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1.
  • Andsberg, Gunnar, et al. (författare)
  • PreHospital Ambulance Stroke Test - pilot study of a novel stroke test
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine. - BioMed Central (BMC). - 1757-7241. ; 25:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: There is a need for a prehospital stroke test that in addition to high sensitivity for stroke, also is able to communicate stroke severity similar to the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). Methods: The PreHospital Ambulance Stroke Test (PreHAST), an eight item test based on NIHSS, which scores stroke severity from 0-19 points, was designed and adapted for the ambulance services. In the pilot study the ambulance nurses used PreHAST to assess patients with suspected stroke in the prehospital setting. Regardless of the results after PreHAST testing the patients were triaged with a provisional stroke diagnosis. The PreHAST scores were compared with the final diagnosis and the ability to differentiate stroke and transient ischemic attacks (TIA) with ongoing symptoms at evaluation from non-stroke patients was analysed. Results: 69 patients were included in the study, 26 had stroke/TIA and 43 other diagnoses. All stroke/TIA patients were identified by PreHAST (sensitivity 100% (95% CI; 87-100%)). The specificity increased with higher PreHAST scores and the discriminative capacity for PreHAST for different cut off values showed an area under the curve of 0.77 (95%CI; 0.66-0.88) in the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Discussion: PreHAST is designed for high sensitivity, screening for a broad range of stroke symptoms including most key components of NIHSS. The promising sensitivity between 87 and 100% in our study has to be confirmed in a larger study also including multiple centres. Higher PreHAST scores implied more typical patterns of stroke and accordingly the proportion of stroke mimics decrease with higher scores. However, also stroke mimics with epilepsy/seizure and patients with deficit after prior stroke could show higher PreHAST scores. Other prehospital stroke tests that evaluate stroke severity have been designed with the main purpose to screen for large vessel occlusion. The advantage of PreHAST is the dual purpose not only to evaluate stroke severity but also to screen for stroke in general. Conclusions: PreHAST is a new screening test of stroke adapted for ambulance services that in addition to high sensitivity for stroke, provides a grading system with increasing specificity with higher scores.
2.
  • Andsberg, Gunnar, et al. (författare)
  • PreHospital Ambulance Stroke Test : pilot study of a novel stroke test
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine. - London, UK : BioMed Central. - 1757-7241 .- 1757-7241. ; 25:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> There is a need for a prehospital stroke test that in addition to high sensitivity for stroke, also is able to communicate stroke severity similar to the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS).</p><p><strong>METHODS:</strong> The PreHospital Ambulance Stroke Test (PreHAST), an eight item test based on NIHSS, which scores stroke severity from 0-19 points, was designed and adapted for the ambulance services. In the pilot study the ambulance nurses used PreHAST to assess patients with suspected stroke in the prehospital setting. Regardless of the results after PreHAST testing the patients were triaged with a provisional stroke diagnosis. The PreHAST scores were compared with the final diagnosis and the ability to differentiate stroke and transient ischemic attacks (TIA) with ongoing symptoms at evaluation from non-stroke patients was analysed.</p><p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> 69 patients were included in the study, 26 had stroke/TIA and 43 other diagnoses. All stroke/TIA patients were identified by PreHAST (sensitivity 100% (95% CI; 87-100%)). The specificity increased with higher PreHAST scores and the discriminative capacity for PreHAST for different cut off values showed an area under the curve of 0.77 (95%CI; 0.66-0.88) in the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.</p><p><strong>DISCUSSION:</strong> PreHAST is designed for high sensitivity, screening for a broad range of stroke symptoms including most key components of NIHSS. The promising sensitivity between 87 and 100% in our study has to be confirmed in a larger study also including multiple centres. Higher PreHAST scores implied more typical patterns of stroke and accordingly the proportion of stroke mimics decrease with higher scores. However, also stroke mimics with epilepsy/seizure and patients with deficit after prior stroke could show higher PreHAST scores. Other prehospital stroke tests that evaluate stroke severity have been designed with the main purpose to screen for large vessel occlusion. The advantage of PreHAST is the dual purpose not only to evaluate stroke severity but also to screen for stroke in general.</p><p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> PreHAST is a new screening test of stroke adapted for ambulance services that in addition to high sensitivity for stroke, provides a grading system with increasing specificity with higher scores.</p>
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3.
