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  • Gustafsson Sendén, Marie, 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • Biases in news media as reflected by personal pronouns in evaluative contexts
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Social Psychology. - : Hogrefe & Huber Publishers. - 1864-9335 .- 2151-2590. ; 45:2, s. 103-111
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper examines whether pronouns in news media occurred in evaluative contexts reflecting psychological biases. Contexts of pronouns were measured by computerized semantic analysis. Results showed that self-inclusive personal pronouns (We, I) occurred in more positive contexts than self-exclusive pronouns (He/She, They), reflecting self- and group-serving biases. Contexts of collective versus individual pronouns varied; Weoccurred in more positive contexts than I, and He/She in more positive contexts than They. The enhancement of collective relative to individual self-inclusive pronouns may reflect that media news is a public rather than private domain. The reversed pattern among self-exclusive pronouns corroborates suggestions that outgroup derogation is most pronounced at the category level. Implications for research on language and social psychology are discussed.
  • Lindholm, Torun, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Making gender matter: The role of gender-based expectancies and gender identification on women’s and men’s math performance in Sweden.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. - : blackwell publishing. - 0036-5564 .- 1467-9450. ; 48:4, s. 329-338
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is well established that an emphasis on gender differences may have negative effect on women's math performance in USA, Germany and the Netherlands. It has further been found that an individual’s identification with the stereotyped group may moderate effects of negative stereotypes. The present study investigated how gender-based expectancies affected the math performance of women and men in Sweden, a nation with a smaller gender gap than in other countries, and a strong cultural emphasis on gender equality. Participants, 112 female and 74 male undergraduate math students from Swedish universities, completed a difficult math test in which their gender was either linked to their test performance or not. Men performed better than women when gender was made relevant among participants who did not see their gender as an important aspect of their identity, while participants high in gender identification were unaffected by gender identity relevance. Moreover, the gender relevance manipulation affected men's performance more than women's. The results deviate from findings on US samples, indicating that the role of group identification as a moderator of stereotype-based expectancy effects is complex, and that factors in the cultural context may interact with individual differences in identification to determine the impact of negative stereotypes.
  • Eriksson, Kimmo, et al. (författare)
  • Costly punishment in the ultimatum game evokes moral concern, in particular when framed as payoff reduction
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. - : ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE. - 0022-1031 .- 1096-0465. ; 69, s. 59-64
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ultimatum game is a common economic experiment in which some participants reject another's unfair offer of how to split some money, even though it leaves them both worse off. This costly behavior can be seen as enforcement of a fairness norm and has been labeled “altruistic punishment”, suggesting that it is a moral thing to do. But is this behavior viewed as moral by participants? Is it viewed as punishment? And are the payoff consequences of the behavior sufficient to determine the answers to these questions? To investigate this we framed costly punishment in two different ways: either as rejection of an offer (the standard ultimatum game framing) or as reduction of payoff. In a series of paid and hypothetical experiments we found that moral concerns about costly punishment depended on the framing. Specifically, the reduction frame elicited more moral concern about, and less use of, costly punishment than did the rejection frame. Several implications are discussed.
  • Hirvikoski, Tatja, et al. (författare)
  • Cognitive functions in children at risk for congenital adrenal hyperplasia treated prenatally with dexamethasone
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 92:2, s. 542-548
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context and Objective: In Sweden, from 1985 through 1995, 40 fetuses at risk for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) were treated with dexamethasone (DEX) to prevent virilization of affected females. We report long-term effects on neuropsychological functions and scholastic performance of this controversial treatment. Design and Patients: Prenatally treated children, 7 to 17 yr old, were assessed with standardized neuropsychological tests (A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment and Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children) and child-completed questionnaires measuring self-perceived scholastic competence (Self-Perception Profile for Children). A parent-completed questionnaire (Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 School Scale) was used to evaluate whether the treatment had any impact on the children's school performance. In addition, a child-completed questionnaire measuring social anxiety (The Social Anxiety Scale for Children-Revised) was completed by the prenatally treated children aged 8 to 17 yr (n = 21) and age- and sex-matched controls (n = 26). Results: Of 40 DEX-treated children, 26 (median age, 11 yr) participated in the study. Thirty-five sex- and age- matched healthy children were controls. There were no between-group differences concerning psychometric intelligence, measures of cerebral lateralization, memory encoding, and long-term memory. Short-term treated, CAH-unaffected children performed poorer than the control group on a test assessing verbal working memory (P = 0.003), and they rated lower on a questionnaire assessing self-perception of scholastic competence (P = 0.003). This group also showed increased self-rated social anxiety assessed by The Social Anxiety Scale for Children-Revised (P = 0.026). Prenatally treated, CAH-affected children performed poorer than controls on tests measuring verbal processing speed, although this difference disappeared when controlling for the child's full-scale IQ. Conclusions: This study indicates that prenatal DEX treatment is associated with previously not described long-term effects on verbal working memory and on certain aspects of self-perception that could be related to poorer verbal working memory. These findings may thus question future DEX treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Therefore, we encourage additional retrospective studies of larger cohorts to either confirm or challenge the present findings.
