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Sökning: WFRF:(Linninge Caroline)

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1.
  • Linninge, Caroline, et al. (författare)
  • Probiotic therapy to men with incipient arteriosclerosis initiates increased bacterial diversity in colon: A randomized controlled trial.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Atherosclerosis. - : Elsevier. - 1879-1484 .- 0021-9150. ; 208, s. 228-233
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to clarify the microbial change in the intestinal microbiota in patients, with cardiovascular disease, consuming a drink with high numbers of live Lactobacillus plantarum. METHODS: Sixteen males, with atherosclerotic plaque on the carotid wall, were randomly selected from a larger cohort and included in this double blind, placebo controlled study. Colonic biopsies, taken before and after four weeks of probiotic treatment, were analysed with Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, including digestion with MspI and HaeIII. Microbial diversity was calculated, short-chain fatty acids in faeces, and blood markers were analysed. RESULTS: Consumption of one probiotic strain of L. plantarum (DSM 9843) increased intestinal microbial diversity. The probiotic group had an increased diversity after consumption of the probiotic drink compared to the change in the placebo group when Shannon and Weaner diversity index (MspI and HaeIII, p=0.026) and Simpson index of diversity (MspI, p=0.044 and HaeIII, p=0.026) were calculated. The fermentation pattern of short-chain fatty acids in faeces were unaffected for most acids, but the probiotic group had decreased concentration of isovaleric acid (p=0.006) and valeric acid (p=0.029). Viable count of lactobacilli increased in the probiotic group (p=0.001), but no significant changes in blood markers were observed. CONCLUSION: Administration of a single-strain probiotic increases the bacterial diversity in the gut, and affects the concentration of some short-chain fatty acids. Consumption of the single strain L. plantarum DSM 9843 might be a strategy to favour a diverse intestinal microbiota, which is beneficial for the host.
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2.
  • Linninge, Caroline, et al. (författare)
  • The Microbiota of the Gut in Preschool Children With Normal and Excessive Body Weight
  • Ingår i: Obesity. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1930-739X. ; 20:11, s. 2257-2261
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to investigate the gut microbiota in preschool children with and without overweight andobesity. Twenty overweight or obese children and twenty children with BMI within the normal range (age: 4–5 years)were recruited from the south of Sweden. The gut microbiota was accessed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and terminalrestriction fragment length polymorphism and calprotectin was measured in feces. Liver enzymes were quantifiedin obese/overweight children. The concentration of the gram-negative family Enterobacteriaceae was significantlyhigher in the obese/overweight children (P = 0.036), whereas levels of Desulfovibrio and Akkermansia muciniphilalikebacteria were significantly lower in the obese/overweight children (P = 0.027 and P = 0.030, respectively). Nosignificant differences were found in content of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium or the Bacteroides fragilis group.The diversity of the dominating bacterial community tended to be less diverse in the obese/overweight group, butthe difference was not statistically significant. Concentration of Bifidobacterium was inversely correlated to alanineaminotransferase (ALT) in obese/overweight children. The fecal levels of calprotectin did not differ between the studygroups. These findings indicate that the gut microbiota differed among preschool children with obesity/overweightcompared with children with BMI within the normal range.
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3.
  • Lundgren-Kownacki, K., et al. (författare)
  • Exploring how a traditional diluted yoghurt drink may mitigate heat strain during medium-intensity intermittent work: a multidisciplinary study of occupational heat strain
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Industrial Health. - : National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan. - 0019-8366. ; 56:2, s. 106-121
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is common practice in India to consume the dairy drink buttermilk as a way of mitigating occupational heat strain. This paper explores the thermoregulatory and hydration benefits of drinking buttermilk but also the impacts of work in a hot environment on the gut microbiota, renal and cognitive function. Twelve healthy participants were subjected to a 3-h period of medium load physical intermittent work in a climatic chamber (34 degrees C, 60% RH). The subjects were given water, buttermilk (700 ml) or no rehydration at random. Mean body temperatures when no rehydration was given were significantly higher (p <= 0.001). When subjects drank water or buttermilk they had a lower sweat rate than with no rehydration (p <= 0.05) and the perception of feeling hot, uncomfortable, thirsty and physically exerted was significantly reduced (p <= 0.05). A hormonal stress response at the end of the exposure was seen when not drinking (p <= 0.05). No differences in cognitive abilities and gut microbiota were found. The exposure lowered the renal blood flow suggesting an acute impact of short term heat exposure. It was also found that buttermilk has a protective effect on this impact. Our results demonstrated that keeping hydrated by water/buttermilk consumption mitigates heat strain in well-nourished subjects.