  • Friberg, Leif, et al. (författare)
  • High Prevalence of Atrial Fibrillation Among Patients With Ischemic Stroke.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Stroke: a journal of cerebral circulation. - American Heart Association. - 1524-4628. ; 45:9, s. 2599-2605
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cause of devastating but potentially preventable stroke. Estimates of the prevalence of AF among patients with stroke vary considerably because of difficulties in detection of intermittent, silent AF. Better recognition of AF in this patient group may help to identify and offer protection to individuals at risk. Our aim was to determine the nationwide prevalence of AF among patients with ischemic stroke, as well as their use of oral anticoagulation.
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6.
  • Jönsson, Ann-Cathrin, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence and intensity of pain after stroke: a population based study focusing on patients' perspectives.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. - BMJ Publishing Group. - 1468-330X. ; s. 590-595
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence and intensity of pain after stroke, focusing on patients' perspectives. METHODS: During a one year period, 416 first-ever stroke patients were included in the population based Lund Stroke Register. After 4 and 16 months (median), 297 patients (98% of survivors) were followed up. Worst pain intensity during the previous 48 hours was assessed on a visual analogue scale (VAS), range 0 to 100: a score of 0 to 30 was defined as no or mild pain; 40 to 100 as moderate to severe pain. NIH stroke scale (NIHSS) score and HbA1c were assessed at baseline. At 16 months, screening for depression was done using the geriatric depression scale (GDS-20), and cognition with the mini-mental state examination (MMSE). Predictors of pain were determined by multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Moderate to severe pain was reported by 96 patients (32%) after four months (VAS median=60). Predictors of pain were younger age (p=0.01), female sex (p=0.006), higher NIHSS score (p<0.001), and raised HbA1c (p=0.001) at stroke onset. At 16 months, only 62 patients (21%) had moderate to severe pain, but pain intensity was more severe (median VAS score=70; p<0.016). Higher pain intensity correlated with female sex, worse GDS-20 score, better MMSE score, and raised HbA1c. Pain was persistent in 47%, disturbed sleep in 58%, and required rest for relief in 40% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Although prevalence of pain after stroke decreased with time, after 16 months 21% had moderate to severe pain. Late pain after stroke was on average more severe, and profoundly affected the patients' wellbeing.
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7.
  • Jönsson, Ann-Cathrin, et al. (författare)
  • Weight loss after stroke: a population-based study from the Lund Stroke Register.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation. - American Heart Association. - 1524-4628. ; 39:3, s. 918-923
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Data on the prevalence and indicators of weight loss in population-based groups of stroke survivors are scarce. We aimed to find the predictors and indicators of weight loss >3 kg as a possible marker of malnutrition after stroke. METHODS: We registered weight at baseline, after 4 months, and 1 year later in 305 survivors from a population-based cohort of first-ever stroke patients. Characteristics of the patients were registered at baseline and follow-ups, including glycosylated hemoglobin at baseline and follow-up II, eating difficulties at both follow-ups, and screening for depression at follow-up II. We used univariate and multivariate analyses to find baseline predictors and follow-up indicators related to weight loss >3 kg from baseline. RESULTS: Among the 305 patients, 60% were male, the mean age was 72.5 years, and mean body mass index was 25.8 kg/m(2). The main stroke types were cerebral infarction (89%), intracerebral hemorrhage (7%), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (4%). Weight loss >3 kg was found in 74 (24%) patients (mean, -6.6 kg) after 4 months and in 79 patients (26%; mean, -8.3 kg) 1 year later. Severe stroke and elevated glycosylated hemoglobin levels were baseline predictors of weight loss >3 kg. Indicators associated with short-term weight loss (at follow-up I) were eating difficulties, low prealbumin value, and dependence (Barthel Index), whereas indicators associated with long-term weight loss (follow-up II) were eating difficulties, hemorrhagic stroke, and low prealbumin value. CONCLUSIONS: Weight loss >3 kg after stroke indicates the need for closer observation regarding nutritional status. Monitoring of body weight may be useful, particularly among patients with severe stroke, eating difficulties, low prealbumin values, and impaired glucose metabolism
8.
