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Sökning: WFRF:(Litchfield Kevin)

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1.
  • Biswas, Dhruva, et al. (författare)
  • A clonal expression biomarker associates with lung cancer mortality
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Medicine. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1078-8956. ; 25:10, s. 1540-1548
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An aim of molecular biomarkers is to stratify patients with cancer into disease subtypes predictive of outcome, improving diagnostic precision beyond clinical descriptors such as tumor stage1. Transcriptomic intratumor heterogeneity (RNA-ITH) has been shown to confound existing expression-based biomarkers across multiple cancer types2–6. Here, we analyze multi-region whole-exome and RNA sequencing data for 156 tumor regions from 48 patients enrolled in the TRACERx study to explore and control for RNA-ITH in non-small cell lung cancer. We find that chromosomal instability is a major driver of RNA-ITH, and existing prognostic gene expression signatures are vulnerable to tumor sampling bias. To address this, we identify genes expressed homogeneously within individual tumors that encode expression modules of cancer cell proliferation and are often driven by DNA copy-number gains selected early in tumor evolution. Clonal transcriptomic biomarkers overcome tumor sampling bias, associate with survival independent of clinicopathological risk factors, and may provide a general strategy to refine biomarker design across cancer types.
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2.
  • Haycock, Philip C., et al. (författare)
  • Association Between Telomere Length and Risk of Cancer and Non-Neoplastic Diseases A Mendelian Randomization Study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: JAMA Oncology. - American Medical Association. - 2374-2437 .- 2374-2445. ; 3:5, s. 636-651
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>IMPORTANCE: The causal direction and magnitude of the association between telomere length and incidence of cancer and non-neoplastic diseases is uncertain owing to the susceptibility of observational studies to confounding and reverse causation. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a Mendelian randomization study, using germline genetic variants as instrumental variables, to appraise the causal relevance of telomere length for risk of cancer and non-neoplastic diseases. DATA SOURCES: Genomewide association studies (GWAS) published up to January 15, 2015. STUDY SELECTION: GWAS of noncommunicable diseases that assayed germline genetic variation and did not select cohort or control participants on the basis of preexisting diseases. Of 163 GWAS of noncommunicable diseases identified, summary data from 103 were available. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Summary association statistics for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are strongly associated with telomere length in the general population. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for disease per standard deviation (SD) higher telomere length due to germline genetic variation. RESULTS: Summary data were available for 35 cancers and 48 non-neoplastic diseases, corresponding to 420 081 cases (median cases, 2526 per disease) and 1 093 105 controls (median, 6789 per disease). Increased telomere length due to germline genetic variation was generally associated with increased risk for site-specific cancers. The strongest associations (ORs [ 95% CIs] per 1-SD change in genetically increased telomere length) were observed for glioma, 5.27 (3.15-8.81); serous low-malignant-potential ovarian cancer, 4.35 (2.39-7.94); lung adenocarcinoma, 3.19 (2.40-4.22); neuroblastoma, 2.98 (1.92-4.62); bladder cancer, 2.19 (1.32-3.66); melanoma, 1.87 (1.55-2.26); testicular cancer, 1.76 (1.02-3.04); kidney cancer, 1.55 (1.08-2.23); and endometrial cancer, 1.31 (1.07-1.61). Associations were stronger for rarer cancers and at tissue sites with lower rates of stem cell division. There was generally little evidence of association between genetically increased telomere length and risk of psychiatric, autoimmune, inflammatory, diabetic, and other non-neoplastic diseases, except for coronary heart disease (OR, 0.78 [ 95% CI, 0.67-0.90]), abdominal aortic aneurysm (OR, 0.63 [ 95% CI, 0.49-0.81]), celiac disease (OR, 0.42 [ 95% CI, 0.28-0.61]) and interstitial lung disease (OR, 0.09 [ 95% CI, 0.05-0.15]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: It is likely that longer telomeres increase risk for several cancers but reduce risk for some non-neoplastic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases.</p>
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3.
  • Litchfield, Kevin, et al. (författare)
  • Escape from nonsense-mediated decay associates with anti-tumor immunogenicity
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Frameshift insertion/deletions (fs-indels) are an infrequent but highly immunogenic mutation subtype. Although fs-indels are degraded through the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) pathway, we hypothesise that some fs-indels escape degradation and elicit anti-tumor immune responses. Using allele-specific expression analysis, expressed fs-indels are enriched in genomic positions predicted to escape NMD, and associated with higher protein expression, consistent with degradation escape (NMD-escape). Across four independent melanoma cohorts, NMD-escape mutations are significantly associated with clinical-benefit to checkpoint inhibitor (CPI) therapy (Pmeta = 0.0039). NMD-escape mutations are additionally found to associate with clinical-benefit in the low-TMB setting. Furthermore, in an adoptive cell therapy treated melanoma cohort, NMD-escape mutation count is the most significant biomarker associated with clinical-benefit. Analysis of functional T cell reactivity screens from personalized vaccine studies shows direct evidence of fs-indel derived neoantigens eliciting immune response, particularly those with highly elongated neo open reading frames. NMD-escape fs-indels represent an attractive target for biomarker optimisation and immunotherapy design.
4.
  • Litchfield, Kevin, et al. (författare)
  • Quantifying the heritability of testicular germ cell tumour using both population-based and genomic approaches.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A sizable fraction of testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) risk is expected to be explained by heritable factors. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified a number of common SNPs associated with TGCT. It is however, unclear how much common variation there is left to be accounted for by other, yet to be identified, common SNPs and what contribution common genetic variation makes to the heritable risk of TGCT. We approached this question using two complimentary analytical techniques. We undertook a population-based analysis of the Swedish family-cancer database, through which we estimated that the heritability of TGCT at 48.9% (CI:47.2%-52.3%). We also applied Genome-Wide Complex Trait Analysis to 922 cases and 4,842 controls to estimate the heritability of TGCT. The heritability explained by known common risk SNPs identified by GWAS was 9.1%, whereas the heritability explained by all common SNPs was 37.4% (CI:27.6%-47.2%). These complementary findings indicate that the known TGCT SNPs only explain a small proportion of the heritability and many additional common SNPs remain to be identified. The data also suggests that a fraction of the heritability of TGCT is likely to be explained by other classes of genetic variation, such as rare disease-causing alleles.
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