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4.
  • Sand, E., et al. (författare)
  • Buserelin treatment to rats causes enteric neurodegeneration with moderate effects on CRF-immunoreactive neurons and Enterobacteriaceae in colon, and in acetylcholine-mediated permeability in ileum
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: BMC Research Notes. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1756-0500. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog buserelin causes enteric neuronal loss. Acute stress or injection of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) affects motility, secretion, and barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of the study was to characterize the CRF immunoreactivity in enteric neurons after buserelin treatment, and to evaluate possible effects of enteric neuropathy on gut microbiota, intestinal permeability, and stress response behavior. Results: Sixty rats were given buserelin (20 μg) or saline subcutaneously for 5 days, repeated four times with 3 weeks in-between. At the study end, enteric neuronal density, enteric expression of CRF, gut microbial composition, and plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and CRF were analyzed. Intestinal permeability was examined in Ussing chambers and the reaction to stressful events was measured by behavior tests. Buserelin treatment reduced the number of neurons along the entire gastrointestinal tract, with increased relative numbers of CRF-immunoreactive submucosal and myenteric neurons in colon (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). The overall microbial diversity and relative abundance did not differ between groups, but Enterobacteriaceae was decreased in colon in buserelin-treated rats (p = 0.020). Basal intestinal permeability did not differ between groups, whereas carbachol stimulation increased ileum permeability in controls (p < 0.05), but not in buserelin-treated rats. Buserelin did not affect stress behavior. Conclusions: Although buserelin treatment leads to enteric neuronal loss along the gastrointestinal tract with an increased percentage of CRF-immunoreactive neurons in colon, the physiology is well preserved, with modest effects on colon microbiota and absence of carbachol-induced permeability in ileum as the only observed changes. © 2015 Sand et al.
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5.
  • Stenblom, Eva Lena, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary green-plant thylakoids decrease gastric emptying and gut transit, promote changes in the gut microbial flora, but does not cause steatorrhea
  • Ingår i: Nutrition and Metabolism. - : Karger. - 1743-7075. ; 13:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Green-plant thylakoids increase satiety by affecting appetite hormones such as ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The objective of this study was to investigate if thylakoids also affect gastrointestinal (GI) passage and microbial composition. To analyse the effects on GI passage, 16 rats were gavage-fed a control or thylakoid-supplemented high-fat diet (HFD) 30 min before receiving Evans blue. Another 16 rats were fed a control HFD or thylakoid HFD for two weeks prior to the intragastric challenge with Evans blue. The amount of Evans blue in the stomach and the distance of migration in the intestines after 30 min were used as a measurement of gastric emptying and intestinal transit. These were reduced by thylakoid supplementation in the acute study, and however not significantly also after the two-week diet study. The second aim of the study was to investigate if thylakoid-supplementation affects the gut microbiota and amount of faecal fat in healthy human volunteers (n = 34) receiving thylakoid or placebo treatments for three months. Microbiota was analysed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and qPCR, and faecal fat was extracted by dichloromethane. The total bacteria, and specifically the Bacteriodes fragilis group, were increased by thylakoid treatment versus placebo, while thylakoids did not cause steatorrhea. Dietary supplementation with thylakoids thus affects satiety both via appetite hormones and GI fullness, and affects the microbial composition without causing GI adverse effects such as steatorrhea. This suggests thylakoids as a novel agent in prevention and treatment of obesity.
