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Sökning: WFRF:(Lindh CH)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 29
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1.
  • Alhamdow, A., et al. (författare)
  • Fluorene exposure among PAH-exposed workers is associated with epigenetic markers related to lung cancer
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 1351-0711 .- 1470-7926. ; 77:7, s. 488-495
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives Exposure to high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may cause cancer in chimney sweeps and creosote-exposed workers, however, knowledge about exposure to low-molecular-weight PAHs in relation to cancer risk is limited. In this study, we aimed to investigate occupational exposure to the low-molecular-weight PAHs phenanthrene and fluorene in relation to different cancer biomarkers. Methods We recruited 151 chimney sweeps, 19 creosote-exposed workers and 152 unexposed workers (controls), all men. We measured monohydroxylated metabolites of phenanthrene and fluorene in urine using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. We measured, in peripheral blood, the cancer biomarkers telomere length and mitochondrial DNA copy number using quantitative PCR; and DNA methylation ofF2RL3andAHRRusing pyrosequencing. Results Median PAH metabolite concentrations were higher among chimney sweeps (up to 3 times) and creosote-exposed workers (up to 353 times), compared with controls (p<0.001; adjusted for age and smoking). n-ary sumation OH-fluorene (sum of 2-hydroxyfluorene and 3-hydroxyfluorene) showed inverse associations with percentage DNA methylation ofF2RL3andAHRRin chimney sweeps (B (95% CI)=-2.7 (-3.9 to -1.5) forF2RL3_cg03636183, and -7.1 (-9.6 to -4.7) forAHRR_cg05575921: adjusted for age and smoking), but not in creosote-exposed workers. In addition, n-ary sumation OH-fluorene showed a 42% mediation effect on the inverse association between being a chimney sweep and DNA methylation ofAHRRCpG2. Conclusions Chimney sweeps and creosote-exposed workers were occupationally exposed to low-molecular-weight PAHs. Increasing fluorene exposure, among chimney sweeps, was associated with lower DNA methylation ofF2RL3andAHRR, markers for increased lung cancer risk. These findings warrant further investigation of fluorene exposure and toxicity.
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2.
  • Larsson, Kristin, et al. (författare)
  • Exposure determinants of phthalates, parabens, bisphenol A and triclosan in Swedish mothers and their children.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier. - 1873-6750 .- 0160-4120. ; 73, s. 323-333
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chemicals such as phthalates, parabens, bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS), used in a wide variety of consumer products, are suspected endocrine disrupters although their level of toxicity is thought to be low. Combined exposure may occur through ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposure, and their toxic as well as combined effects are poorly understood. The objective of the study was to estimate the exposure to these chemicals in Swedish mothers and their children (6-11years old) and investigate potential predictors of the exposure. Urine samples from 98 mother-child couples living in either a rural or an urban area were analyzed for the concentrations of four metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), three metabolites of di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), methylparaben (MetP), ethylparaben (EthP), propylparaben (ProP), butylparaben, benzylparaben, BPA, and TCS. Information on sociodemographics, food consumption habits and use of personal care products, obtained via a questionnaire, was used to investigate the associations between the urinary levels of chemicals and potential exposure factors. There were fairly good correlations of biomarker levels between the mothers and their children. The children had generally higher levels of phthalates (geometric mean ΣDEHP 65.5μg/L; ΣDiNP 37.8μg/L; MBzP 19.9μg/L; MnBP 76.9μg/L) than the mothers (ΣDEHP 38.4μg/L; ΣDiNP 33.8μg/L; MBzP 12.8μg/L; MnBP 63.0μg/L). Conversely, the mother's levels of parabens (MetP 37.8μg/L; ProP 13.9μg/L) and MEP (43.4μg/L) were higher than the children's levels of parabens (MetP 6.8μg/L; ProP 2.1μg/L) and MEP (28.8μg/L). The urinary levels of low molecular weight phthalates were higher among mothers and children in the rural area (MBzP p=<0.001; MnBP p=0.001-0.002), which is probably due to higher presence of PVC in floorings and wall coverings in this area, whereas the levels of parabens were higher among the children in the urban area (MetP p=0.003; ProP p=0.004) than in the rural area. The levels of high molecular weight phthalates were associated with consumption of certain foods (i.e. chocolate and ice cream) whereas the levels of parabens were associated with use of cosmetics and personal care products.
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3.
