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  • Moraeus, Lotta, 1981, et al. (författare)
  • Multi-level influences on childhood obesity in Sweden: societal factors, parental determinants and child's lifestyle
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Obesity. - London, United Kingdom : Nature Publishing Group. - 0307-0565 .- 1476-5497. ; 36:7, s. 969-976
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Swedish school children living in rural areas and in areas with low education are at excess risk of becoming overweight. This study examines influences of societal and individual characteristics (children and their parents) on prevalence of overweight and obesity, in a national sample of 7-9-year-old children. METHOD: Anthropometric and lifestyle data were collected in a nationally representative sample of 3636 Swedish children. Overweight and obesity (International Obesity Task Force (IOTF)) data were analyzed in relation to lifestyle factors, parental weight, education and breast-feeding. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight was 15.6% including 2.6% obese. Urbanization level and parental characteristics (weight status and education) were related to risk of overweight. Overall less favorable lifestyle characteristics were observed in rural areas and for children of low/medium educated mothers. Boys had greater risk of obesity in semi-urban and rural areas but this was not true for girls. For children's overweight, the living area effect was attenuated in multivariate analysis, while there was an association with origin of parents, high parental weight and medium maternal education. For obesity, the living area effect remained in boys while having two non-Nordic parents predicted obesity in girls. Parental weight status was associated with obesity in both girls and boys. CONCLUSION: Individual and societal factors influence children's weight status, and parental weight status is a strong determinant. Including overweight and obese parents in future health promoting interventions could be a strategy to prevent children from becoming overweight, but identifying those parents may prove difficult. To ensure reaching children with the greatest needs, targeting high risk areas might be a more effective approach.
  • Billstedt, Eva, 1961, et al. (författare)
  • A 37-year prospective study of neuroticism and extraversion in women followed from mid-life to late life.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. - 1600-0447 .- 0001-690X. ; 129:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Personality traits are presumed to endure over time, but the literature regarding older age is sparse. Furthermore, interpretation may be hampered by the presence of dementia-related personality changes. The aim was to study stability in neuroticism and extraversion in a population sample of women who were followed from mid-life to late life. METHOD: A population-based sample of women born in 1918, 1922 or 1930 was examined with the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) in 1968-1969. EPI was assessed after 37 years in 2005-2006 (n = 153). Data from an interim examination after 24 years were analysed for the subsample born in 1918 and 1922 (n = 75). Women who developed dementia at follow-up examinations were excluded from the analyses. RESULTS: Mean levels of neuroticism and extraversion were stable at both follow-ups. Rank-order and linear correlations between baseline and 37-year follow-up were moderate ranging between 0.49 and 0.69. Individual changes were observed, and only 25% of the variance in personality traits in 2005-2006 could be explained by traits in 1968-1969. CONCLUSION: Personality is stable at the population level, but there is significant individual variability. These changes could not be attributed to dementia. Research is needed to examine determinants of these changes, as well as their clinical implications.
  • Bixby, H., et al. (författare)
  • Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 569:7755, s. 260-4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Body-mass index (BMI) has increased steadily in most countries in parallel with a rise in the proportion of the population who live in cities(.)(1,2) This has led to a widely reported view that urbanization is one of the most important drivers of the global rise in obesity(3-6). Here we use 2,009 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in more than 112 million adults, to report national, regional and global trends in mean BMI segregated by place of residence (a rural or urban area) from 1985 to 2017. We show that, contrary to the dominant paradigm, more than 55% of the global rise in mean BMI from 1985 to 2017-and more than 80% in some low- and middle-income regions-was due to increases in BMI in rural areas. This large contribution stems from the fact that, with the exception of women in sub-Saharan Africa, BMI is increasing at the same rate or faster in rural areas than in cities in low- and middle-income regions. These trends have in turn resulted in a closing-and in some countries reversal-of the gap in BMI between urban and rural areas in low- and middle-income countries, especially for women. In high-income and industrialized countries, we noted a persistently higher rural BMI, especially for women. There is an urgent need for an integrated approach to rural nutrition that enhances financial and physical access to healthy foods, to avoid replacing the rural undernutrition disadvantage in poor countries with a more general malnutrition disadvantage that entails excessive consumption of low-quality calories.