  • Hirvikoski, Tatja, et al. (författare)
  • Deficient cardiovascular stress reactivity predicts poor executive functions in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. - 1380-3395 .- 1744-411X. ; 33:1, s. 63-73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Associations between cardiovascular stress markers, subjective stress reactivity, and executive functions were studied in 60 adults (30 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, and 30 controls) using the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT, a test of executive functions) as a cognitive stressor. Despite higher self-perceived stress, the adults with ADHD showed lower or atypical cardiovascular stress reactivity, which was associated with poorer performance on PASAT. Using cardiovascular stress markers, subjective stress, and results on PASAT as predictors in a logistic regression, 83.3% of the ADHD group and 86.9% of the controls could be classified correctly.
  • Hirvikoski, Tatja, et al. (författare)
  • Gender role behaviour in prenatally dexamethasone-treated children at risk for congenital adrenal hyperplasia - a pilot study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica. - 0803-5253 .- 1651-2227. ; 100:9, s. e112-E119
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To investigate the effects of prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) exposure on gender role behaviour. Methods: The participants were 25 of the 40 children (62%, mean age 11 years) at risk for CAH treated with DEX prenatally during the years 1985-1995 in Sweden. The control group consisted of 35 sex- and age-matched healthy children. A new inventory, the Karolinska Inventory of Gender Role Behaviour (KI-GRB), was developed to assess directly school-age children's behaviour, and was evaluated using a separate sample of 160 school-age children. Results: DEX-treated CAH-unaffected boys showed more neutral behaviours than the controls (p = 0.04), while the DEX-treated CAH-unaffected girls did not differ from the controls after adjusting for the site of residence. There was a larger variation in the behaviour of the DEX-treated boys (p < 0.05) and a tendency for less-masculine behaviours in the DEX-treated CAH-unaffected children (p = 0.13). There were no between-group differences in the feminine behaviours. Recalculation of the analyses including the CAH-affected children showed analogous results. Conclusions: This pilot study indicates that the gender role behaviour may be affected in boys as an effect of DEX exposure in early pregnancy. Larger retrospective studies are needed for more conclusive results.
  • Hirvikoski, Tatja, et al. (författare)
  • High self-perceived stress and many stressors, but normal diurnal cortisol rhythm, in adults with ADHD (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder).
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Hormones and Behavior. - : Elsevier B. V.. - 0018-506X .- 1095-6867. ; 55:3, s. 418-424
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is associated with significant impairment in many life activities and may thus increase the risk of chronic stress in everyday life. We compared adults with a DSM-IV ADHD diagnosis (n=28) with healthy controls (n=28) regarding subjective stress and amounts of stressors in everyday life, diurnal salivary cortisol in the everyday environment and salivary cortisol before and after cognitive stress in a laboratory setting. The association between cortisol concentrations and impulsivity was also investigated. Consistent with assumptions, individuals with ADHD reported significantly more self-perceived stress than controls, and subjective stress correlated with the amount of stressors in everyday life. The two groups were comparable with respect to overall diurnal cortisol levels and rhythm, as well as in pre- and post-stress cortisol concentrations. Post-stress cortisol (but not baseline cortisol) concentration was positively correlated with impulsivity. The group with high post-stress cortisol also reported more symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as self-perceived stress and stressors in everyday life. The diagnosis of ADHD significantly increased the risk of belonging to the group with high post-stress cortisol levels. The results in this study warrant a focus not only on the primary diagnosis of ADHD, but also calls for a broader assessment of stressors and subjective stress in everyday life, as well as support comprising stress management and coping skills.