  • Li, Ying, et al. (författare)
  • Half-lives of PFOS, PFHxS and PFOA after end of exposure to contaminated drinking water
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 1470-7926 .- 1351-0711. ; 75:1, s. 46-51
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Municipal drinking water contaminated with perfluorinated alkyl acids had been distributed to one-third of households in Ronneby, Sweden. The source was firefighting foam used in a nearby airfield since the mid-1980s. Clean water was provided from 16 December 2013.OBJECTIVE: To determine the rates of decline in serum perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and their corresponding half-lives.METHODS: Up to seven blood samples were collected between June 2014 and September 2016 from 106 participants (age 4-84 years, 53% female).RESULTS: Median initial serum concentrations were PFHxS, 277 ng/mL (range 12-1660); PFOS, 345 ng/mL (range 24-1500); and PFOA, 18 ng/mL (range 2.4-92). The covariate-adjusted average rates of decrease in serum were PFHxS, 13% per year (95% CI 12% to 15%); PFOS, 20% per year (95% CI 19% to 22%); and PFOA, 26% per year (95% CI 24% to 28%). The observed data are consistent with a first-order elimination model. The mean estimated half-life was 5.3 years (95% CI 4.6 to 6.0) for PFHxS, 3.4 years (95% CI 3.1 to 3.7) for PFOS and 2.7 years (95% CI 2.5 to 2.9) for PFOA. The interindividual variation of half-life was around threefold when comparing the 5th and 95th percentiles. There was a marked sex difference with more rapid elimination in women for PFHxS and PFOS, but only marginally for PFOA.CONCLUSIONS: The estimated half-life for PFHxS was considerably longer than for PFOS and PFOA. For PFHxS and PFOS, the average half-life is shorter than the previously published estimates. For PFOA the half-life is in line with the range of published estimates.
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4.
  • Rignell-Hydbom, A, et al. (författare)
  • Exposure to cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants and its association with bone mineral density and markers of bone metabolism on postmenopausal women
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Environmental Research. - : Elsevier. - 0013-9351 .- 1096-0953. ; 109:8, s. 991-996
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Environmental contaminants such as cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants have been proposed as risk factors of osteoporosis, and women may be at an increased risk. To assess associations between exposure to cadmium and two different POPs (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl CB-153, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene p,p'-DDE), on one hand, and bone effects, on the other, in a population-based study among postmenopausal (60-70 years) Swedish women with biobanked blood samples. The study included 908 women and was designed to have a large contrast of bone mineral densities, measured with a single photon absorptiometry technique in the non-dominant forearm. Biochemical markers related to bone metabolism were analyzed in serum. Exposure assessment was based on cadmium concentrations in erythrocytes and serum concentrations of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE. Cadmium was negatively associated with bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone, positively with the marker of bone resorption. However, this association disappeared after adjustment for smoking. The major DDT metabolite (p.p'-DDE) was positively associated with bone mineral density, an association which remained after adjustment for confounders, but the effect was weak. There was no evidence that the estrogenic congener (CB-153) was associated with any of the bone markers. In conclusion, no convincing associations were observed between cadmium and POPs, on one hand, and bone metabolism markers and BMD, on the other. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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5.
  • Weiss, Jana M., et al. (författare)
  • Daily intake of phthalates, MEHP, and DINCH by ingestion and inhalation
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Chemosphere. - : Elsevier. - 0045-6535 .- 1879-1298. ; 208, s. 40-49
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Phthalate esters, suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals, are used in a wide range of applications. Because phthalate esters are not covalently bound, they can easily leach into the indoor environment and associate to dust particles. Thus, exposure may occur through inhalation, ingestion, or contact with the skin. However, it is unclear to what degree indoor dust contributes to the daily intake of phthalate esters.This study investigates household dust as an exposure pathway for seven phthalate esters, the monoester MEHP, and the plasticizer DINCH. Household dust collected from children's sleeping rooms and from living rooms were analysed using gas and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. To compare two exposure pathways, different dust particle sizes were generated: a respirable fraction (<5 mu m) and an ingested particle fraction in the anticipated size range of skin adherence (<75 mu m). Modelling of dust inhalation and ingestion showed that the daily intake of dust-bound phthalate esters was likely to be 2 times (inhalation) to 12 times (ingestion) higher for 21-month-old children than for adults. These children's daily uptake of phthalate esters was 40-140 times higher through ingestion than inhalation. Furthermore, dust may be an exposure pathway for phthalate esters as well as for MEHP. Therefore, phthalate monoesters could be environmental contaminants of their own and need to be considered in health risk assessments. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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6.