  • Holmgren, Anton, et al. (författare)
  • Detailed analyzes of the relation between childhood BMIand gain in height during puberty, separated into different Components
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Obesity. - 0307-0565 .- 1476-5497.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: We have previously found that childhood BMI is inversely related to pubertal height gain: overweight/obese children of both genders have less specific pubertal height gain. The QEPS-model (describing total growth in height as a combination of four mathematical functions), can be used for calculation of estimates of pubertal growth. Growth in height during puberty can be described as a combination of continuous ongoing growth, Q(ES), and a specific pubertal growth function, P. Objectives: To investigate the importance of when overweight/obesity starts during childhood in relation to subsequent growth in height during puberty; and to study the relationship between childhood BMI and pubertal growth functions from the QEPS-model in greater detail than previously presented. Material/Methods: The longitudinally followed GrowUpGothenburg 1990 birth cohort, with growth data from birth until adult height was analyzed, using the QEPS-model. Individual BMI-SDS values, from 3.5–8.0 years of age (n = 1901) were calculated for linear and subgroup analyses (normal /underweight, NwUw, overweight/obese, OwOb), based on the IOTF 2012 reference2. Relationships between childhood-BMI and total pubertal height gain were considered according to P-function and Q(ES)-function. Results: We found no significant difference in pubertal height gain depending on when in childhood the BMI-SDS peaked, in either sex. In general, the total pubertal growth in girls depended more on the continuous Q(ES)-function than P-function and this balance was shifted towards less P-function with higher BMI-SDS, especially for Ob girls (figure, left). NwUw boys had pubertal gain mostly from the P-function, for the Ow boys the pattern was more mixed and for Ob boys all had less P- than Q(ES)-function (figure, right). Conclusion: The results of the present study have shown that the reduced pubertal gain in height for OwOb children is not related to when during childhood the BMI peaked. For both genders, the pubertal gain shifted to less specific pubertal growth (P) and relatively more continuous growth (Q(ES)) with higher BMI-SDS.
  • Holmgren, Anton, et al. (författare)
  • Estimating secular changes in longitudinal growth patterns underlying adult height with the QEPS model: the Grow Up Gothenburg cohorts
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Pediatric Research. - 0031-3998. ; 84:1, s. 41-49
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Over the past 150 years, humans have become taller, and puberty has begun earlier. It is unclear if these changes are continuing in Sweden, and how longitudinal growth patterns are involved. We aimed to evaluate the underlying changes in growth patterns from birth to adulthood by QEPS estimates in two Swedish cohorts born in 1974 and 1990. METHODS: Growth characteristics of the longitudinal 1974 and 1990-birth cohorts (n = 4181) were compared using the QEPS model together with adult heights. RESULTS: There was more rapid fetal/infancy growth in girls/boys born in 1990 compared to 1974, as shown by a faster Etimescale and they were heavier at birth. The laterborn were taller also in childhood as shown by a higher Q-function. Girls born in 1990 had earlier and more pronounced growth during puberty than girls born in 1974. Individuals in the 1990 cohort attained greater adult heights than those in the 1974 cohort; 6 mm taller for females and 10 mm for males. CONCLUSION: A positive change in adult height was attributed to more growth during childhood in both sexes and during puberty for girls. The QEPS model proved to be effective detecting small changes of growth patterns, between two longitudinal growth cohorts born only 16 years apart.
  • Holmgren, Anton, et al. (författare)
  • Higher childhood BMI is associated with less pubertal gain
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Obesity Facts (The European Journal of Obesity).
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Objective: Our objective was to investigate the impact of body mass index (BMI) in childhood on the pattern of growth during puberty. Methods: The longitudinally followed Grow up 1990 Gothenburg birth cohort, with growth data from birth until adult height was analyzed, using the QEPS growth model (describing total height as a combination of four mathematical functions; Quadratic -Q, Exponential -E, Pubertal -P and Stop –S, Fig 1.), for calculation of estimates for pubertal growth (1). Individual BMI-SDS values, from 3.5–8 years of age (n = 1908) were calculated for linear and subgroup analyses (low/normal- nw, overweight – ow, obese– ob), based on the IOTF 2012 reference. Results: Ow/ob children already at birth were heavier and grew faster in height in the pre pubertal period compared to nw, due to an increased Q function. Ow/ob children of both genders had 3.4–4.3 months earlier puberty, reduced growth during puberty, boys and girls had 3 cm and 2 cm, respectively, less pubertal gain from the specific pubertal growth function (P) compared to their nw peers. We saw a negative dose-response effect of childhood BMI on pubertal gain, across the whole BMI spectrum (Fig 2–3.). The adult height was not related to BMI in childhood. Conclusion: For the first time, the result of the present study has shown that; the higher the BMI is in childhood, the less is the pubertal gain. Higher childhood BMI was also associated with increased pre pubertal growth due to an increased Q-function and the resulting adult height was similar for ow/ob and nw children. Reference 1. Holmgren A et al.: Horm. res. in paed. 2013;80(suppl. 1):177.
