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  • Bill-Axelson, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Radical prostatectomy versus watchful waiting in localized prostate cancer : the Scandinavian prostate cancer group-4 randomized trial
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 100:16, s. 1144-54
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The benefit of radical prostatectomy in patients with early prostate cancer has been assessed in only one randomized trial. In 2005, we reported that radical prostatectomy improved prostate cancer survival compared with watchful waiting after a median of 8.2 years of follow-up. We now report results after 3 more years of follow-up. METHODS: From October 1, 1989, through February 28, 1999, 695 men with clinically localized prostate cancer were randomly assigned to radical prostatectomy (n = 347) or watchful waiting (n = 348). Follow-up was complete through December 31, 2006, with histopathologic review and blinded evaluation of causes of death. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model. Statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: During a median of 10.8 years of follow-up (range = 3 weeks to 17.2 years), 137 men in the surgery group and 156 in the watchful waiting group died (P = .09). For 47 of the 347 men (13.5%) who were randomly assigned to surgery and 68 of the 348 men (19.5%) who were not, death was due to prostate cancer. The difference in cumulative incidence of death due to prostate cancer remained stable after about 10 years of follow-up. At 12 years, 12.5% of the surgery group and 17.9% of the watchful waiting group had died of prostate cancer (difference = 5.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.2 to 11.1%), for a relative risk of 0.65 (95% CI = 0.45 to 0.94; P = .03). The difference in cumulative incidence of distant metastases did not increase beyond 10 years of follow-up. At 12 years, 19.3% of men in the surgery group and 26% of men in the watchful waiting group had been diagnosed with distant metastases (difference = 6.7%, 95% CI = 0.2 to 13.2%), for a relative risk of 0.65 (95% CI = 0.47 to 0.88; P = .006). Among men who underwent radical prostatectomy, those with extracapsular tumor growth had 14 times the risk of prostate cancer death as those without it (RR = 14.2, 95% CI = 3.3 to 61.8; P < .001). CONCLUSION: Radical prostatectomy reduces prostate cancer mortality and risk of metastases with little or no further increase in benefit 10 or more years after surgery.
  • Dalerum, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Spatial variation in Arctic hare (Lepus arcticus) populations around the Hall Basin
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Polar Biology. - 0722-4060. ; 40:10, s. 2113-2118
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Arctic environments have relatively simple ecosystems. Yet, we still lack knowledge of the spatio-temporal dynamics of many Arctic organisms and how they are affected by local and regional processes. The Arctic hare (Lepus arcticus) is a large lagomorph endemic to high Arctic environments in Canada and Greenland. Current knowledge about this herbivore is scarce and the temporal and spatial dynamics of their populations are poorly understood. Here, we present observations on Arctic hares in two sites on north Greenland (Hall and Washington lands) and one adjacent site on Ellesmere Island (Judge Daly Promontory). We recorded a large range of group sizes from 1 to 135 individuals, as well as a substantial variation in hare densities among the three sites (Hall land: 0 animals/100 km(2), Washington land 14.5-186.7 animals/100 km(2), Judge Daly Promontory 0.18-2.95 animals/100 km(2)). However, pellet counts suggested that both Hall land and Judge Daly Promontory hosted larger populations at other times. We suggest that our results could have been caused by three spatially differentiated populations with asynchronous population fluctuations. With food limitation being a likely driver behind the observed variation, we argue that food limitation likely interacts with predation and competition in shaping the spatial dynamics of Arctic hares in this region.
  • Folkersen, Lasse, et al. (författare)
  • Mapping of 79 loci for 83 plasma protein biomarkers in cardiovascular disease
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 13:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent advances in highly multiplexed immunoassays have allowed systematic large-scale measurement of hundreds of plasma proteins in large cohort studies. In combination with genotyping, such studies offer the prospect to 1) identify mechanisms involved with regulation of protein expression in plasma, and 2) determine whether the plasma proteins are likely to be causally implicated in disease. We report here the results of genome-wide association (GWA) studies of 83 proteins considered relevant to cardiovascular disease (CVD), measured in 3,394 individuals with multiple CVD risk factors. We identified 79 genome-wide significant (p<5e-8) association signals, 55 of which replicated at P<0.0007 in separate validation studies (n = 2,639 individuals). Using automated text mining, manual curation, and network-based methods incorporating information on expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), we propose plausible causal mechanisms for 25 trans-acting loci, including a potential post-translational regulation of stem cell factor by matrix metalloproteinase 9 and receptor-ligand pairs such as RANK-RANK ligand. Using public GWA study data, we further evaluate all 79 loci for their causal effect on coronary artery disease, and highlight several potentially causal associations. Overall, a majority of the plasma proteins studied showed evidence of regulation at the genetic level. Our results enable future studies of the causal architecture of human disease, which in turn should aid discovery of new drug targets.