  • Alhamdow, Ayman, et al. (författare)
  • Low-level exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is associated with reduced lung function among Swedish young adults
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Environmental Research. - : Elsevier. - 0013-9351 .- 1096-0953. ; 197
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been linked to adverse pulmonary effects. However, the impact of low-level environmental PAH exposure on lung function in early adulthood remains uncertain. Objectives: To evaluate the associations between urinary PAH metabolites and lung function parameters in young adults. Methods: Urinary metabolites of pyrene, phenanthrene, and fluorene were analysed in 1000 young adults from Sweden (age 22–25 years) using LC-MS/MS. Lung function and eosinophilic airway inflammation were measured by spirometry and exhaled nitric oxide fraction (FeNO), respectively. Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate associations between PAH metabolites and the outcomes. Results: Median urinary concentrations of 1-OH-pyrene, ∑OH-phenanthrene, and ∑OH-fluorene were 0.066, 0.36, 0.22 μg/L, respectively. We found inverse associations of ∑OH-phenanthrene and ∑OH-fluorene with FEV1 and FVC, as well as between 1-OH-pyrene and FEV1/FVC ratio (adjusted P < 0.05; all participants). An increase of 1% in ∑OH-fluorene was associated with a decrease of 73 mL in FEV1 and 59 mL in FVC. In addition, ∑OH-phenanthrene concentrations were, in a dose-response manner, inversely associated with FEV1 (B from −109 to −48 compared with the lowest quartile of ∑OH-phenanthrene; p trend 0.004) and FVC (B from −159 to −102 compared with lowest quartile; p-trend <0.001). Similar dose-response associations were also observed between ∑OH-fluorene and FEV1 and FVC, as well as between 1-OH-pyrene and FEV1/FVC (p-trend <0.05). There was no association between PAH exposure and FeNO, nor was there an interaction with smoking, sex, or asthma. Conclusion: Low-level PAH exposure was, in a dose-response manner, associated with reduced lung function in young adults. Our findings have public health implications due to i) the widespread occurrence of PAHs in the environment and ii) the clinical relevance of lung function in predicting all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality.
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7.
  • Axelsson, Jonatan, et al. (författare)
  • Exposure to polychlorinated compounds and cryptorchidism; A nested case-control study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 15:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Maldescended testes or cryptorchidism is a genital birth defect that affects 2-9% of all male new-borns. Over the last 40 years there have been reports of increased prevalence in countries like the US, the UK and the Scandinavian countries. This possible increase has in some studies been linked to a foetal exposure to chemical pollutants. In this matched case-control study, we analysed maternal serum samples in early pregnancy for three different organochlorine compounds, to investigate whether the levels were associated with the risk of cryptorchidism. METHOD: Maternal serum samples taken during the first trimester of pregnancy from 165 cases (boys born with cryptorchidism) and 165 controls, matched for birth year and maternal age, parity and smoking habits during the pregnancy, were retrieved from the Southern Sweden Maternity Biobank. The samples were analysed for 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Associations between exposure and cryptorchidism were evaluated by conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: We found no statistically significantly associations between exposure to these compounds and cryptorchidism, either when the exposure variables were used as a continuous variable, or when the exposure levels were divided in quartiles. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence of an association between maternal levels of PCB-153, p,p'-DDE or HCB during the pregnancy and the risk of having cryptorchidism in the sons.
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8.
  • Barrón Cuenca, Jessika, et al. (författare)
  • Pesticide exposure among Bolivian farmers : associations between worker protection and exposure biomarkers
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1559-0631. ; 30:4, s. 730-742
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The use of pesticides has increased during the past decades, also increasing the risk of exposure to toxic pesticides that can cause detrimental health effects in the future. This is of special concern among farmers in low-to-middle-income countries that may lack proper training in the safe use of these chemicals. To assess the situation in Bolivia a cross-sectional study in three agricultural communities was performed (n = 297). Handling, use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and pesticide exposure were assessed by a questionnaire and measurements of urinary pesticide metabolites (UPMs). Results showed that methamidophos (65%) and paraquat (52%) were the most commonly used pesticides and that 75% of the farmers combined several pesticides while spraying. Notably, only 17% of the farmers used recommended PPEs while 84% reported to have experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning after spraying. UPM measurements indicated high levels of exposure to chlorpyrifos, pyrethroids and 2,4D and that men generally were more highly exposed compared to women. Our study demonstrates that farmers who are better at following recommendations for pesticide handling and use of PPE had a significantly lower risk of having high UPM levels of most measured pesticides. Our results thus confirm the need of proper training of farmers in low-to-middle-income countries in proper protection and pesticide handling in order to reduce exposure levels and health problems.
