Water availability is fundamental to societies and ecosystems, but our understanding of variations in hydroclimate (including extreme events, flooding, and decadal periods of drought) is limited because of a paucity of modern instrumental observations that are distributed unevenly across the globe and only span parts of the 20th and 21st centuries. Such data coverage is insufficient for characterizing hydroclimate and its associated dynamics because of its multidecadal to centennial variability and highly regionalized spatial signature. High-resolution (seasonal to decadal) hydroclimatic proxies that span all or parts of the Common Era (CE) and paleoclimate simulations from climate models are therefore important tools for augmenting our understanding of hydroclimate variability. In particular, the comparison of the two sources of information is critical for addressing the uncertainties and limitations of both while enriching each of their interpretations. We review the principal proxy data available for hydroclimatic reconstructions over the CE and highlight the contemporary understanding of how these proxies are interpreted as hydroclimate indicators. We also review the available last-millennium simulations from fully coupled climate models and discuss several outstanding challenges associated with simulating hydroclimate variability and change over the CE. A specific review of simulated hydroclimatic changes forced by volcanic events is provided, as is a discussion of expected improvements in estimated radiative forcings, models, and their implementation in the future. Our review of hydroclimatic proxies and last-millennium model simulations is used as the basis for articulating a variety of considerations and best practices for how to perform proxy-model comparisons of CE hydroclimate. This discussion provides a framework for how best to evaluate hydroclimate variability and its associated dynamics using these comparisons and how they can better inform interpretations of both proxy data and model simulations. We subsequently explore means of using proxy-model comparisons to better constrain and characterize future hydroclimate risks. This is explored specifically in the context of several examples that demonstrate how proxy-model comparisons can be used to quantitatively constrain future hydroclimatic risks as estimated from climate model projections.
  • Suzuki, Chikako, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of the first tumor response at eight weeks on overall survival in metastatic breast cancer patients treated with first-line combination chemotherapy
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Medical Oncology. - : Humana Press. - 1559-131X .- 1357-0560. ; 30:1, s. 415-415
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this was to determine whether the change of size observed at the first response evaluation after initiation of first-line combination chemotherapy correlates with overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). The change in size of tumors derived from measurements according to Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) at the first evaluation on computed tomography (CT) was obtained from a multicenter, randomized phase III trial ("TEX trial," n = 287) comparing treatment with a combination of epirubicin and paclitaxel alone or with capecitabine (TEX). Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to evaluate the correlations between the first change in tumor size, response according to RECIST and OS. Data from CT evaluations of 233 patients were available. Appearance of new lesions or progression of non-target lesions (new/non-target) indicated short OS by univariable regression analysis (HR 3.76, 95 % CI 1.90-7.42, p < 0.001). A decrease by >30 % at this early time point was prognostic favorable (HR 0.69, 95 % CI 0.49-0.98, p = 0.04) and not significantly less than the best overall response according to RECIST. After adjustment for previous adjuvant treatment and the treatment given within the frame of the randomized trial, OS was still significantly shorter in patients with new/non-target lesions after a median 8 weeks of treatment (HR 4.41, 95 % CI 2.74-7.11, p < 0.001). Disease progression at the first evaluation correlates with OS in patients with MBC treated with first-line combination chemotherapy. The main reason for early disease progression was the appearance of new lesions or progression of non-target lesions. These patients had poor OS even though more lines of treatment were available. Thus, these factors should be focused on in the response evaluations besides tumor size changes.
  • Aesoy, R., et al. (författare)
  • An autocrine VEGF/VEGFR2 and p38 signaling loop confers resistance to 4-hydroxytamoxifen in MCF-7 breast cancer cells
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Molecular Cancer Research. - 1541-7786 .- 1557-3125. ; 6:10, s. 1630-1638
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Tamoxifen, a partial estrogen receptor antagonist, is part of the standard treatment of both primary and advanced breast cancers. However, significant proportions of breast cancers are either de novo resistant or develop tamoxifen resistance during the course of treatment through mechanisms which have been only partly characterized. We have previously found that high vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) expression and concomitant high p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity within breast cancers predict a poor outcome for tamoxifen-treated patients. Here, we have molecularly dissected how VEGF/VEGFR2 and p38 are linked, and contribute to tamoxifen resistance within breast cancer using a MCF-7 BC cell model with different 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) responsiveness. We report that MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines with tamoxifen resistance have increased secretion of VEGF and increased signaling through VEGFR2 compared with parental MCF-7 cells. 4-OHT treatment caused the ablation of VEGF secretion in parental MCF-7 cells, whereas in the tamoxifen-resistant subline, a VEGF/ VEGFR2 signaling loop was still evident upon treatment. Increased basal levels of total and phosphorylated p38 were observed in tamoxifen-resistant cells. Pharmacologic inhibition of p38 reduced the proliferation of both tamoxifen-responsive and tamoxifen-resistant cells and showed an additive growth-inhibitory effect in combination with 4-OHT. A connection between VEGF/ VEGFR2 and p38 signaling was identified by VEGF and VEGFR2 knockdown, which equally reduced both the total and the active forms of p38 in tamoxifen-resistant cells. Taken together, our results suggest that decreased sensitivityto 4-OHT is caused by a death-protecting VEGF/VEGFR2 and p38 growth factor loop in breast cancer cells. Inhibition of these signaling pathways may be beneficial to overcome tamoxifen resistance. Copyright © 2008 American Association for Cancer Research.
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