  • Kasner, Scott E., et al. (författare)
  • Rivaroxaban or aspirin for patent foramen ovale and embolic stroke of undetermined source: a prespecified subgroup analysis from the NAVIGATE ESUS trial
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. Neurology. - 1474-4465. ; 17:12, s. 1053-1060
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a contributor to embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS). Subgroup analyses from previous studies suggest that anticoagulation could reduce recurrent stroke compared with antiplatelet therapy. We hypothesised that anticoagulant treatment with rivaroxaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, would reduce the risk of recurrent ischaemic stroke compared with aspirin among patients with PFO enrolled in the NAVIGATE ESUS trial. Methods: NAVIGATE ESUS was a double-blinded, randomised, phase 3 trial done at 459 centres in 31 countries that assessed the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban versus aspirin for secondary stroke prevention in patients with ESUS. For this prespecified subgroup analysis, cohorts with and without PFO were defined on the basis of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE). The primary efficacy outcome was time to recurrent ischaemic stroke between treatment groups. The primary safety outcome was major bleeding, according to the criteria of the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. The primary analyses were based on the intention-to-treat population. Additionally, we did a systematic review and random-effects meta-analysis of studies in which patients with cryptogenic stroke and PFO were randomly assigned to receive anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy. Findings: Between Dec 23, 2014, and Sept 20, 2017, 7213 participants were enrolled and assigned to receive rivaroxaban (n=3609) or aspirin (n=3604). Patients were followed up for a mean of 11 months because of early trial termination. PFO was reported as present in 534 (7·4%) patients on the basis of either TTE or TOE. Patients with PFO assigned to receive aspirin had a recurrent ischaemic stroke rate of 4·8 events per 100 person-years compared with 2·6 events per 100 person-years in those treated with rivaroxaban. Among patients with known PFO, there was insufficient evidence to support a difference in risk of recurrent ischaemic stroke between rivaroxaban and aspirin (hazard ratio [HR] 0·54; 95% CI 0·22–1·36), and the risk was similar for those without known PFO (1·06; 0·84–1·33; pinteraction=0·18). The risks of major bleeding with rivaroxaban versus aspirin were similar in patients with PFO detected (HR 2·05; 95% CI 0·51–8·18) and in those without PFO detected (HR 2·82; 95% CI 1·69–4·70; pinteraction=0·68). The random-effects meta-analysis combined data from NAVIGATE ESUS with data from two previous trials (PICSS and CLOSE) and yielded a summary odds ratio of 0·48 (95% CI 0·24–0·96; p=0·04) for ischaemic stroke in favour of anticoagulation, without evidence of heterogeneity. Interpretation: Among patients with ESUS who have PFO, anticoagulation might reduce the risk of recurrent stroke by about half, although substantial imprecision remains. Dedicated trials of anticoagulation versus antiplatelet therapy or PFO closure, or both, are warranted. Funding: Bayer and Janssen. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd
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9.
  • Larsson, Elna-Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology in dementia, clinically of frontotemporal type
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. - Karger. - 1420-8008. ; 11:3, s. 123-134
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography findings in 28 patients with the clinical diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) were compared with the findings in a control group of 76 individuals without dementia or stroke. A pattern of frontal and temporal atrophy with predominantly frontal white matter changes was found in the FTD patients, and this was significantly different from the radiological findings in the control group. Six of the FTD patients have undergone autopsy. Histopathological evaluation showed a primary cortical degenerative disease (frontal lobe degeneration of non-Alzheimer type) in 3 of them, and primary white matter disorder, mainly frontal, of basically ischemic type (selective incomplete white matter infarction) in 3 of them. MRI could be a helpful tool to support the clinical diagnosis FTD, especially in young patients. MRI may also be helpful for the differentiation of a primary neurodegenerative from a mainly ischemic-vascular type of dementia.
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10.
  • Lindgren, Arne, et al. (författare)
  • A national curriculum in neurology for medical education
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Läkartidningen. - 0023-7205. ; 101:26-27, s. 2261-3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The knowledge within medicine is growing rapidly. It has become more and more difficult to decide what knowledge that has to be taught to medical students during their University Medical Degree (MD) education and what has to be omitted from their study plans. As help for teachers and students, a core curriculum of the education defines what is of importance for all students. However, there is a risk of "curriculum overload" with too much information being put into a short time interval. To avoid this and to define what is really the "core" of a course, a national consensus decision may be useful. As an example of this approach, we here report a new joint Swedish core curriculum in neurology for medical students. Teachers responsible for neurological education at all six universities giving University MD education in Sweden have in January 2003 agreed upon the core curriculum that we present. It is our hope that this method can be useful also for other clinical specialities.
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