  • Hirvikoski, Tatja, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term follow-up of prenatally treated children at risk for congenital adrenal hyperplasia : Does dexamethasone cause behavioural problems?
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology. - 0804-4643 .- 1479-683X. ; 159:3, s. 309-316
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To investigate the long-term effects of prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) with emphasis on behavioural problems and temperament. Design: A population-based long-term follow-up study of Swedish children at risk for virilising CAH, who had received treatment prenatally with dexamethasone (DEX). The questionnaire-based follow-up was performed when the children had reached school age. Methods: Standardised parent-completed questionnaires were used to evaluate adaptive functioning, behavioural/emotional problems and psychopathology, social anxiety and temperament in DEX-exposed school-aged children (n=26) and matched controls (n=35). In addition, the association between parental questionnaires and children's self-ratings was investigated. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between DEX-exposed children and controls in measures of psychopathology, behavioural problems and adaptive functioning. In a questionnaire on temperamental traits, DEX-exposed children were described by their parents as being more sociable than controls (P=0.042). The correlation analysis showed only modest parent–child agreement on social anxiety, i.e. the increased social anxiety in children's self-ratings was not confirmed by their parents. Conclusions: DEX-treated children showed good overall adjustment. The parent–child agreement with respect to social anxiety was modest, highlighting the importance of multiple information sources and assessment methods. The clinical significance of the observed difference in sociability cannot be determined within the frameworks of this study. Additional studies of larger cohorts are essential to make more decisive conclusions on the safety of the treatment. Until then, it is important that parents are thoroughly informed about the benefits and potential risks and uncertainties of this controversial treatment.
  • Lindholm, Torun, et al. (författare)
  • Infants and toddlers remembering and forgetting of a stressful medical procedure
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pediatric Psychology. - 0146-8693 .- 1465-735X. ; 34:2, s. 205-216
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To examine whether a distressing medical procedure leaves lasting impressions in young children’s memories. Methods: Children 12- to 78-weeks old (Nfl172) received inhalation treatment through a face mask or underwent other interventions at a pediatric emergency department. They were randomized to be presented with neutral cues and cues from the inhalation 1 week or 6 months after the target event. Children’s reactions at cue presentation were scored from videotapes. Results: Across the age span tested, children treated with inhalation showed higher distress than controls when presented with cues from inhalation 1 week, but not 6 months after target treatment. Conclusions: Stress during medical procedures in preverbal children may develop as a result of prior experience of such procedures. These memories typically seem to fade within 6 months.
  • Liuzza, Marco Tullio, et al. (författare)
  • Body odour disgust sensitivity predicts authoritarian attitudes
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Royal Society Open Science. - : Royal Society Publishing. - 2054-5703. ; 5:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Authoritarianism has resurfaced as a research topic in political psychology, as it appears relevant to explain current political trends. Authoritarian attitudes have been consistently linked to feelings of disgust, an emotion that is thought to have evolved to protect the organism from contamination. We hypothesized that body odour disgust sensitivity (BODS) might be associated with authoritarianism, as chemo-signalling is a primitive system for regulating interpersonal contact and disease avoidance, which are key features also in authoritarianism. We used well-validated scales for measuring BODS, authoritarianism and related constructs. Across two studies, we found that BODS is positively related to authoritarianism. In a third study, we showed a positive association between BODS scores and support for Donald Trump, who, at the time of data collection, was a presidential candidate with an agenda described as resonating with authoritarian attitudes. Authoritarianism fully explained the positive association between BODS and support for Donald Trump. Our findings highlight body odour disgust as a new and promising domain in political psychology research. Authoritarianism and BODS might be part of the same disease avoidance framework, and our results contribute to the growing evidence that contemporary social attitudes might be rooted in basic sensory functions.
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