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Sökning: WFRF:(Lindgren Karl Oskar)

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  • Okbay, Aysu, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 533:7604, s. 539-542
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals(1). Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample(1,2) of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases.
  • Dancygier, Rafaela M., et al. (författare)
  • Why Are Immigrants Underrepresented in Politics? : Evidence from Sweden
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: American Political Science Review. - 0003-0554 .- 1537-5943. ; 109:4, s. 703-724
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Widespread and persistent political underrepresentation of immigrant-origin minorities poses deep challenges to democratic practice and norms. What accounts for this underrepresentation? Two types of competing explanations are prevalent in the literature: accounts that base minority underrepresentation on individual-level resources and accounts that emphasize political opportunity structures. However, due to the lack of data suitable for testing these explanations, existing research has not been able to adjudicate between these theories. Using registry-based microdata covering the entire Swedish adult population between 1991 and 2010 our study is the first to empirically evaluate these alternative explanations. We examine election outcomes to municipal councils over the course of six elections and find that variation in individual-level resources cannot explain immigrants' underrepresentation. Further, when comparing immigrants and natives who face comparable political opportunity structures a large representation gap remains. Instead, we argue that discrimination by party gatekeepers plays a more significant role in perpetuating the underrepresentation of immigrants than do individual resources or structural variables.
  • Dancygier, Rafaela, et al. (författare)
  • Representationsgapet
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Valdeltagande och representation : om invandring och politisk integration i Sverige. - Delmi. - 9789188021236
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Karlsson Linnér, Richard, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association analyses of risk tolerance and risky behaviors in over 1 million individuals identify hundreds of loci and shared genetic influences
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 51:2, s. 245-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Humans vary substantially in their willingness to take risks. In a combined sample of over 1 million individuals, we conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of general risk tolerance, adventurousness, and risky behaviors in the driving, drinking, smoking, and sexual domains. Across all GWAS, we identified hundreds of associated loci, including 99 loci associated with general risk tolerance. We report evidence of substantial shared genetic influences across risk tolerance and the risky behaviors: 46 of the 99 general risk tolerance loci contain a lead SNP for at least one of our other GWAS, and general risk tolerance is genetically correlated (vertical bar(r) over cap (g)vertical bar similar to 0.25 to 0.50) with a range of risky behaviors. Bioinformatics analyses imply that genes near SNPs associated with general risk tolerance are highly expressed in brain tissues and point to a role for glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. We found no evidence of enrichment for genes previously hypothesized to relate to risk tolerance.
  • Lindgren, Karl-Oskar, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • Access to education and political candidacy : Lessons from school openings in Sweden
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Economics of Education Review. - 0272-7757 .- 1873-7382. ; 69, s. 138-148
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • How does availability of education affect who becomes a political representative? Theorists have pointed out that access to education is a key to a well-functioning democracy, but few empirical studies have examined how changes in the access to education influence the chances of becoming a politician. In this paper, we analyze the effects of a large series of school openings in Sweden during the early 20th century, which provided adolescents with better access to secondary education. We use administrative data pertaining to the entire Swedish population born between 1916 and 1945. According to our empirical results, the opening of a new lower secondary school in a municipality increased the baseline probability of running for political office by 10–20%, and the probability of holding office by 20–30%.
  • Lindgren, Karl-Oskar, 1976- (författare)
  • Arbetsplatsstorlek och sjukfrånvaro
  • 2012
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Studien syftar till att studera hur in- och utflödet till sjukskrivning varierar med arbetsplatsstorlek. Mer precist undersöks om det positiva samband mellan arbetsplatsstorlek och sjukfrånvaro som har observerats både i Sverige och utomlands främst drivs av att sjukskrivningar är mer vanligt förekommande eller har längre varaktighet på stora arbetsplatser. Resultaten tyder på att sambandet helt förklaras av att anställda på stora arbetsplatser löper en större risk för att bli sjukskrivna än anställda på små arbetsplatser. Tidsperioden som studeras är 1994–2008.
  • Lindgren, Karl-Oskar, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • Can Political Inequalities Be Educated Away? Evidence from a Large-scale Reform
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Political Science. - 0092-5853 .- 1540-5907. ; 61:1, s. 222-236
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Over the years, many suggestions have been made on how to reduce the importance of family background in political recruitment. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of one such proposal: the expansion of mass education. We utilize a difference-in-difference strategy to analyze how a large school reform launched in Sweden in the 1950s, which lengthened schooling and postponed tracking, affected the likelihood of individuals with different family backgrounds to run for public office. The data come from public registers and pertain to the entire Swedish population born between 1943 and 1955. The empirical analysis provides strong support for the view that improved educational opportunities for individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds can be an effective means to reduce the social bias of elected assemblies.
  • Lindgren, Karl-Oskar, 1976- (författare)
  • Dyadic Regression in the Presence of Heteroscedasticity : An Assessment of Alternative Approaches
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Social Networks. - Elsevier. - 0378-8733 .- 1879-2111. ; 32:4, s. 279-289
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although the problem of heteroscedasticity has been the subject of much discussion in other areas of applied statistics the problem has received scant attention in the social network literature. This study attempts to remedy this situation by considering how traditional methods for significance testing in dyadic regression models, such as standard QAP tests, perform under conditions of heteroscedasticity. Moreover, the article presents two alternative methods to deal with heteroscedasticity that are both shown to perform rather well with typical social network data under conditions of both heteroscedasticity and homoscedasticity. Overall, the results of the study suggest that applied researchers using regression techniques to study dyadic data are well advised to correct for heteroscedasticity, by either of the two methods discussed here, whenever there is a reason to suspect heteroscedasticity.
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