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6.
  • Berger, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Cereal Byproducts Have Prebiotic Potential in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet
  • Ingår i: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. - : The American Chemical Society (ACS). - 0021-8561. ; 62:32, s. 8169-8178
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Barley husks, rye bran, and a fiber residue from oat milk production were processed by heat pretreatment, various separation steps, and treatment with an endoxylanase in order to improve the prebiotic potential of these cereal byproducts. Metabolic functions were intended to improve along with improved microbial activity. The products obtained were included in a high-fat mouse diet so that all diets contained 5% dietary fiber. In addition, high-fat and low-fat controls as well as partially hydrolyzed guar gum were included in the study. The soluble fiber product obtained from rye bran caused a significant increase in the bifidobacteria (log copies of 16S rRNA genes; median (25−75 percentile): 6.38 (6.04−6.66) and 7.47 (7.30−7.74), respectively; p < 0.001) in parallel with a tendency of increased production of propionic acid and indications of improved metabolic function compared with high-fat fed control mice. The oat-derived product caused an increase in the pool of cecal propionic (from 0.62 ± 0.12 to 0.94 ± 0.08) and butyric acid (from 0.38 ± 0.04 to 0.60 ± 0.04) compared with the high-fat control, and it caused a significant increase in lactobacilli (log copies of 16S rRNA genes; median (25−75 percentile): 6.83 (6.65−7.53) and 8.04 (7.86−8.33), respectively; p < 0.01) in the cecal mucosa. However, no changes in measured metabolic parameters were observed by either oat or barley products.
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7.
  • Fak, Frida, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of a high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation are modulated by E. coli in rat offspring
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Obesity. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5497 .- 0307-0565. ; 36:5, s. 744-751
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Microbial manipulations in early life can affect gut development and inflammatory status of the neonate. The maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation also influences the health of the offspring, but the impact of maternal high-fat (HF) feeding along with modulations of the gut microbiota on body weight, fat deposition and gut function in the offspring has been poorly studied. Methods: Rat dams were given access to either an HF or a standard low-fat diet during the last 2 weeks of pregnancy and during lactation and effects on body weight and gastrointestinal function were investigated in the 14-day-old offspring. To elucidate whether bacterial administration to the dam could modulate any effects of the diets in the rat pups, another group of dams were given Escherichia coli in their drinking water. Results: Maternal HF feeding resulted in increased body and fat pad weights in the offspring, along with increased levels of the acute-phase protein, haptoglobin and decreased protein content and disaccharidase activities in the small intestine. The addition of E. coli further accentuated these responses in the young rats, which, in addition to higher body weights and increased fat deposition, also showed an increased intestinal permeability and elevated levels of haptoglobin. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates for the first time how bacterial administration to the maternal diet during the neonatal period can affect body weight and fat deposition in the offspring. The results point to a mechanistic link between the gut microbiota, increased intestinal permeability and metabolic endotoxemia, which appear to have led to increased adiposity in the young rats. International Journal of Obesity (2012) 36, 744-751; doi:10.1038/ijo.2011.118; published online 5 July 2011
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8.
  • Huang, Fang, et al. (författare)
  • Anthropometric and metabolic improvements in human type 2 diabetes after introduction of an Okinawan-based Nordic diet are not associated with changes in microbial diversity or SCFA concentrations
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0963-7486. ; 69:6, s. 729-740
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Okinawan-based Nordic (O-BN) diet improves anthropometry and metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. The aim of this study was to study mechanisms behind improvements by examining Enterobacteriaceae abundance, microbial diversity, and concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). A secondary aim was exploring if metformin treatment affects microbiota or SCFAs. Thirty T2DM patients received the O-BN diet for 12 weeks. Faecal and blood samples were collected at baseline, 12 and 28 weeks. Although patients experienced weight loss and improved metabolic parameters, there were no significant changes in Enterobacteriaceae abundance or microbial diversity. Patients on metformin displayed higher Enterobacteriaceae abundance throughout the study (p = .008, p = .038, and p = .001, respectively). Isovaleric acid was decreased after 12 weeks (p = .018). Butyric acid was decreased at follow-up (p = .007). Improved anthropometry and metabolism in T2DM after introduction of the O-BN diet is not associated with changes in Enterobacteriaceae abundance, microbial diversity or SCFA concentrations.
