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  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Resic-Lindehammer, Sabina, et al. (författare)
  • Temporal trends of HLA genotype frequencies of type 1 diabetes patients in Sweden from 1986 to 2005 suggest altered risk
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Acta Diabetologica. - : Springer. - 0940-5429 .- 1432-5233. ; 45:4, s. 231-235
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes in 1-18-year-old patients with type 1 diabetes newly diagnosed in 1986-1987 (n = 430), 1996-2000 (n = 342) and in 2003-2005 (n = 171). We tested the hypothesis that the HLA DQ genotype distribution changes over time. Swedish type 1 diabetes patients and controls were typed for HLA using polymerase chain reaction amplification and allele specific probes for DQ A1* and B1* alleles. The most common type 1 diabetes HLA DQA1*-B1*genotype 0501-0201/0301-0302 was 36% (153/430) in 1986-1987 and 37% (127/342) in 1996-2000, but decreased to 19% (33/171) in 2003-2005 (P \ 0.0001). The 0501-0201/0501-0201 genotype increased from 1% in 1986-1987 to 7% in 1996-2000 (P = 0.0047) and to 5% in 2003-2005 (P > 0.05). This study in 1-18-year-old Swedish type 1 diabetes patients supports the notion that there is a temporal change in HLA risk.
  • Rhedin, S. A., et al. (författare)
  • Protocol Introducing a New Algorithm for Classification of Etiology in Studies on Pediatric Pneumonia: Protocol for the Trial of Respiratory Infections in Children for Enhanced Diagnostics Study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Internet Research. - : JMIR PUBLICATIONS, INC. - 1438-8871. ; 8:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: There is a need to better distinguish viral infections from antibiotic-requiring bacterial infections in children presenting with clinical community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) to assist health care workers in decision making and to improve the rational use of antibiotics. Objective: The overall aim of the Trial of Respiratory infections in children for ENhanced Diagnostics (TREND) study is to improve the differential diagnosis of bacterial and viral etiologies in children aged below 5 years with clinical CAP, by evaluating myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) as a biomarker for viral CAP and by evaluating an existing (multianalyte point-of-care antigen detection test system [mariPOC respi] ArcDia International Oy Ltd.) and a potential future point-of-care test for respiratory pathogens. Methods: Children aged 1 to 59 months with clinical CAP as well as healthy, hospital-based, asymptomatic controls will be included at a pediatric emergency hospital in Stockholm, Sweden. Blood (analyzed for MxA and C-reactive protein) and nasopharyngeal samples (analyzed with real-time polymerase chain reaction as the gold standard and antigen-based mariPOC respi test as well as saved for future analyses of a novel recombinase polymerase amplification-based point-of-care test for respiratory pathogens) will be collected. A newly developed algorithm for the classification of CAP etiology will be used as the reference standard. Results: A pilot study was performed from June to August 2017. The enrollment of study subjects started in November 2017. Results are expected by the end of 2019.Conclusions: The findings from the TREND study can be an important step to improve the management of children with clinical. © 2019 Journal of Medical Internet Research. All rights reserved.
  • Shin, J. H., et al. (författare)
  • IA-2 autoantibodies in incident type I diabetes patients are associated with a polyadenylation signal polymorphism in GIMAP5
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Genes Immun. - 1466-4879 .- 1476-5470. ; 8:6, s. 503-12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a large case-control study of Swedish incident type I diabetes patients and controls, 0-34 years of age, we tested the hypothesis that the GIMAP5 gene, a key genetic factor for lymphopenia in spontaneous BioBreeding rat diabetes, is associated with type I diabetes; with islet autoantibodies in incident type I diabetes patients or with age at clinical onset in incident type I diabetes patients. Initial scans of allelic association were followed by more detailed logistic regression modeling that adjusted for known type I diabetes risk factors and potential confounding variables. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs6598, located in a polyadenylation signal of GIMAP5, was associated with the presence of significant levels of IA-2 autoantibodies in the type I diabetes patients. Patients with the minor allele A of rs6598 had an increased prevalence of IA-2 autoantibody levels compared to patients without the minor allele (OR=2.2; Bonferroni-corrected P=0.003), after adjusting for age at clinical onset (P=8.0 x 10(-13)) and the numbers of HLA-DQ A1*0501-B1*0201 haplotypes (P=2.4 x 10(-5)) and DQ A1*0301-B1*0302 haplotypes (P=0.002). GIMAP5 polymorphism was not associated with type I diabetes or with GAD65 or insulin autoantibodies, ICA, or age at clinical onset in patients. These data suggest that the GIMAP5 gene is associated with islet autoimmunity in type I diabetes and add to recent findings implicating the same SNP in another autoimmune disease.