  • Holmgren, Anton, et al. (författare)
  • Pubertal height gain is inversely related to peak BMI in childhood.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Pediatric research. - 1530-0447. ; 81:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundChildhood BMI may influence subsequent growth in height as well as the timing of puberty. The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between BMI in childhood and subsequent height gain/pubertal growth.MethodsLongitudinal growth data were used (GrowUp1990 Gothenburg cohort, n=1901). The QEPS growth-model was used to characterize height gain in relation to the highest BMISDS value between 3.5 and 8 years of age. Children were defined as overweight/obese (OwOb) or normal weight/underweight (NwUw), using the 2012 International Obesity Task Force criteria.ResultsA negative association between childhood BMISDS and pubertal height gain was observed. Already at birth, OwOb children were heavier than NwUw children, and had a greater height velocity during childhood. Onset of puberty was 3.5/3.0 months earlier in OwOb girls/boys, and they had 2.3/3.1 cm less pubertal height gain from the QEPS-models specific P-function than NwUw children. Adult height was not related to childhood BMI.ConclusionWe found that pubertal height gain was inversely related to peak BMI in childhood. Higher childhood BMISDS was associated with more growth before onset of puberty, earlier puberty and less pubertal height gain, resulting in similar adult heights for OwOb and NwUw children.
  • Holmgren, Anton, et al. (författare)
  • The Pubertal Gain in Height is Inversely Related to BMI in Childhood
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Hormone Research in Paediatrics. ; 84:Supplement 1, s. 268-69
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Weight in childhood may influence the pubertal timing and pattern of growth. Objective: To investigate the impact of BMI in childhood on further growth, especially the specific pubertal pattern of growth. Method: The longitudinally followed GrowUpGothenburg1990 birth cohort, was analyzed using the QEPS growth model (Nierop et al. Horm Res in Ped.2013; 80(suppl 1):152–153) (describing total height as a combination of four mathematical functions; Quadratic – Q, Exponential – E, Pubertal – P and Stop – S). Individual BMISDS values, from 3.5–8 years of age were calculated for linear and subgroup analyses (low/normal – Lw/Nw, overweight/obese – Ow/Ob), based on the IOTF 2012 reference (Cole TJ, Lobstein T. Pediatric obesity. 2012; 7(4):284–94.). Results: Across the whole BMI range a negative dose-response effect of childhood BMI on pubertal gain (Pmax) was found. Already at birth Owob children were heavier, and they grew faster in height in the prepubertal period compared to Lw/Nw, as evidenced by an increased Q function. Owob children of both genders had earlier puberty (91–117 days), P = 0.0004, reduced growth during puberty, boys/girls 3.13/2.26 cm less pubertal gain P<0.0001, from the specific pubertal growth function (Pmax). The adult height was not related to BMI in childhood. Conclusion: The higher BMI in childhood, the faster the prepubertal growth, the earlier onset of puberty, the less pubertal gain. This was evident across the whole BMI-range, making weight status an important modifier of growth. Funding information: This work was supported by the Swedish Research Council (VR no 7509 and VR 2006-7777), VR/FORMAS/FORTE/VINNOVA (259-2012-38 and 2006-1624); EpiLife-TEENS research program, Pfizer AB, the Governmental Grants for University Hospital Research (ALF), the R&D Department, County of Halland, and the Foundation Växthuset for children.
  • Holmgren, Anton, et al. (författare)
  • The Specific Pubertal Height Gain is Higher in Boys as Well as in Children with Lower BMISDS
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Hormone Research in Paediatrics. - 1663-2818 .- 1663-2826.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Growth in height during puberty can be described by the QEPS-model as a combination of continuous basal growth, QES, and a specific pubertal growth function, P. Objective and hypotheses: To study the relationship between childhood BMISDS and the prepubertal gain and pubertal gain related to growth functions from the QEPS-model. Method: The longitudinally followed GrowUpGothenburg 1990 birth cohort, was analyzed, by the QEPS-model. Individual maximal BMISDS values, from 3.5–8.0 years of age (n=1901) were calculated for linear and subgroup analyses, underweight (blue cross), normal (blue open circles), overweight (red open circles), obese (red circles). Results: For girls (Figure left), total pubertal gain (Tpubgain) depended more on QESgain during puberty. For boys, total pubertal gain depended more on specific Pgain (Figure right). With higher BMISDS this balance was shifted towards less Pgain for both girls and boys. Before puberty, children with higher BMISDS were taller, expressed as higher QESgain, with a linear correlation over the whole BMI–range (P<0.001for both girls/ boys). Conclusion: During puberty, girls grew more due to the QES than the P functions, with opposite findings in boys. For both boys and girls, there were less Pgain and more QES- gain with higher childhood BMISDS. Before puberty, children with higher BMISDS were taller.
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