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9.
  • Bjorvang, Richelle D., et al. (författare)
  • Persistent organic pollutants, pre-pregnancy use of combined oral contraceptives, age, and time-to-pregnancy in the SELMA cohort
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Environmental health. - : BMC. - 1476-069X .- 1476-069X. ; 19:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background We are exposed to several chemicals such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in our everyday lives. Prior evidence has suggested that POPs may have adverse effects on reproductive function by disrupting hormone synthesis and metabolism. While there is age-related decline of fertility, the use of hormonal combined oral contraceptives (COCs) and its association to return of fertility remains controversial. The goal of this study is to investigate the association between exposure to POPs, both individually and as a mixture, and fecundability measured as time-to-pregnancy (TTP) according to pre-pregnancy use of COCs and age. Methods Using the SELMA (Swedish Environmental Longitudinal Mother and Child, Allergy and Asthma) study, we have identified 818 pregnant women aged 18-43 years (mean 29 years) with data on how long they tried to get pregnant and what was their most recently used contraceptive method. These data were collected at enrollment to the study (median week 10 of pregnancy). Concentrations of 22 POPs and cotinine were analyzed in the blood samples collected at the same time as the questions on TTP and pre-pregnancy use of contraceptive. Analyses were done on the association between POPs exposure and TTP measured as continuous (months) and binary (infertile for those with TTP > 12 months). To study the chemicals individually, Cox regression and logistic regression were used to estimate fecundability ratios (FRs) and odds ratios (ORs), respectively. Weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression was used to investigate the chemicals as a mixture where chemicals of concern were identified above the 7.6% threshold of equal weights. To perform the subgroup analysis, we stratified the sample according to use of COCs as the most recent pre-pregnancy contraception method and age (< 29 years, and >= 29 years). The models were adjusted for parity, regularity of menses, maternal body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, and stratified as described above. Results Prior to stratification, none of the POPs were associated with fecundability while increased exposure to HCB, PCB 74 and 118 had higher odds of infertility. Upon stratification, POP exposure was significantly associated with longer TTP in women aged >= 29 years who did not use COC. Specifically, PCBs 156, 180, 183, and 187 were associated with reduced fecundability while PCBs 99, 153, 156, 180, 183, and 187 had higher odds of infertility. As a mixture, we identified the chemicals of concern for a longer TTP include PCBs 118, 156, 183, and 187. Moreover, chemicals of concern identified with increased odds of infertility were PCB 74, 156, 183, 187, and transnonachlor. Conclusion Serum concentrations of selected POPs, both as individual chemicals and as a mixture, were significantly associated with lower fecundability and increased odds of infertility in women aged 29 years and above not using COC as their most recent pre-pregnancy contraceptive. Our findings suggest that pre-pregnancy use of oral contraceptive and age may modify the link between POPs and fecundability. The differences of specific chemicals in the individual analysis and as a mixture support the need to study combination effects of chemicals when evaluating reproductive outcomes.
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10.
  • Björvang, Richelle D., et al. (författare)
  • Mixtures of persistent organic pollutants are found in vital organs of late gestation human fetuses
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Chemosphere. - : Elsevier. - 0045-6535 .- 1879-1298. ; 283
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are industrial chemicals with long half-lives. Early life exposure to POPs has been associated with adverse effects. Fetal exposure is typically estimated based on concentrations in maternal serum or placenta and little is known on the actual fetal exposure. We measured the concentrations of nine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners by gas chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry in maternal serum, placenta, and fetal tissues (adipose tissue, liver, heart, lung and brain) in 20 pregnancies that ended in stillbirth (gestational weeks 36–41). The data were combined with our earlier data on perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the same cohort (Mamsen et al. 2019). HCB, p,p’-DDE, PCB 138 and PCB 153 were quantified in all samples of maternal serum, placenta and fetal tissues. All 22 POPs were detected in all fetal adipose tissue samples, even in cases where they could not be detected in maternal serum or placenta. Tissue:serum ratios were significantly higher in later gestations, male fetuses, and pregnancies with normal placental function. OCPs showed the highest tissue:serum ratios and PFAS the lowest. The highest chemical burden was found in adipose tissue and lowest in the brain. Overall, all studied human fetuses were intrinsically exposed to mixtures of POPs. Tissue:serum ratios were significantly modified by gestational age, fetal sex and placental function. Importantly, more chemicals were detected in fetal tissues compared to maternal serum and placenta, implying that these proxy samples may provide a misleading picture of actual fetal exposures.
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