  • Barregård, Lars, 1948, et al. (författare)
  • Human and Methodological Sources of Variability in the Measurement of Urinary 8-Oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 '-deoxyguanosine
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Antioxidants and Redox Signaling. - : Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.. - 1523-0864 .- 1557-7716. ; 18:18, s. 2377-2391
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: Urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) is a widely used biomarker of oxidative stress. However, variability between chromatographic and ELISA methods hampers interpretation of data, and this variability may increase should urine composition differ between individuals, leading to assay interference. Furthermore, optimal urine sampling conditions are not well defined. We performed inter-laboratory comparisons of 8-oxodG measurement between mass spectrometric-, electrochemical- and ELISA-based methods, using common within-technique calibrants to analyze 8-oxodG-spiked phosphate-buffered saline and urine samples. We also investigated human subject- and sample collection-related variables, as potential sources of variability. Results: Chromatographic assays showed high agreement across urines from different subjects, whereas ELISAs showed far more inter-laboratory variation and generally overestimated levels, compared to the chromatographic assays. Excretion rates in timed 'spot' samples showed strong correlations with 24 h excretion (the 'gold' standard) of urinary 8-oxodG (r(p) 0.67-0.90), although the associations were weaker for 8-oxodG adjusted for creatinine or specific gravity (SG). The within-individual excretion of 8-oxodG varied only moderately between days (CV 17% for 24 h excretion and 20% for first void, creatinine-corrected samples). Innovation: This is the first comprehensive study of both human and methodological factors influencing 8-oxodG measurement, providing key information for future studies with this important biomarker. Conclusion: ELISA variability is greater than chromatographic assay variability, and cannot determine absolute levels of 8-oxodG. Use of standardized calibrants greatly improves intra-technique agreement and, for the chromatographic assays, importantly allows integration of results for pooled analyses. If 24 h samples are not feasible, creatinine- or SG-adjusted first morning samples are recommended.
  • Horne, B D, et al. (författare)
  • Pharmacogenetic warfarin dose refinements remain significantly influenced by genetic factors after one week of therapy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: ; 107:2, s. 232-240
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • By guiding initial warfarin dose, pharmacogenetic (PGx) algorithms may improve the safety of warfarin initiation. However, once international normalised ratio (INR) response is known, the contribution of PGx to dose refinements is uncertain. This study sought to develop and validate clinical and PGx dosing algorithms for warfarin dose refinement on days 6-11 after therapy initiation. An international sample of 2,022 patients at 13 medical centres on three continents provided clinical, INR, and genetic data at treatment days 6-11 to predict therapeutic warfarin dose. Independent derivation and retrospective validation samples were composed by randomly dividing the population (80%/20%). Prior warfarin doses were weighted by their expected effect on S-warfarin concentrations using an exponential-decay pharmacokinetic model. The INR divided by that "effective" dose constituted a treatment response index . Treatment response index, age, amiodarone, body surface area, warfarin indication, and target INR were associated with dose in the derivation sample. A clinical algorithm based on these factors was remarkably accurate: in the retrospective validation cohort its R2 was 61.2% and median absolute error (MAE) was 5.0 mg/week. Accuracy and safety was confirmed in a prospective cohort (N=43). CYP2C9 variants and VKORC1-1639 G→A were significant dose predictors in both the derivation and validation samples. In the retrospective validation cohort, the PGx algorithm had: R2= 69.1% (p<0.05 vs. clinical algorithm), MAE= 4.7 mg/week. In conclusion, a pharmacogenetic warfarin dose-refinement algorithm based on clinical, INR, and genetic factors can explain at least 69.1% of therapeutic warfarin dose variability after about one week of therapy.
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