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9.
  • Håkansson, Åsa, et al. (författare)
  • Immunological alteration and changes of gut microbiota after dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) administration in mice
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Medicine. - : Springer. - 1591-9528. ; 15:1, s. 107-120
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized bychronic inflammation of the colonic mucosa. Administrationof dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to animals is a frequentlyused model to mimic human colitis. Deregulationof the immune response to the enteric microflora orpathogens as well as increased intestinal permeability havebeen proposed as disease-driving mechanisms. To enlargethe understanding of the pathogenesis, we have studied theeffect of DSS on the immune system and gut microbiota inmice. Intestinal inflammation was verified through histologicalevaluation and myeloperoxidase activity. Immunologicalchanges were assessed by flow cytometry inspleen, Peyer0s patches and mesenteric lymph nodes andthrough multiplex cytokine profiling. In addition, quantificationof the total amount of bacteria on colonic mucosaas well as the total amount of lactobacilli, Akkermansia,Desulfovibrio and Enterobacteriaceae was performed bythe use of quantitative PCR. Diversity and communitystructure were analysed by terminal restriction fragmentlength polymorphism (T-RFLP) patterns, and principalcomponent analysis was utilized on immunological andT-RFLP patterns. DSS-induced colitis show clinical andhistological similarities to UC. The composition of thecolonic microflora was profoundly changed and correlatedwith several alterations of the immune system. The resultsdemonstrate a relationship between multiple immunologicalchanges and alterations of the gut microbiota after DSSadministration. These data highlight and improve the definitionof the immunological basis of the disease andsuggest a role for dysregulation of the gut microbiota in thepathogenesis of colitis.
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10.
  • Linninge, Caroline, et al. (författare)
  • Abundance of Enterobacteriaceae in the colon mucosa in diverticular disease
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology. - : Baishideng Publishing Group. - 2150-5330. ; 9:1, s. 18-27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIM:To compare gut bacterial diversity and amount of Enterobacteriaceae in colonic mucosa between patients with and without diverticular disease (DD).METHODS:Patients in a stable clinical condition with planned elective colonoscopy were included. Blood samples and colon mucosa biopsies were collected at the colonoscopy. Study questionnaires including questions about gastrointestinal symptoms were completed by the patients and physicians. DNA from mucosa samples was isolated and the amount of Enterobacteriaceae was estimated using PCR assay. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism was applied to assess microbial diversity. Diversity was estimated by calculations of richness (number of terminal restriction fragments) and Shannon-Wiener and Simpson's indices.RESULTS:A total of 51 patients were included, 16 patients with DD [68 (62-76) years] and 35 controls [62 (40-74) years] without any diverticula. Patients with DD had significantly higher levels of Enterobacteriaceae than those without DD (P = 0.043), and there was an inverse relationship between the amount of Enterobacteriaceae and the Simpson's index (rs = -0.361, P = 0.033) and the Shannon-Wiener index (rs = -0.299, P = 0.081). The Simpson's index (P = 0.383), Shannon-Wiener index (P = 0.401) or number of restrictions fragments (P = 0.776) did not differ between DD and controls. The majority of patients experienced gastrointestinal symptoms, and 22 patients (43.1%) fulfilled the criteria for irritable bowel syndrome, with no difference between the groups (P = 0.212). Demography, socioeconomic status, lifestyle habits, inflammatory biomarkers, or symptoms were not related to the amount of Enterobacteriaceae or bacterial diversity.CONCLUSION:Patients with DD had higher amount of Enterobacteriaceae in the colon mucosa compared to patients without diverticula.
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