  • Lindgren, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Intravenous iron sucrose is superior to oral iron sulphate for correcting anaemia and restoring iron stores in IBD patients : A randomized, controlled, evaluator-blind, multicentre study
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. - 0036-5521. ; 44:7, s. 838-845
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often have low iron stores or anaemia. There is controversy about whether iron should be supplemented orally or intravenously (i.v.). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether treatment with intravenous iron is superior to treatment with oral iron. The primary end-points were response and remaining anaemia at the end of treatment (EOT).Material and methods. Ninety-one patients with IBD and anaemia (B-Hb <115 g/L) were randomized to oral iron sulphate (n=46) or intravenous iron sucrose (n=45) treatment for 20 weeks.Results. Forty-three patients in the intravenous iron group completed the study compared to 35 patients in the oral iron group (p=0.0009). Only 22 patients (48%) tolerated the prescribed oral dose, and 52% reduced the dose or withdrew from treatment because of poor tolerance. At EOT, 47% patients in the oral iron group increased their B-Hb by ≥20 g/L, compared with 66% in the intravenous iron group (p=0.07). In the oral iron group, 41% still had anaemia versus 16% of the patients in the intravenous iron group (p=0.007), and 22% versus 42% reached their reference B-Hb level (p=0.04). Treatment with intravenous iron sucrose improved iron stores faster and more effectively than oral iron (p=0.002). Under treatment with intravenous iron, 74% of the patients had no anaemia and normal S-ferritin levels (>25 µg/L) at EOT compared with 48% of patients receiving oral iron (p=0.013).Conclusions. Treatment with intravenous iron sucrose is effective, safe, well tolerated and superior to oral iron in correcting haemoglobin and iron stores in patients with IBD.
  • Bengtsson, Boel, et al. (författare)
  • Perimetric probability maps to separate change caused by glaucoma from that caused by cataract
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 1395-3907. ; 75:2, s. 184-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We describe a new method for analysis of change in glaucomatous visual fields with the object to differentiate between changes caused by glaucoma from those caused by cataract, New pattern deviation change probability maps were developed from a prospectively collected glaucoma material and designed to be sensitive to changes in localized field loss, but to be unaffected by media-induced perimetric change. We compared the new change probability maps with the commercially available total deviation change probability maps in series of Humphrey perimetric tests in a glaucoma material of 43 eyes of 35 patients, who had undergone cataract surgery, When using the total deviation maps, considerable differences were seen between fields obtained before and after cataract surgery. Much smaller differences were seen when using the new change probability maps, that almost eliminated the common and disturbing effect of increasing cataract, This new tool could be of considerable help in differentiation between progressive glaucomatous visual field loss and deterioration caused by increasing media opacities.
  • Bi, Zhaoxia, et al. (författare)
  • Self-assembled InN quantum dots on side facets of GaN nanowires
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics. - American Institute of Physics. - 0021-8979. ; 123:16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Self-assembled, atomic diffusion controlled growth of InN quantum dots was realized on the side facets of dislocation-free and c-oriented GaN nanowires having a hexagonal cross-section. The nanowires were synthesized by selective area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. A 3 Å thick InN wetting layer was observed after growth, on top of which the InN quantum dots formed, indicating self-assembly in the Stranski-Krastanow growth mode. We found that the InN quantum dots can be tuned to nucleate either preferentially at the edges between GaN nanowire side facets, or directly on the side facets by tuning the adatom migration by controlling the precursor supersaturation and growth temperature. Structural characterization by transmission electron microscopy and reciprocal space mapping show that the InN quantum dots are close to be fully relaxed (residual strain below 1%) and that the c-planes of the InN quantum dots are tilted with respect to the GaN core. The strain relaxes mainly by the formation of misfit dislocations, observed with a periodicity of 3.2 nm at the InN and GaN hetero-interface. The misfit dislocations introduce I1 type stacking faults (...ABABCBC...) in the InN quantum dots. Photoluminescence investigations of the InN quantum dots show that the emissions shift to higher energy with reduced quantum dot size, which we attribute to increased quantum confinement.
  • Binesse, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Roles of Reactive Oxygen Species-Degrading Enzymes of Francisella tularensis SCHU S4
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Infection and Immunity. - 0019-9567. ; 83:6, s. 2255-2263
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular bacterium utilizing macrophages as its primary intracellular habitat and is therefore highly capable of resisting the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS), potent mediators of the bactericidal activity of macrophages. We investigated the roles of enzymes presumed to be important for protection against ROS. Four mutants of the highly virulent SCHU S4 strain with deletions of the genes encoding catalase (katG), glutathione peroxidase (gpx), a DyP-type peroxidase (FTT0086), or double deletion of FTT0086 and katG showed much increased susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and slightly increased susceptibility to paraquat but not to peroxynitrite (ONOO-) and displayed intact intramacrophage replication. Nevertheless, mice infected with the double deletion mutant showed significantly longer survival than SCHU S4-infected mice. Unlike the aforementioned mutants, deletion of the gene coding for alkyl-hydroperoxide reductase subunit C (ahpC) generated a mutant much more susceptible to paraquat and ONOO- but not to H2O2. It showed intact replication in J774 cells but impaired replication in bone marrow-derived macrophages and in internal organs of mice. The live vaccine strain, LVS, is more susceptible than virulent strains to ROS-mediated killing and possesses a truncated form of FTT0086. Expression of the SCHU S4 FTT0086 gene rendered LVS more resistant to H2O2, which demonstrates that the SCHU S4 strain possesses additional detoxifying mechanisms. Collectively, the results demonstrate that SCHU S4 ROS-detoxifying enzymes have overlapping functions, and therefore, deletion of one or the other does not critically impair the intracellular replication or virulence, although AhpC appears to have a unique function.
  • Bolin, Kristian, et al. (författare)
  • Changes in the health status of the population
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Simulating An Ageing Population. A Microsimulation Approach Applied to Sweden. (Contributions to Economic Analysis). ; s. 85-114
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